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본 연구는 양궁선수들의 숙련도에 따른 안정시와 슈팅시 신체 안정성과 슈팅기록간의 관계를 규명하고자 k체육고교에 재학중인 오른손잡이 여자 양궁선수 8명(숙련자 4명, 비숙련자 4명)을 대상으로 동적 균형 측정장치(Dynamic balance system)를 이용하여 측정하였고, 이들 결과를 안정시와 슈팅시 신체 안정성간의 관계와 슈팅시 신체 안정성과 기록과의 관계정도를 중다상관계수를 이용하여 분석하였다. 그 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 1. 안정시 균형중심의 x축요인은 슈팅시 균형중심의 x축요인과 R=.833 정적 상관관계를 보였다. 2. 안정시 균형중심의 y축요인은 슈팅시 균형중심의 y축요인과 R=.881, Left · Toe요인과 R=.738, Right · Toe요인과 R=.905의 정적 상관관계를, Left · Heel요인과 R=-.905의 부적 상관관계를 보였다. 3. 안정시 Left · Toe요인은 슈팅시 균형중심의 y축 요인과 R=.905, Left · Toe요인과 R=.810, Left · Toe요인과 R=.881의 정적 상관관계를 보였고, Left · Heel요인과 R=-.952의 부적 상관관계을 보였다. 4. 안정시 Left · Heel요인은 슈팅시 균형중심의 x축 요인과 R=.905, 흔들림 지수와 R=.881, Left · Heel요인과 R=.952의 정적 상관관계를, 균형중심의 y축 요인과 R=-.976, Left · Toe요인과 R=-.833, Left · Toe요인과 R=.-952, 전후 흔들림 요인과 R=-.929의 부적 상관관계를 보였다. 5. 안정시 Left · Toe요인은 슈팅시 Left · Toe요인과 R=.738, Right · Toe요인과 R=.905, 전후 흔들림 요인과 R=.976의 정적 상관관계를, Left · Heel요인과는 R=-.905의 부적 상관관계를 보였다. 6. 슈팅시 신체 안정성 요인과 기록과의 상관관계를 살펴보면, 균형중심의 x축요인 이 R=.651, Left · Toe요인이 R=.733, Right · Toe요인이 R=.675로 슈팅기록과 정적 상관관계를 보였다. 이상의 결론을 통해서 양궁선수들의 안정시 양발의 신체 압력 분포 요인이 슈팅시 신체의 흔들림요인에 상당한 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으며, 슈팅시 신체 안정성 요인 중에서 균형중심의 x축요인과 양발의 Toe압력 분포 요인이 기록에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 신체 안정성을 높이기 위해서는 양발의 체중부하를 균등하게 주어지게 하고 양발 Toe에 신체의 압력 분포를 놓여 신체 안정성을 높일 수 있는 연습방법이나, 신발의 앞궆의 높이를 통해 Toe압력 분포가 정확하게 맞춰질 수 있는 양궁화의 개발도 필요하리라 생각된다. This study was conducted to prove the correlation of the physical stability and the performance according to the archer´s skill level in non-shooting and shooting. The subject were eight femail high school athletes(the skilled 4, the unskilled 4) and the motion was measured using Dynamic balance system. These data were analyzed to compute the multiple correlation of the physical stability and the record in non-shooting and shooting. The results were as follows. 1. The correlation of the X of the center of balance in non-shooting and shooting was R=.833. 2. The correlation of the Y of the center of balance in non-shooting and shooting was R-.881, and that of the Left · Toe was R=.738, and that the Right · Toe was R=.905, and that of the Left · Heel was R=-.905. 3. The correlation of the Left · Toe in non-shooting and Y of the center of balance R=.905, and that of the Left · Toe was R=.810, and that the Right · Toe was R=.881, and that of the Left · Heel was R=-.952. 4. The correlation of the Left · Heel in non-shooting and X of the center of balance in shooting was R=.905, and that of the sway index was R=.881, and that of the Left · Heel was R=.952, that and that the Right · Toe was R=-.952, and that of the ANT/POST sway distance was R=-.929. 5. The correlation of the Right · Toe in non-shooting and Left · Toe was R=.738, and that of the Right · Toe in shooting was R=.905, and that of the ANT/POST sway distance was R=.976, that and that of the Left · Toe was R=-.905. 6. The correlation of the X of the center of balance of the physical stability and record in shooting was R=.651, and that of the Left · Toe was R=.733, and that of the Right · Toe was R=.675 As the result of them, the physical pressure distribution factor of the archer´s feet in non-shooting affect largely physical swat distance and X of the center of balance and the pressure distribution of the both feet of the physical stability in shooting affect archery record. There, to evaluate the physical stability have to be balanced the both feet loading develope the training methods to evaluate the physical stability by evaluating the physical pressure distribution of the both feet and archery shoes to set exactly the toe pressure distribution by controlling the height of the front shoes.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematic sequence patterns according to movement times during Karate choku-tsuki. Method: Ten Korea national Karate athletes participated in this study. Participants asked to perform jodan and chudan choku-tsuki. 30 infrared cameras were used to measure angular kinematic of elbow, shoulder, trunk, pelvis, hip, knee, ankle. Results: The two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant effects for the joints (p<.05). But no significant effect for the movement time and interaction of joints x movement time existed for the kinematic sequence variables. Conclusion: For karate kumite players to reduce the movement time of punch, it is necessary to train kinematic sequences that allow each joint to rotate at a relatively similar timing.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between visual search, eye fixation positions, and eye fixation position on whole body regions while judging final matches of dance sports. Method: Ten experienced judges (male 6, female 4) and six dance sports couples belonging to the top Korean leagues in the Korea Dance sports Federation were participated. Wearable eye trackers were used for data collection. The independent t-test was conducted to examine the effects of gender, and the two-way ANOVA was conducted to examine the effects of judges' gender, dance event, and ranking. Results: It was found that the movement of male contestants was preferred, and the gaze fixation was high for torso movements in the judges' evaluations. Moreover, attention was focused on the upper body rather than the lower body; this was maintained for about seven seconds to evaluate each couple. Conclusion: This find was the relative comparison between the two couples was the determining factor in winning or losing.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to develop new balance evaluation index that can discriminate fall risk factors and provide effective interventions for healthy elderly. In order to conduct this study, the balance assessment tools (TUG, mCTSIB, OLST, FRT and BBS) currently used in clinic were re-evaluated using biomechanical analysis. Method: The participants were healthy elderly people over 65 years old, n=26, age: 69.31±3.13 years; height: 154.00±4.12 cm, body weight: 56.13±6.04 kg. The variables are length of CoM-BoS, length of CoP-BoS, range of CoP, mean distance of CoP, mean frequency of CoP, root mean square of CoP, joint angle, ASM (%SL), CoP-CoM angle. Results: As a result of this study, the following items were included in the list of new balance evaluation index for the healthy elderly, showing differences in the biomechanical evaluation based on the clinical evaluation (Inclusion list: TUG, OLST, 8th assessment item of BBS (reaching forward with outstretched arm), 11th item (turning 360 degrees), 13th item (standing with one foot in front), 14th item (standing on one foot)). Conclusion: Based on the results, the new balance evaluation index for the healthy elderly determined through this study can be used to prevent the fall by evaluating the balance ability in various situations that can be experienced in the normal daily life of the healthy elderly.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of participation in contact sports on neurocognitive scores, dual-task walking velocity, and cognitive costs in retired athletes. Method: Forty-four retired athletes (mean age = 26.4±5.5 yrs) and thirty-eight controls (mean age = 26.1±4.9 yrs) participated in this study. Neurocognitive score was collected using computerized neurocognitive testing using RehaCom. Gait velocity was collected one single task, four dualtasks, and two multi-tasks using Optogait. Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compared differences in cognitive scores among groups. A mixed-design two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni posthoc test were used to assess the effect of group and walking tasks for each condition. Results: The auditory divided attention of neurocognitive score of retired athletes was higher than the control group (p < 0.05). No statistical differences were observed in the other neurocognitive scores between groups. The changes in walking velocity and cognitive costs according to the dualtask walking tests differed between the two groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Although participation in contact sports did not affect the neurocognitive results of retired athletes, it could be confirmed that the reduction in walking velocity and an increase in cognitive costs during dual-task walking. Rather than observing only neurocognitive scores as a single evaluation item for cognitive evaluation of retired athletes in relation to daily life, the application of the dual-task gait test may provide useful information.
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of white noise on dynamic balance in patients with stroke during walking. Method: Nineteen patients with chronic stroke (age: 61.2±9.8 years, height: 164.4±7.4 cm, weight: 61.1±9.4 kg, paretic side (R/L): 11/8, duration: 11.6±4.9 years) were included as study participants. Auditory stimulus used white noise, and all participants listened for 40 minutes mixing six types of natural sounds with random sounds. The dynamic balancing ability was evaluated while all participants walked before and after listening to white noise. The variables were the center of pressure (CoP), the center of mass (CoM), CoP-CoM inclined angle. Results: There is a significant increase in the antero-posterior (A-P) CoP range, A-P inclination angle, and gait speed on the paretic and non-paretic sides following white noise intervention (p<.05). Conclusion: Our findings confirmed the positive effect of using white noise as auditory stimulus through a more objective and quantitative assessment using CoP-CoM inclination angle as an evaluation indicator for assessing dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. The A-P and M-L inclination angle can be employed as a useful indicator for evaluating other exercise programs and intervention methods for functional enhancement of patients with chronic stroke in terms of their effects on dynamic balance and effectiveness.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of postural sway on the kinematic variables of the putter head during golf putting and to provide information to the importance of postural sway control in the putting stroke for novice golfers. Method: The center of pressure (CoP) and Kinematics variables of the putter head were calculated during 2 m flat golf putting using 8 motion capture cameras (250 Hz) and 2 force plate (1,000 Hz). SPSS 24.0 was used to perform Pearson's correlation coefficient and simple regression analysis, and the statistically significance level was set to .05. Results: As a result of analyzing the correlation between CoP variables and the putter head rotation angle, the CoP moving length, CoP moving range (ML direction), and CoP moving velocity (ML direction) showed a positive correlation with the putter head rotation angle (yaw axis) and were statistically significant. Conclusion: Therefore, In order to perform the accurate putting stroke maintaining the ball's directionality, it is determined that it is important to control posture sway in the ML directions by minimizing the movement and velocity of the CoP.
The purpose of this study was defined efficient throw motion pattern to obtain the quantitative data and to achieve successful bowling through kinetic - kinematic variables on the throw motion. Subject of group composed of three groups : Higher bowlers who are two representative bowlers with 200 average points and one pro-bowler. Middle bowlers who are three common persons with 170 average points. Lower bowler who are three common persons with 150 average points. Motion analysis on throw motion in three groups respectively has been made through three-dimension cinematography using DLT method. Two high-speed video camera at operating 180 frame per secondary. One-way ANOVA has been used to define variable relations. Analyzed result and conclusion are the following : The displacement of back of the hand must have wider difference of each right-left displacement to increase the spin of the ball. In high bowlers group, difference between the front-rear position of back of the hand in case of success and that in case of failure in follow throw is 0.17m. That is to say, momentum in case of success come to increase greatly, compared with that in case of failure. To increase the spin of the ball, the potential difference should be narrower in follow through. In case of the high bowlers, the velocity of the front-rear direction of the back of the hand has been the fastest both in release and follow through, compared with those in other groups, which has contributed to increasing the spin force of the ball. The orders in the resultant velocity of the back of the hand has shown the this : the finger tip→the back of the hand→wrist. These orders made the proximal segment support the distal segment. The distal segment has provided the condition to accelerate the velocity. In case of failure, the suddenly increased velocity has caused the failure in the follow through. Acutely flexing the angle of the back of the hand has contributed to lifting to increase the spin of the ball.
I. S. HWANG, S. C. LEE, J. LIM. Countermovement of the Segments During the Tae-kwon-do Roundhouse Kicking. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 139-152, 2004. Two subjects, an expert and a novice, were carefully selected based upon their foot speed. Three dimensional videography was used in the assessment of roundhouse kicking of the Tae-kwon-Do. The local reference frames were imbedded at the trunk, pelvis, thigh and shank. Anatomical angular displacement at the joints were measured by projecting the upper segment's local axes to the lower segment's local reference planes. The local axes again projected to the global reference frames and absolved each segment's movement. The peaks of the anatomical angular displacement curve assessed as the countermovements and the angular movements of the segments in the global space absolved in light of the occurrence of the countermovements. The expert showed larger and more countermovements than the novice at the all segments. The countermovement occured more clearly at the trunk than the hip and knee joint and during the preparative movement phase. These countermovements occurrence were due to either by turning upper or lower segments and controlled by the turning direction and sequence of the two nearby segments. It was revealed that the countermovements of the trunk during the preparative movement phase was the important factor of the power kicking.
S. H. PARK, J. T. KIM. Comparision and analysis about gait parameters based on personality types through MBTI Test. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 37-47, 2004. This study was designed to understand gait pattern on the MBTJ personality types by analyzing and figuring out specific charges, which includes analyzing gait parameter which was shown in walking movement. The personality types was measured by the standard MBTI(Myers- Briggs Type Indicator) test and gait analysis make used of GAITRite program. The objects of research were convenience sampled student of M College. Temporal and spatial parameters were calculated based on the MBTI personality types test using measured data, 68 items and SPSS pc/program was conducted to find out specific changes and obtainted the results as follows. There was not found significant in rate of swing phase and stance phase, step length, stride length, base of support, toe in/out between Extraversion group and Introversion group. But Extraversion group was significantly higher than Introversion group in velocity and cadence(p<.05). Sensing group was significantly more than iNtuiton group in cadence. There was not found significant in all parameter between Thinking group and Feeling group, Judging group and Perceiving group.