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      • KCI등재

        Backchannelling in deutschen und koreanischen Telefongesprächen − ein gesprächsanalytischer Ansatz

        ( Kook¸ Ji-yeon ) 한국독일언어문학회 2021 독일언어문학 Vol.- No.92

        언어적 의사소통에서 발신자, 수신자, 맥락, 정보 등과 같은 요소들도 중요하지만, 화자가 말을 할 때 청자가 경청하고 있는지의 여부도 중요하다. 청자는 화자의 발화에 대해 관심이 있다거나 듣고 있다는 것 혹은 자신이 그 대화에 참여하고 있다는 등의 표시로 ‘응’, ‘어’, ‘음’, ‘맞아’, ‘그래’ 등과 같은 청자신호를 보낸다. 이러한 청자반응신호는 면대면 대화에서뿐만 아니라 전화 대화에서도 나타나지만, 전화 대화라는 유형적 특성상 매우 중요하다. 왜냐하면 면대면 대화에서는 화자의 표정이나 몸짓 등이 함께 작용하지만, 음성이나 말로서만 이루어지는 전화 대화에서는 결정적인 역할을 하기 때문이다. 특히 청자반응은 개별 언어마다 달리 나타나기 때문에, 본 연구에서는 한국어와 독일어의 전화 대화에 나타난 청자반응신호의 공통점과 차이점을 살펴보고자 했다. 이를 위해 독일과 한국 전화 대화 코퍼스를 추출하여 각 언어의 청자반응을 비교 분석하였다. 그 결과 두 언어 간 청자반응의 수행양상이 어떻게 달리 나타나는지를 고찰할 수 있었다. 빈도수 측면에서는 두 언어 간의 차이가 잘 나타나지 않았으나, 청자 반응 신호의 유형별 비교는 가능했다. 그 중 주목할 만한 것은 한국어 청자의 경우 독일어 청자에 비해 상대방이 발화하는 일부나 발화 전체를 그대로 따라서 반복하는 표현을 보다 선호했으며, 독일어 청자들은 한국어 청자에 비해 상대방의 문장을 완성하는 경향이 더 두드러지는 것으로 나타났다. 이와 같은 청자반응신호 양상 연구는 문화 간 이해를 위한 소통지식 향상과 제2외국어로서 언어를 배우는 독일어 학습자나 한국어 학습자가 상호 소통을 할 때 오해를 최소화 할 수 있다는 점에서 그 의의가 있다고 볼 수 있다. Diese konversationsanalytische Studie widmet sich den Typen, Formen und der Frequenz von Backchannels in deutschen und koreanischen Telefongesprächen. Auf der Basis von 21 Telefonaten (12 deutschen aus dem FOLK-Korpus des Instituts für Deutsche Sprache und 9 koreanischen aus dem Sejong-Korpus für gesprochenes Koreanisch des Nationalen Instituts der Koreanischen Sprache) wurde das Backchannelling-Verhalten der Gesprächsteilnehmer kontrastiv untersucht. Die Ergebnisse dokumentieren Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede: Bezüglich der prozentualen Verteilung der Typen von Backchannels machen kurze verbale Äußerungen in beiden Sprachen den größten Anteil aus. Der Typ ‘Bitte um Klärung’ bildet in beiden Korpora den zweitgrößten Anteil, Lachen als Backchannel den drittgrößten. Während koreanische Hörer den Typ ‘kurze Nachformulierungen’ präferieren, wurden bei den deutschen Hörern eher der Typ ‘Satzvervollständigungen’ bevorzugt. Hinsichtlich der Frequenz von Backchannels pro Token bestand kein wesentlicher Unterschied, so dass die Wahrscheinlichkeit einer durch Frequenz verursachten Fehlinterpretation zwischen Deutschen und Koreanern geringer als mit anderen Kulturen ist.

      • KCI등재후보

        여자 테니스 선수의 양손 백핸드 스트로크 동작시 상지의 근전도 분석

        유국종,서국웅,윤양진,이훈식,정미라,서국은 한국운동역학회 2000 한국운동역학회지 Vol.9 No.2

        This study analzed AEMG, muscle activity duration time, peak value and work load of six high school student players, three college student players, three business team players in order to analyze Arm's EMG when they play games with two-handed backhand stroke. The instruments of measuring EMG are muscle tester ME3000p. And measured parts of muscle are the triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachioradialis and flexor carpi radialis of body left and right arm. The following is the result according to the analysis of raw data and statistics. 1. The AEMG of trained group was higher than the untrained. In both groups AEMG of right arm was higher than left one. And AEMG of forearm was higher than upperarm. The order of high AEMG among the trained is as followed ; right biceps brachii, left brachii, right brachioradialis. Among the untrained ; right brachioradialis, left brachioradialis, biceps brachii. 2. The muscle activity duration time of the trained group was totally shorter than the untrained. In both groups muscle activity duration time of the right arm was shorter than the left one. As to trained muscle activity duration time of upperarm is shorter than the forearm. Contrarily, as to untrained muscle activity duration time forearm is shorter than the upperarm. The order of short muscle activity duration time among the trained is as followed ; right biceps brachii, triceps brachii, left flexor carpi radialis. 3. The peak value of trained group was higher than the untrained. In body groups peak value of the right arm was higher than the left one. As to the trained the peak of the upperarm is higher than the forearm. Contrarily, as to the untrained, the peak value of the forearm was higher the upperarm. The order of high peak value among the trained is as followed ; right biceps brachii, left biceps brachii, right brachioradialis. Among the untrained, right brachioradialis, left biceps brachii, brachioradialis.

      • Preparations of microencapsulated PCMs-coated nylon fabrics by wet and dry coating process and comparison of their properties

        Koo, K.,Park, Y.M.,Choe, J.D.,Kim, E.A. Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company 2009 Polymer engineering and science Vol.49 No.6

        <P>To analyze the thermal insulation effect in textiles, waterproof, and breathable nylon fabrics PCMs microcapsules (PCMMcs) were prepared by wet and dry coating processes. The morphology, water vapor permeability (WVP), water penetration resistance (WPR), and peel strength of the PCMMcs-coated fabrics were characterized. At the same time, DSC was used to measure the thermal insulation properties of the PCMMcs-treated fabrics as a means of testing the thermal storage/release capacity according to their phase change temperature. The result showed that the heat storage capacity of the PCMMcs-treated fabrics prepared by wet coating was noticeably better than that of the PCMMcs-untreated samples, whereas the PCMMcs treatment had an insignificant effect on the heat capacity of the fabrics prepared by the dry coating process. From the SEM analysis, it was found that the PCMMcs were physically unstable during the dry coating process, so, they could not be observed. Also, the WVP, WPR, and peel strength were found to decrease with increasing PCMMcs contents. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2009. © 2009 Society of Plastics Engineers</P>

      • Changes of functional ionotrophic receptor subunits in rat hippocampus following transient global ischemia

        Ko, Ok,Jung, Yong Wook 東國大學校醫學硏究所 2002 東國醫學 Vol.9 No.2

        허혈 후 해마세포내 칼슘의 유입과 증가기전은 아직까지 알려져 있지 않다. 그러나 허혈해마에서의 이온지향성 NMDA 수용체와 AMPA수용체 아단위의 변화는 많은 양의 칼슘이 흥분성연접을 통해 신경세포내로 유입될 수 있다는 가능성을 제시한다. 따라서 본 실험은 일시적 허혈 후 초래되는 해마신경세포의 세포손상정에 AMPA와 NMDA 수용체의 구성단백질의 변화를 관찰하였다. 일시적 허혈 모델은 280∼320 gm의 Sprague-Dawley종의 숫 흰쥐를 이용하여 50㎜Hg의 저혈압을 초래 후 10분간 양쪽 온목동맥을 결찰하여 제작하였으며 AMPA 수용체의 GluR2 아단위와 NMDA 수용체의 NR2A, NR2B에 대한 단백질 정량분석은 Immunoblot을 이용하였다. 허혈 후 세포손상은 세포골격단백질인 NF200의 분자생물학적 조사를 시행하여 관찰하였다. 일시적 허혈은 해마에 존재하는 이온지향성 수용체의 아단위인 NR2A, NR2B, 그리고 GluR2의 분해를 유도하였으며 특히 GluR2의 현저한 감소는 GluR2-lacking AMPA 수용체의 칼슘지향성 특성을 고려할 때 해마신경세포 손상과정에서 중요한 역할을 할 것으로 생각되며 또한 세포사망의 중요인자인 신경세사단백질200의 분해정도는 AMPA 수용체의 GluR2의 분해와 비례하여 감소하였다. The mechanism by which elevated Ca^2+ enters and concentrates within the hippocampal neurons after ischemia remains unclear. However, one appealing possibility, given the well-documented involvement of NMDA and AMPA receptors in ischemic hippocampus, would involve the up or down-regulation of NMDA and AMPA constituents, which would thereby allow increased amounts of Ca^2+ to enter the vulnerable neuron with each excitatory synaptic event. we tested a potential roles for AMPA and NMDA receptor functional subunits levels in the hippocampus at times after transient global ischemia when neuronal cell damage was observed. Transient global ischemia was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats (280∼320 gm) and was induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 10 minutes along with a decrease of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) to 50 ㎜Hg. Immunoblottings were used to assess protein concentration and expression of AMPA (GluR2) and NMDA receptor (NR2A and NR2B) functional subunits. Molecular analysis of ischemic injury was measured with NF200. This study determined that hippocampal NR2A, NR2B, and GluR2 expression in response to the transient global ischemia was decreased compared with sham-operated controls. This data indicate that AMPA receptors lacking GluR2 may play a role in excessive influx of extracellular calcium following ischemia because of GluR2-lacking AMPA complexes have larger. more prolonged calcium conductances than those containing this subunit. We also found that the severity of the NF200 degradation, one of the neuronal death-inducing factors correlated well with the severity of GluR2 degradation.

      • 乳酸菌에 의한 돼지설사 원인균의 生育沮害

        姜國熙,成文喜,李仁善,申鉉靖 成均館大學校 科學技術硏究所 1984 論文集 Vol.35 No.1

        E. coli A_2 and G_7 occurring bacterial diarrhea of pigs were inoculated with 10^5/ml into thioglycollate medium without indicator-135C, and then Str. faecium and Str. faecalis var. liquefaciens were inoculated with 10^5/ml and 10^7/ml into previous inoculated samples of E. coli A_2 and G_7. Inoculated samples cultured at 37℃, were tested to determine changes in viable numbers of organisms and pH. The experimental results are summerized as follows: 1. In the mixed culture medium of 10^5/ml E. coli and 10^5/ml Streptococci, E. coli decreased after 8 hours from incubation, and finally decreased to 10^1/ml after 48 hours. 2. In the mixed culture medium of 10^5/ml E. coli and 10^7/ml Streptococci, E. coli drastically decreased, were not disappeared after 36 hours. 3. The pH value of the pure culture of E. coli was 5.30 and in the mixed culture of E. coli and Streptococci the pH value was 4.49-4.80 after 8 hours from incubation.

      • 한국성인의 腸內細菌分布에 관한 연구

        姜國熙,朴勇河 成均館大學校 科學技術硏究所 1984 論文集 Vol.35 No.2

        Quantitative and qualitative examination of the fecal flora of 17 clinically healthy Korean adults were carried out by using anaerobic jar culture technique. Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, and Peptococcaceae were the predominant organisms approximating 10^10-10^11 in number per gram dry weight. Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium were present in number of 10^7-10^9 per gram dry weight material, while Corynebacterium, Veillonella, and Bacillus were present in lower numbers. The human adult fecal flora was predominantly anaerobic. The aerobes are significantly less than the anaerobes and their numbers varied among specimens.

      • 고등학생의 태권도 교육과 정서발달의 관계

        정국현,심일섭,김종욱 한국체육대학교 교양교육연구소 2002 韓國體育大學校 敎養敎育論文集 Vol.- No.7

        The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Taekwon-do training on high school student’s emotional development. For this purpose, 651(male=334, female=317) high school student’s were select as subjects. The questionnaire that was used Kang(1996) was also used in this study. The statistics selected in this study were descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and Schefe post hoc test. As a result of the analyses of collected data, the following conclusions were obtained: firstly, there was a significant difference in high school student's emotional development by socio-demographic variables. Secondly, high school student's fear response is different according to their level of Taekwon-do training.

      • Streptococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens 의 Plasmid 와 변이주 형질의 연관성

        姜國熙,李命基,金榮勳,李春花,朴淵姬 成均館大學校 科學技術硏究所 1986 論文集 Vol.37 No.2

        Lac^- and Prt^- variants were selected from Str. faecalis var. liquefaciens SKD-1007 by acrifiavin treatment. Prt^- Lac^- variant was obtained from Prt^- vaiant by mitomycin C treatment. The plasmid of variants showed same pattern with parent strain. Plasmid cured variants(SKR1, SKR2, SKR3) were obtained from parent treated by novobiocin. SKR3 variant which lost pSK6 plasmid(2.1 Mdal) was sensitive to lincomycin and erythromycin. The results implied that pSK6 plasmid of test strain was associated with antibiotic resistance (L.M, EM).

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