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<P>This article represents analog predistortion linearization of Doherty power amplifier (DPA) using bandwidth reduction of error signal. To verify our methods, two DPAs are implemented using a push-pull GaN HEMT and a push-pull Si LDMOS at 2.14 GHz and tested using the memory-compensated analog predistorter with transistor-based error generators and three-branch nonlinear paths. From the measured four-carrier WCDMA results, the proposed analog predistortion DPAs show the significant linearity improvement. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1313–1316, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience. wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.25190</P>
<P><B>Abstract</B></P><P>This article presents a novel design method for a wideband planar inverted F‐antenna that simultaneously covers GSM900, GPS, DCS1800, IMT2000, WLAN, and DMB services. The proposed antenna consisted of a main patch with stubs, an I‐shaped patch, and a modified shorting strip. It had dimensions of 16 × 36 × 6 mm<SUP>3</SUP>. The dual band characteristic could be achieved by changing the length of a main patch. A very wide impedance bandwidth characteristic was obtained by optimizing the length of stubs, an I‐shaped patch, and a modified shorting strip. Commercial electromagnetic software, CST Microwave Studio, was used to design the structure. The maximum gains at the frequencies of 915, 1576, 1785, 2170, 2400, and 2630 MHz were 1.0, 2.7, 5.4, 4.56, 1.52, and 2.95 dBi, respectively. The overall radiation pattern was suitable for mobile applications. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 49: 513–515, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.22179</P>
<P>A broadband linearization method with a novel opto-electrical predistorter was experimentally demonstrated. With the proposed method, the third-order intermodulation distortion was simultaneously enhanced by more than 10 dB for 510 MHz ranges and by 24 dB at 2.2 GHz without any change in electrical circuitry. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1638–1640, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience. wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.25240</P>
<P>In this article, a K-band push-push Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is presented using a miniaturized hairpin resonator (MHR) with a higher loaded quality factor and the reduced circuit area within 50% compared to the conventional one at 9.2 GHz.The MHR combined with the GaAs MESFET varactor shows a tuning range of 140 MHz, and this voltage tunable MHR is used to compose a push-push VCO. It provides the frequency tuning range of 71 MHz with flatness of +0.13 dB, which is increased by 31 MHz compared to the conventional VCO. The voltage controlled push-push oscillator based on the series feedback topology is implemented on 0.54 mm-thick Teflon substrate with a dielectric constant of 2.54. The measurement shows the output power of 1.18 dBm, the fundamental signal power suppression of −33 dBc, and phase noise performance of −86.78 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 699–701, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience. wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.25007</P>
<P>A new internal antenna structure using a Z-type hexagonal ferrite is introduced for the DVB-H reception in folder-type mobile phones. The antenna element operates as a coupling element to excite the chassis as a radiator. Using a Z-type hexagonal ferrite, the proposed antenna can be designed with a considerably low volume of 0.75 cm<SUP>3</SUP> and meets the requirements of antenna for the DVB-H service. The high isolation over 15 dB between the DVB-H band and the communication bands (GSM, DCS, and PCS) is obtained. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 51: 2196–2199, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.24551</P>
<B>Background and Objectives</B><P>A negative correlation between anemia and outcome has been demonstrated in various cancers treated with radiotherapy. However, it is rarely studied whether this correlation may exist in surgical setting. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between pretreatment anemia and survival in surgically treated patients with gastric cancer.</P><B>Methods</B><P>A total of 1,688 patients who had undergone curative resection for gastric cancer between 1991 and 1995 were reviewed. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level <12.0 g/dl. The influence of anemia on patient overall survival was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis.</P><B>Results</B><P>Pretreatment anemia was present in 39.9% of the patients. The 10-year overall survival rate in anemic patients was 48.2% as compared with 62.6% in nonanemic patients (P < 0.001). In subgroup analysis according to the stage, the significant difference in 10-year overall survival rate between anemic and nonanemic patients was found in stage I and II gastric cancer (76.1% vs. 83.5% in stage I, P = 0.030; 55.1% vs. 67.2% in stage II, P = 0.043). On multivariate analysis, anemia was an independent prognostic predictor in patients with stage I and II disease (P = 0.007; RR, 1.466; 95% CI, 1.109–1.937).</P><B>Conclusions</B><P>Pretreatment anemia was found to have an independent relationship to the long-term survival of patients with stage I and II gastric cancer. J. Surg. Oncol. 2005;91:126–130. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. J. Surg. Oncol. 2005;91:?–?. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</P>
<P>Endochondral ossification is characterized by a significant interdependence between cell shape and cytoskeletal organization that accompanies the onset of chondrogenic signaling. However, the mechanisms mediating these interactions have not been well studied. Here, treatment with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 at a later stage of chondrogenesis led to activation of Smad-2 signaling and the formation of intense stress fibers, which resulted in suppressing chondrogenic differentiation of leg bud mesenchymal cells. Moreover, specific siRNA knockdown of Smad-2 reduced TGF-β3-induced stress fibers via physical interactions with β-catenin. In conclusion, our results indicate that TGF-β3-induced Smad signaling, in conjunction with β-catenin, is involved in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton into a cortical pattern with a concomitant rounding of cells. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</P><P>This article was published online on 28 May 2009. An error was subsequently identified. This notice is included in the online and print versions to indicate that both have been corrected 8 June 2009. J. Cell. Biochem. 107: 622–629, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</P>
<P>In vitro production of porcine embryos has become routine in most laboratories but the yield and quality of the resultant blastocysts remain suboptimal. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) is an N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose sugar-specific lectin with a wide variety of biological activities including mitogenesis, mediation of cell recognition, and agglutination of cells. This study was therefore, designed to investigate the effect of PHA on the preimplantation embryo development and quality of in vitro produced porcine parthenotes. Parthenogenetic presumptive diploid zygotes were produced in vitro by electrical activation and cultured in the absence or presence of PHA at different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 µg/ml). There were no significant differences in the cleavage rate of porcine parthenotes in control and treatment groups at all tested concentrations of PHA (P < 0.05). However, supplementation of PHA at the concentration of 15 µg/ml significantly improved the blastocyst rate (68.9 ± 1.5% vs. 43.1 ± 4.1%), hatching rate (25.8 ± 3.1% vs. 8.9 ± 2.0%), and total nuclei number (95.5 ± 9.3 vs. 63.4 ± 4.3) when compared to control group (P > 0.05). TUNEL labeling revealed that blastocysts in PHA group were less predisposed to biochemical apoptosis than in control group while total apoptosis and nuclear fragmentation remained unaltered. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis further revealed that PHA decreased the expression ratio of BAX/BCL-XL and enhanced the relative abundance of IGF2 transcripts. Therefore, our study suggests that PHA improves the blastocyst yield and quality by enhancing blastocyst expansion, hatching, and total cell number and decreasing the apoptosis by positively modulating the expression of embryo survival related genes. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 74: 435–444, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</P>
<P>The solubilizing ability of two aromatic hydrotropes, N,N-diethylnicotinamide (DENA) and N,N-dimethylbenzamide (DMBA), was investigated using a set of 13 poorly soluble, structurally diverse drugs. The number of aromatic rings in the solute molecule has a very strong effect on the solubility enhancement produced by either hydrotrope. However, although solubility enhancements in the order of 1000- to 10,000-fold were obtained with each of the hydrotropic agents, important differences were found between the two. DMBA is more hydrophobic and undergoes more extensive self-association than DENA, as determined by vapor osmometry. As a result, DMBA is generally a more powerful solubilizer of hydrophobic drugs. DENA, on the other hand, is more polar and its self-association is essentially limited to dimer formation. However, despite being less hydrophobic, DENA is an extremely powerful solubilizer of paclitaxel, a highly hydrophobic compound. Such a result is attributed to the higher hydrogen bonding ability of DENA over DMBA and the very high hydrogen bonding ability of paclitaxel. These observations in turn illustrate the strong interplay between specific and hydrophobic interactions on the observed solubilization by hydrotropic agents. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99:3953–3965, 2010</P>
<P><B>Abstract</B></P><P>Little is known about how adhesion molecules on APCs accumulate at immunological synapses. We show here that ICAM‐1 on APCs is continuously internalized and rapidly recycled back to the interface after antigen‐priming T‐cell contact. The internalization rate is high in APCs, including Raji B cells and dendritic cells, but low in endothelial cells. Internalization is significantly reduced by inhibitors of Na<SUP>+</SUP>/H<SUP>+</SUP> exchangers (NHEs), suggesting that members of the NHE‐family regulate this process. Once internalized, ICAM‐1 is co‐localized with MHC class II in the polarized recycling compartment. Surprisingly, not only ICAM‐1, but also MHC class II, is targeted to the immunological synapse through LFA‐1‐dependent adhesion. Cytosolic ICAM‐1 is highly mobile and forms a tubular structure. Inhibitors of microtubule or actin polymerization can reduce ICAM‐1 mobility, and thereby block accumulation at immunological synapses. Membrane ICAM‐1 also moves to the T‐cell contact zone, presumably through an active, cytoskeleton‐dependent mechanism. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ICAM‐1 can be transported to the immunological synapse through the recycling compartment. Furthermore, the high‐affinity state of LFA‐1 on T cells is critical to induce targeted movements of both ICAM‐1 and MHC class II to the immunological synapse on APCs. J. Cell. Biochem. 111: 1125–1137, 2010. © 2010 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.</P>