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        일본 나가사키현 사키토정 「埋火葬認許証交付簿」 등재 조선인 사망자 분석(1940~1945)

        김명환 한국민족운동사학회 2011 한국민족운동사연구 Vol.0 No.67

        일본 나가사키현 사키토정 「埋火葬認許証交付簿」 등재 조선인 사망자 분석(1940~1945) 김명환 본고에서는 일본 나가사키현 사키토정 「埋火葬認許証交付簿」에 등재된 조선인 사망자에 대해 분석해보고자 하였다. 그리고 사망자들에게 영향을 미쳤을 것으로 생각되는 사키토정의 탄광산업에 대해서도 개괄적으로 정리해보고자 하였다. 사키토정은 본래 한적한 어촌이었으나, 1907년 규슈탄광기선(주)이 설립되고 곧이어 사키토탄광이 개발되며 급속히 탄광촌으로 변모하였다. 사키토탄광은 개설 이래 꾸준히 성장하여 1930년대 중반에는 일본 내 탄광 중 10위권에 들어가는 유명한 채탄장으로 발전하였다. 1940년 9월 미쓰비시광업(주)은 규슈탄광기선(주)을 합병하여 사키토탄광을 흡수하였다. 사키토탄광은 1910년대 초부터 조선인 노동자를 채용하였던 것으로 확인된다. 그러나 조선인이 대규모로 동원되기 시작한 것은 전시체제 성립 이후인 것으로 보인다. 조선인 동원은 주로 경상도와 전라도 양 지역에서 이루어졌으며, 노무관리는 매우 혹독하게 이루어졌다. 1944년 1월 당시 사키토정 거주 조선인 규모가 전국 탄광촌 중 5번째였다는 점에서 사키토탄광으로의 조선인 동원이 대규모로 이루어졌음을 알 수 있다. 埋火葬認許証에는 사망자의 인적사항 및 사망과 관련된 정보가 자세하게 수록되어 있다. 분석대상이 된 1940~1945년 사키토정 「埋火葬認許証交付簿」에 등재된 조선인 사망자는 211명이다. 분석결과 다음과 같은 내용이 확인되었다. 첫째, 사망자들의 연령별 분포를 살펴보면 5세 이하 영유아 및 16세 이상 30세 이하의 청년층 사망자가 많은 것으로 확인된다. 청년층 사망자가 많은 것은 이들이 위험한 직종이나 작업장에 몰려있었다는 것을 의미한다. 이것은 사키토탄광과 관련이 있는 것으로 생각된다. 5세 이하 영유아 사망자가 많았다는 점에서 당시 사키토정에는 젊은 조선인 부부 혹은 가족이 많이 거주하고 있었던 것으로 추정된다. 둘째, 사망자들의 출신지역을 살펴보면 경상도 및 전라도 출신이 전체 사망자의 88.6%를 차지하고 있다. 이것은 당시 사키토탄광으로 동원된 조선인들이 대부분 영호남 지역에서 모집되었다는 증언과 일치하는 것이다. 셋째, 사키토정 「埋火葬認許証交付簿」에 직업이 기재된 조선인 사망자 114명 중 112명은 탄광노동자였던 것으로 확인된다. 직업이 기재되지 않은 사람 중에서도 사망장소 및 사망이유로 보아 2명은 탄광노무자였던 것으로 파악된다. 즉 사키토정 「埋火葬認許証交付簿」 등재 조선인 사망자 211명 중 114명은 탄광노무자였다. 넷째, 사망원인으로는 갱내 탄광사고가 14.2%를 차지하고 있고, 落磐事故에 의한 사망이 가장 많이 발견된다. 變死變傷死가 28건이나 확인되는데, 사망원인으로 보아 구타 등 가혹행위에 의하여 사망한 것으로 추정된다. 갱외 부상 및 질병 등에 의한 사망은 143명으로 전체의 67.8%를 차지하는데, 여기에는 15세 이하인 자가 76명 포함되어 있다. 탄광노무자로 확인되는 114명 중 갱내 사망자는 47명으로 역시 낙반에 의한 사망이 가장 많다. 갱외에서 사망한 67명 중 24명은 질병이 아닌 부상으로 사망한 것으로 보인다. he analysis of the dead people of Joseon listed on the Certificate of Burial or Cremation of Sakito-cho, Nagasaki-ken, Japan(1940~1945) Kim, Myung-hwan This paper attempted to analyze the death of Korean people, which was listed on the Certificate of Burial or Cremation(埋火葬認許証) in Sakito-cho, Nagasaki-ken, Japan. And it also overviewed the coal mine industry in Sakito-cho that was considered to exert influence over the dead. Sakito-cho was originally a remote fishery town. However, it underwent a rapid transformation into a coal mine village as Kyushu Colliery & Steamship Co.(九州炭鑛汽船株式會社), was established in 1907, and consequent development of Sakito coal mine(崎戶炭鑛). Since its establishment, Sakito coal mine continued to expand to become a famous coal mine, ranked among top 10 Japanese coal mines by the mid 1930s. On September 1940, Mitsubishi Mining Co.(三菱鑛業株式會社) merged Kyushu Colliery & Steamship Co., to absorb Sakito coal mine. It was confirmed that Sakito coal mine had hired workers from Joseon (the last dynasty of Korea) since the early 1910s. However, it seemed that the fully-fledged mobilization of labors from Joseon took place after the establishment of war-system. The mobilization was mainly occurred in Gyeongsangdo(慶尙道) and Jollado(全羅道) provinces and labor management was carried out in a very severe manner. As of January 1944, the size of Joseon people living in Sakito-cho marked the 5th in the rank of the all coal mine towns in Japan, indicating that there was a massive mobilization of Joseon people to Sakito coal mine. The Certificate of Burial or Cremation contained the details of the personal data and death of the dead. The number of the dead people of Joseon listed on the Certificate of Burial or Cremation of Sakito-cho from 1940 to 1945 was 211, which was the subject of the analysis. The analysis revealed the followings: - First, the age-based distribution of the dead showed that many of them were children under age 5 and young people from age 16 to 30. A high number of youth deaths indicated that they had been engaged in dangerous occupations or workplaces. It is considered to be related to Sakito coal mine. The large number of children under age 5 let us presume that there were a number of young Joseon couples and/or families in Sakito-cho at the time. - Second, looking at the native regions, we could find that 88.6% of the dead accounted for those who had been from Gyeongsangdo(慶尙道) or Jeollado(全羅道). It coincided with the testimony saying most of them mobilized to Sakito coal mine were recruited from Yeongnam(嶺南) and Honam(湖南) regions at the time. - Third, among 114 Joseon people whose occupations were recorded in the Certificate of Burial or Cremation of Sakito-cho were confirmed to be coal miners. The two who did not have the record on their occupations, their places and causes of death elucidated their occupations as coal mine workers. In other words, 114 people out of the 211 dead people of Joseon listed on the Certificate of Burial or Cremation of Sakito-cho was mine workers. - Fourth, as for the cause of death, mine accidents in the pit accounted for 14.2% and mine cave-in accident was the primary cause of death. 28 people died violent deaths and the cause of death allowed us to presume that they were dead due to abuse such as beating. The number of death by injury outside pit and illness was 67.8%, including 76 people under the age of 15. Among 114 people who were confirmed their occupation as mine workers, 47 people were dead in the pit and the highest cause of death were cave-in. Among 67 people killed outside the pit, 24 workers appeared not by illness but by injury.

      • KCI등재

        일제말기 조선인의 남양군도 이주와 그 성격(1939~1941)

        김명환 한국민족운동사학회 2010 한국민족운동사연구 Vol.64 No.-

        ■국문요약 일제말기 조선인의 남양군도 이주와 그 성격(1939~1941) 김명환 이 글에서는 1939~1941년 남양군도 거주 조선인 인구변화추이를 고찰하여 보고, 이것을 조선인 노무자 송출 관련 자료와 비교하여 봄으로써 당시 조선인 이주규모 및 그 성격을 파악하여 보고자 하였다. 1939년부터 남양군도 척식주체들은 조선에서 노무자를 대규모로 모집하기 시작하였다. 1939년 당시 조선에서의 노무자 송출규모는 남양군도 조선인 인구증가 규모와 거의 일치하는 것으로 확인된다. 전체 규모뿐만 아니라 각 지역 증가추이도 거의 일치하는 것으로 나타난다. 이것은 당시 조선인의 남양군도 이주가 대부분 모집에 의해 충당되었음을 의미하는 것이다. 이주자 규모뿐만 아니라 전체이주자 중에서 차지하는 비율도 높아졌다. 1938년 당시 조선인 이주자는 125명으로 전체 방인이주자의 1.3%에 불과하였다. 그런데 1939년에는 1,264명이 이주하여 23%를 차지하였고, 1941년에는 2,361명으로 42%를 점유하였다. 이 시기 조선인의 남양군도 이주증가는 일본의 전쟁수행과 관련이 있는 것으로 파악된다. 중일전쟁 발발 이후 전시체제가 정비되어가자 일본으로부터 남양군도로 유입되던 노무자수가 감소하기 시작하였다. 그 결과 남양군도에서 노무자 부족현상이 심화되어 갔고, 이의 타개책으로써 조선인 노무자 도입이 추진되었던 것이다. 조선인 노무자 이주는 조선총독부와 각 도의 사회과가 모집 및 송출에 깊이 개입하는 등 식민당국의 적극적인 협력 하에 이루어졌다. 모집지역과 인원이 대략 결정되어 있었다는 점에서 실질적으로는 할당모집이 이루어졌던 것으로 보인다. 조선인들은 이주 후 지속적으로 회사측의 관리와 통제 하에 놓여있었다. 회사측에서는 이주노무자들에 대하여 작업교육과 정신교육을 동시에 실시하였다. 이것은 수동적인 노동력 수탈을 넘어서 조선인의 능동적이고 다각적인 협조를 유도하기 위하여 취해진 조치였다. 일반적으로 조선인 노무자들은 열악한 노동조건에 처해있었으며, 임금도 실질적으로는 매우 적은 금액이 지급되었던 것으로 파악된다. 조선인 노무자 모집은 대개 18세 이상 45세 이하의 신체건장한 남자를 대상으로 하였다. 노무자 모집주체들은 가족동반을 권장하였는데, 이것은 이주자들의 성공적인 정주를 이끌어내기 위한 방편이었다. ■Abstract The movement of Korean to the South Sea Islands and the characteristic at the end of Japanese imperialism(1939~1941) Kim, Myung-hwan This study is to review the status of the population change in the South Sea Islands of Korean between 1939 and 1941, I try to understand the characters and the size of the immigration of Korean to compare this data with the labor collection data toward the South Sea Islands from other parts of the country at the time. From the year of 1939, authorities of the South Sea Islands colonization had started to collect the labor forces with large quantity inside Korea. The size of the recruiting of the labor forces from Korea was very similar to the South Sea Island at that time. The whole of the increase was remarkably consistent with each of the region growth. This means that the part of the increasing population of the South Sea Islands is covered by the recruitment at that time. Not only the size of immigration, but also the rate of the whole immigration versus the labor immigration became very high. In 1938, the whole immigration of Korean was only 125 people, no more than 1.3% of the population of South Sea Island. However, the number was 1,264, account for 23% of immigration in 1939, and 2,361 people with 42% in 1941. The increase of the population of the South Sea Islands at this time seems to have been related to the Japan's conduct of the war. After the Japan-Chinese war, the people of labor forces that immigrated to the South Sea Islands began to decrease. In result, the lack of labor forces in the South Sea Islands became more severe and the recruiting of labor forces from other parts of the country to the South Sea Islands was introduced to try to come up with a remedy. The immigration of the Korean labor forces was aided with the deep participation of the Japanese Government General of Korea朝鮮總督府, and social departments of each region with their active cooperation. It is regarded as an assigned to recruiting because of recruiting regions and the numbers have been decided roughly. After the immigration Korean was constantly under the control of company and their management. The company was training for the work and the moral education on them. This was not exploited the passive labor forces, and try to lead them to become a positive and multi-dimensional forces. Generally the labor of Korean was working in very substandard conditions with very low salary. The object of the collecting was the between all able-bodied men over 18 to 45 years old. The authority of recruiting entity recommended accompanying of the family so that they could successfully settle down in South Sea Islands.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        경피적 간생검 후 발생한 혈담즙증에 의한 급성 췌장염 1예

        김명환,이성구,주영민,서동완,김홍자,민영일,유교상,박철성,박은택,임병철,차재명,한상택 대한소화기학회 2000 대한소화기학회지 Vol.35 No.3

        Acute pancreatitis associated with hemobilia has rarely been reported. According to literature, there are two cases of acute pancreatitis caused by hemobilia after percutaneous liver biopsy. We report the case in 63-year-old woman. She presented with hemobilia and acute biliary pancreatitis 5 days after liver biopsy. It was resolved with biliary drainage procedure alone.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Oddi 괄약근 운동 이상 환자 16예의 임상 양상

        김명환,이성구,서동완,유병무,민영일,이근찬,정훈용,장윤혜,정성애,명승재,이미화,방혜승,김삼정 대한소화기내시경학회 1996 Clinical Endoscopy Vol.16 No.4

        We evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients with SO dyskinesia(n=16) who were confirmed by ERCP manometry during past 5 years. They were 14 male and 2 female and mean age was 52-year-old(range, 32-75). According to the criteria suggested by Hogan and Geenen, 13 patients were classified into biliary type and 3 patients into pancreatic type. Among the patients with biliary type(n=13), 12 patients fulfilled the criteria for group II dysfunction of SO and 1 patient for group III. Among the patients with pancreatic type(n=3), all fulfilled the criteria for group II. The manometric abnormalities were increased basal pressure(n=4), tachyoddia(n=7), increased retrograde propagation(n=3), tachyoddia and increased retrograde propagation(n=l), and tachyoddia and increased basal pressure(n=l). As treatment, 12 patients received conventional endoscopic sphincterotomy and 3 patients received endoscopic pancreatic sphincterotomy in addition to conventional endoscopic sphincterotomy. Satisfactory results (complete absence or marked reduction of pain) were obtained in 13(87%) out of 15 patients by endoscopic treatment. In conclusion, SO dyskinesia is not so common disease and the detection of patients with SO dyskinesia may increase by frequent application of ERCP manometry.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        담석 환자에서 Apolipoprotein E 유전자 다형성과 담석 및 담즙 내 콜레스테롤과의 관계

        김명환,박주상,박광민,이성구,서동완,이승규,민영일,이영주,유교상,민원기,전사일 대한소화기학회 2000 대한소화기학회지 Vol.35 No.4

        Background/Aims: Apolipoprotein E4 (apo E4) has been reported to be a risk factor for cholesterol gallstone formation. As a cause of cholesterol gallstone formation, increased hepatic uptake of cholesterol absorbed from intestine and enhanced biliary cholesterol secretion in patients carrying apo E4 genotype have been suggested, but there is little direct evidence supporting cholesterol supersaturation in the bile. Furthermore, it is unclear whether apo E polymorphism is associated with intrahepatic duct (IHD) stone formation. We performed this study to elucidate the relationship between apo E genotypes and the cholesterol content of bile and stones in patients with gallbladder (GB) stones or IHD stones. Methods: Fourty-seven patients with GB stones and 43 patients with IHD stones were enrolled in this study. Apo E genotype, bile composition and stone composition were analyzed. Results: Apo E genotypes and cholesterol content of stones were not significantly different between the patients with GB stone and the patients with IHD stone. The bile composition and cholesterol content of gallstone in the patients showed no significant difference according to apo E genotypes. Conclusions: Apo E4 genotype is not associated with an enhanced biliary cholesterol secretion and high cholesterol content in GB or IHD stones.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        장시간 측정된 유두괄약근 운동검사에서 위상파 수축 빈도의 변화에 관한 연구

        김명환,이성구,서동완,유병무,민영일,김형건,정성애,명승재,김석균,이미화,방혜승 대한소화기내시경학회 1996 Clinical Endoscopy Vol.16 No.3

        Objectives: The sphincter of Oddi(SO) manometry via transpapillary route is performed usually for a period of several minutes. To investigate whether there is a considerable variation in the manometric measurements of SO over a longer period of time, we have performed long-term manometry of SO via transpapillary(n=5) as well as percutaneous(n=7) route. Methods: Transpapillary manometry of SO was carried out by conventional low-compliant continuously perfused technique. The location of the manometric catheter was maintained at the same level by observing the video monitor. SO manometry and the duodenal migrating motor complex(MMC) was simuitaneously measured with specially designed catheter via pereutaneous route. Results: The mean recording time was 41 minutes(range 11-72 minutes). The frequency of phasic contractions of SO varied from 0 to 12/min. Throughout the whole recording period, high-frequency contractians(over 8/min) were noted in 14.9 % of the time. In the eases of percutaneous transductal SO manometry, the periods of high-frequency contractions coincided with the phase III of duodenal MMC. The interval between the first high-frequency contractions and the second was 47 minutes. The mean duration of high-frequency contractions was 6 minutes and 4~2 seconds. There as no significant change in the amplitude, basal pressure and contraction sequence among the various periods of frequencies. Conclusions: Long-term continuous recording of SO manometry via transpapillary and percutaneous route showed that the contraction frequency of SO was not constant and tachyoddia appearde periodically. In the interpretation of tachyoddia, it is necessary to consider the period of phase III of the duodenal MMC.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        췌장 질환에 있어서 순수 췌액의 종양 표지자 측정에 관한 연구

        김명환,이성구,서동완,최호순,유병무,김형건,민영일,이미화,유진숙 대한소화기내시경학회 1996 Clinical Endoscopy Vol.16 No.2

        Several reports have described the usefulness of tumor markers detected in pancreatic juice for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. We performed this study to evaluate the usefulness of tumor markers in pure pancreatic juice collected by duodenoscopic cannulation of pancreatic duct before and after injection of secretin. From April 1993 to July 1995, 8 cases of pancreatic cancer, 5 cases of benign pancreatic lesions, and 5 cases of benign biliary diseases without pancreatic lesion were involved. CEA and CA 19-9 immunoreactivity were measured by radioimmunoassay. Concentrations of CA 19-9 in pure pancreatic juice were significantly higher in patients with pancreatic cancer(median value; 3582, range 88.4-10410 IU/ml) than in control patients(median value 231, range 30.4-682 IU/ml)(p$lt;0.05). Concentrations of CEA in pure pancreatic juice were not significantly different between patients with pancreatic cancer(median value: 6,5, range 1.0-152ng/ml) and control patients(median value: 4.0, range 1-17.2 ng/ml)(p$gt;0.05). There was no significant correlation between levels of CA19-9, CEA in pancreatic juice and those levels in serum. The amounts of juice collected by duodenoscopic cannulation in patients with pancreatic cancer were 1.5+-0.9ml during 5 minutes before infusion of secretin, 11.3+-3.9ml, 10.8+-4.0ml, 10.6+-4.0ml in 5 minute interval after infusion of secretin. These results indicated that measurement of CA19-9 in pure pancreatic juice may be used as a marker for pancreatic cancer. Adequate amount of pancreatic juice was collected by duodenoscopic cannulation for evaluation of tumor marker, enzyme studies and cytology.

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