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      • KCI등재

        Morphological, ecological and biological variations in the mustard aphid, Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from different host plants

        B.K. Agarwala,Kalpana Das,Parichita Raychoudhury 한국응용곤충학회 2009 Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology Vol.12 No.3

        Genetic and morphological differentiation of insect populations in relation to the use of different host plants is an important phenomenon that leads to ecological specialization. In this study, we describe variations in morphology, and in ecological and biological parameters of Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Kaltenbach) clones associated with three host species of Cruciferae, Brassica juncea (L.) var. rai sarson Czern and Cross (brown mustard), Brassica campestris L. var. sarson Prain (yellow mustard), and Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern (wild herb). This study was aimed at obtaining evidence regarding phenotypic differentiation induced by, or associated with, the use of distinct host species. Ten morphological characters, 4 growth parameters and 8 biological functions were investigated in wingless aphids collected from plants of the three host species. Aphids from B. campestris and B. juncea clones were bigger in size, heavier in weight and showed higher growth rates and fecundity than the clones from R. indica. Between the two crop plants, clones from B. juncea showed significantly higher growth rates than the clones from B. campestris. Transfer of L. pseudobrassicae populations from B. campestris to B. juncea and R. indica and vice versa resulted in poor performance. Results indicate that the average phenotype of L. pseudobrassicae individuals inhabiting different host plant species differs as a consequence of the contrasting feeding environments the host species provide. Genetic and morphological differentiation of insect populations in relation to the use of different host plants is an important phenomenon that leads to ecological specialization. In this study, we describe variations in morphology, and in ecological and biological parameters of Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Kaltenbach) clones associated with three host species of Cruciferae, Brassica juncea (L.) var. rai sarson Czern and Cross (brown mustard), Brassica campestris L. var. sarson Prain (yellow mustard), and Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern (wild herb). This study was aimed at obtaining evidence regarding phenotypic differentiation induced by, or associated with, the use of distinct host species. Ten morphological characters, 4 growth parameters and 8 biological functions were investigated in wingless aphids collected from plants of the three host species. Aphids from B. campestris and B. juncea clones were bigger in size, heavier in weight and showed higher growth rates and fecundity than the clones from R. indica. Between the two crop plants, clones from B. juncea showed significantly higher growth rates than the clones from B. campestris. Transfer of L. pseudobrassicae populations from B. campestris to B. juncea and R. indica and vice versa resulted in poor performance. Results indicate that the average phenotype of L. pseudobrassicae individuals inhabiting different host plant species differs as a consequence of the contrasting feeding environments the host species provide.

      • KCI등재후보

        Nd - Fe - B계 소결자석의 자기적특성 향상 연구

        김윤배(Yoon B. Kim),정우상(W.S. Jung),정원용(W.Y. Jeung) 한국자기학회 2002 韓國磁氣學會誌 Vol.12 No.2

        Nd-Fe-B계 소결자석의 특성을 향상시키기 위해서는 Nd-Fe-B계 합금의 조성 및 제조공정을 조절하여 자성분말의 입도 및 입도분포, 강자성상인 Nd₂Fe₁₄B상의 분율, 자성분말의 배향도, 산소 함량, grain size 등과 같은 factor들을 최적화 하여야 한다. 본 연구에서는 실험실 규모로 Nd-Fe-B계 합금 조성 및 공정 조절을 통하여 Nd-Fe-B계 소결자석을 제조하는 연구를 수행하였으며, 분쇄매체, 분쇄시간 및 ball size에 따른 Nd-Fe-B계 소결자석의 자기적특성을 분석하여 최적의 분쇄조건을 조사하였다. 또한 분쇄공정 중 FeGa합금을 첨가하여 잔류자속밀도의 감소없이 Nd-Fe-B계 소결자석의 보자력을 향상시킬 수 있었다. 이와 같은 분쇄 조건의 연구, FeGa 합금에 의한 보자력 향상, 건식분쇄 방법 및 powder blending 공정을 적용하여 잔류자속밀도(Br) : 14.4 kG, 보자력(iHc) : 9.4 kOe, 최대자기에너지적((BH)max.) : 47 MGOe의 자기적 특성을 갖는 Nd-Fe-B계 소결자석을 제조하였다. In order to increase the magnetic properties of a Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet, the general factors including particle size and its distribution, volume fraction of Nd₂Fe₁₄B phase, degree of alignment of Nd₂Fe₁₄B grain, oxygen content and grain size etc. should be optimized by controlling the composition of Nd-Fe-B alloy as well as the manufacturing process. In this study, fabrication of the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet was carried out in a laboratory scale by controlling the composition of Nd-Fe-B alloy and the manufacturing process. The optimum milling condition was found by investigating the milling media, milling time and ball size. The addition of FeGa was effective to increase the coercivity of the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet. A remanence of 14.4 kG, a coercivity of 9.4 kOe and a maximum energy product of 47 MGOe were obtained from the sintered magnet.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay-guided chemotherapy in unresectable colorectal liver metastasis

        Hur, H,Kim, N K,Kim, H G,Min, B S,Lee, K Y,Shin, S J,Cheon, J H,Choi, S H Nature Publishing Group 2012 The British journal of cancer Vol.106 No.1

        <P><B>Background:</B></P><P>This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA)-guided neoadjuvant chemotherapy for increasing resectability in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastasis.</P><P><B>Patients and methods:</B></P><P>Patients were randomised into two groups: Group A was treated by conventional chemotherapy regimen and Group B was treated by chemotherapy regimen according to the ATP-CRA. Three chemotherapeutic agents (5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and irinotecan) were tested by ATP-CRA and more sensitive agents were selected. Either FOLFOX or FOLFIRI was administered. Between Group A and B, treatment response and resectability were compared.</P><P><B>Results:</B></P><P>Between November 2008 and October 2010, a total 63 patients were randomised to Group A (<I>N</I>=32) or Group B (<I>N</I>=31). FOLFOX was more preferred in Group A than in Group B (26 out of 32 (81.3%) <I>vs</I> 20 out of 31 (64.5%)). Group B showed better treatment response than Group A (48.4% <I>vs</I> 21.9%, <I>P</I>=0.027). The resectability of hepatic lesion was higher in Group B (35.5% <I>vs</I> 12.5%, <I>P</I>=0.032). Mean duration from chemotherapy onset to the time of liver resection was 11 cycles (range 4–12) in Group A and 8 cycles (range 8–16) in Group B.</P><P><B>Conclusion:</B></P><P>This study showed that tailored-chemotherapy based on ATP-CRA could improve the treatment response and resectability in initially unresectable colorectal liver metastasis.</P>

      • 反芻胃 Celluloytic Bacteria에 의한 섬유소 분해 및 비구조 탄수화물의 이용성에 관한 硏究

        민병렬,김범석,맹원재 건국대학교 동물자원연구센터 1991 動物資源硏究誌 Vol.16 No.-

        본 실험은 반추위내에 존재하는 주요한 cellulolytic bacteria를 選擇 및 非選擇培地를 사용하여 면양의 rumen내에 존재하는 celluloytic bacteria를 사용하여 纖維素 分解菌 각각의 纖維素源의 分解度, 비구조 탄수화물의 이용성 및 휘발성 지방산의 생성량을 측정하였다. 본 실험결과를 요약해 보면 다음과 같다. 1) In vitro상에서 Corn stover, alfalfa, rice straw 및 filterpaper No.1등의 섬유소원에 대한 R.flavefaciens의 평균 DM 소화율은 10.75%로 가장 높은 소화율을 나타내었으며, B.succinogenes, Buty. fibrisolvens 및 B. ruminicola subsp. 등은 각각 8.20%, 5.66% 및 2.5%의 DM소화율을 나타내었다.(p<0.05). 2) 섬유소원에서의 평균 microbial dry cell生成量은 R.flavefaciens. B.succinogenes, Buty.fibrisolvens 및 B.rumminicola subsp. 등이 각각 11.4, 4.47, 6.38 및 1.13mg/100ml를 가장 높은 미생물 cell의 생성량을 나타내었다. 3) ADF 및 NDF 평균 소화율은 R.flavefaciens가 가장 높았으며(23.61% 및 39.87%), B.succinogenses는 각각 11.16% 및 35.91%의 분해도를 나타내었다. Buty. fibrisolvens는 16.82% 및 24.34%로서 가장 낮은 분해도를 나타내었다. CEllulose消化率은 B.succinogenes가 14.43%로 R.flavefaciens(11.11%)보다 높은 분해율을 나타내었다. 4) 비구조 炭水化物 利用率은 (OD=670nm)R.flavefaciens가 mannose, arabinose 및 xylose 등을 가장 잘 이용하며, B. ruminicola subsp.은 galactose, mannose, arabinose 및 xylose등을 가장 잘 이용하는 것으로 나타났다. B.succinogenes는 glucose 및 rffainose를 가장 잘 이용하며, B.fibrisolvens는 glucose, galactose, arabinose, xylose 및 maltose등을 가장 잘 이용하는 것으로 나타났다. (P<0.05). 5) PYG basal medium에 炭水化物源을 각각 1g씩 첨가한 培養區에서 VFA 생성량은 R.flavefaciens는 주로 acetate, propionate, n-butyrate 및 succinate를 생산하는 것으로 나타났으며, 이것들의 생산량은 각각 81.65, 26.36, 20.16 및 108.91mM/100ml를 생산하여 succinate를 가장 많이 생산하는 것으로 나타났다. B.ruminicola subsp은 주로 acetate, propionate 및 n-butyrate를 생산하는 것으로 나타났으며, 이 균의 생산량은 각각 104.72, 31.32 및 26.12mM/100ml를 생산하였으며, B. succinogenes는 주로 acetate, propionate, n-butyrate 및 succinate를 생산하며, 이 균들의 생산량은 각각 87.66, 27.70 및 56.07mM/100ml 생산하였다. Buty.fibrisolvens는 주로 acetate, propionate 및 n-butyrate를 생산하는 것으로 나타났다. Fiber degradation of corn stover, rice straw, alfalfa or filter paper No.1 was evaluated using microscopy and in vitro analyses after incubation with pure culture of cellulolytic ruminal bacteria. 1) Analyses of the initial substrate and the recovered residue after 24h of static incubation showed that R.flavefaciens degraded a mean dry matter(10.75% versus 5.66%) more effectively than B. succinogenes. However, B, succinogenes demonstrated a qualitative advantage in degrading cellulose of particular substrates. DM digestibilities for alfalfa and rice straw. Treatment for 24h were 13.96% and 9.46% for R.lflavefaciens, 10.27% and 4.32% for B.succinogenes, and 7.74% and 2.31% for Buty. fibrisolvens(p<0.05). Bacteriodes ruminitola subsp. was unable to degrade plant cell wall components, while it degraded non-structural carbohydrates more actively than any other bacteria. Microbial cell DM yield(avg, 11.44mg/dl) was the highest for R. flavefaciens cultured with alfalfa substrate(p<0.05). 2) Ruminococcu flavefaciens degraded a mean 23.61% of the ADF and 39.87% of the NDF in the various substrates. whereas, B. succinogenes degraded a mean 11.6% and 35.91% of these fractions, respectively. 3) The utilization of carbodydrates was the highest for R.flavefaciens cultured with mannose and xylcse substrate, and for B. ruminicola subsp. with arabinose, xylose, raffinose and galactose respectively. B. succinogenes utilized glucose and raffinose, as major substrates fermentd(p<0.05) and Buty. fibrisolvens utilized glucose, galactose, arabinose, xylose and maltose. 4) Ruminococcus flavefaciens produced acetate, succinate and propionate, and B.ruminicola subsp. produced acetate, propionate and n-butyrate as major VFA. B.succinogenes produced acetate, propionate, n-butyrate and succinate, and Buty.fibrisolvens produced n-butyrate and acetate as major VFA.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        EFFECTS OF DIETARY VITAMIN B<sub>6</sub> LEVELS ON LIPID CONCENTRATION AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN GROWING CHICKS

        An, B.K.,Tanaka, K.,Ohtani, S. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 1995 Animal Bioscience Vol.8 No.6

        This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of various dietary vitamin $B_6$ levels on conversion from linoleic acid to arachidonic acid in various tissues in growing chicks. Growing chicks were fed the purified diet containing 7% safflower oil with different levels of vitamin $B_6$ (0, 4, 8, 40, 80 mg per kg diet) for 14 days. Feed intake and weight gain in chicks fed the vitamin $B_6$-free diet were markedly depressed. Esterified and free cholesterol concentrations in serum were significantly higher, while the serum triglyceride concentration was significantly lover in chicks fed the vitamin $B_6$-free diet compared to that fed diets with vitamin $B_6$. The liver triglyceride content was also lower in chicks fed the vitamin $B_6$-free diet. The liver and serum cholesterol ester fractions in chicks fed the vitamin $B_6$-free diet showed higher rate of $C_{18:2n6}$ and lower rates of $C_{18:3n6}$, $C_{20:3n6}$ and $C_{20:4n6}$ as compared with vitamin $B_6$ fed groups. In serum phospholipid fraction of chicks fed the vitamin $B_6$-free diet, rates of $C_{20:3n6}$ and $C_{20:4n6}$ were markedly lower. As dietary vitamin $B_6$ level was increased, the rate of $C_{20:4n6}$ was slightly increased, although it was statistically not significant. The fatty acid compositions of adipose tissue showed almost the same pattern as those in liver and serum. This result suggests that the desaturation of $C_{18:2n6}$ to $C_{18:3n6}$, elongation to $C_{20:3n6}$ or both steps might be impaired by vitamin $B_6$ deficiency in growing chicks.

      • KCI등재후보

        MRO 시장에서의 공급자의 전용마켓 참여에 관한 연구

        임성배,홍순구,김성관,Robert B. Mitchell 한국전자거래학회 2004 한국전자거래학회지 Vol.9 No.4

        Many B2B electronic markets (EMs) are struggling to survive because they failed to attract enough participants. Thus reaching critical mass of participants is one of the key success factors for various types of EMs. The main purpose of this study is to investigate factors that lead MRO (maintenance, repair, and operating) suppliers to participate in private exchanges (PE), the buy-side EM. This paper introduces the characteristics of the PE according to the classification schemes introduced in previous studies about EM types. Literature is reviewed on suppliers adoption of inter-organizational information systems focusing on EDI adoptions issues. Data analysis based on incomplete contract theory and the social exchange theory is then presented. The results of this study show that the number of suppliers and subsidy are factors that influence suppliers participation in PEs. Nonsignificant results relating to trust imply that suppliers who are invited to participate in a PE do not expect their off-line relationships with the buyer to be transferred to the PE. 성장 잠재력에도 불구하고 많은 B2B 시장은 참여업체 수의 부족으로 운영의 어려움을 겪고 있다. 따라서 어떠한 방법을 통해 충분한 숫자의 기업들을 시장에 참여하도록 유도할 것인가가 B2B 시장의 성공을 위한 주요 요인 중의 하나로 인식되고 있다. 본 논문은 MRO 시장을 대상으로 공급업체들을 구매자 중심의 전용시장 (Private Exchanges) 에 참여하게 만드는 요인들이 어떤 것인지를 규명해 보는 것을 주요 목적으로 하고 있다. 이를 위해 EDI 채택에 관한 선행연구와 실무자들과의 면접에 기초하여 실험대상 요인들을 추출하였다. 불완전한 계약 이론(Incomplete contract theory)에 기초하여 가설의 설정과 검증을 하였으며, 분석 결과 시장에 참여할 것으로 기대되는 공급업자들의 수와 시장 참여의 대가로 주어질 보상의 유무가 B2B시장의 참여에 긍정적인 영향을 주는 요인으로 나타났다. 한편 구매업자에 대한 신뢰는 유의한 요인으로 드러나지 않아 공급업자들은 기존의 구매업자와의 신뢰관계가 B2B 시장에서는 중요하지 않는 것으로 조사되었다.

      • On the range kernel orthogonality of derivations

        Duggal, B.P. TOPOLOGY AND GEOMETRY RESEARCH CENTER 1998 Proceedings of the Topology and Geometry Research Vol.9 No.-

        Let H be a separable infinite dimensional complex Hilbert space, and let B(H) denote the algebra of operators on H into itself. The generalized derivation δA,B : B(H) → B(H) is defined by δA,B (X) = AX - XB; let △A,B : B(H) → B(H) be defined by △A,B (X) = AXB - X, and let d A,B denote δA,B or △A,B . Given that S ∈ Cp (the Schatten p-class, 1 < p < ∞) and that the pair of operators A and B* satisfies a Putnam-Fuglede commutativity theorem type property, we consider here a necessary and sufficient condition for ∥dA,B (X) + S∥p ≥ ∥S∥ p to hold for all X ∈ C p.

      • KCI등재

        고잔류자화 α-Fe기 Nd-Fe-B 초미세결정립 합금의 자기특성

        조용수(Y. S. Cho),김윤배(Y. B. Kim),박우식(W. S. Park),김창석(C. S. Kim),김택기(T. K. Kim) 한국자기학회 1995 韓國磁氣學會誌 Vol.5 No.1

        α-Fe를 주상으로 하는 새로운 Nd-Fe-B계 합금을 개발하기 위하여 Nd 함유량을 4at.%로 고정시킨 Nd-Fe-B 초미세결정립합금의 제조 및 자기특성이 조사되었다. 급속응고법으로 제조된 Nd₄Fe_(85.5)B_(10.5) 비정질합금은 결정화하여 α-Fe 기지상에 Nd₂Fe₁₄B이 형성되나 자기특성{iHc=95.5㎄/m(1.2kOe), Br=1.2T}은 열화된다. Nb 및 Cu를 첨가한 Nd₄Fe_(82)B_(10)Nd₃Cu₁ 합금은 α-Fe 결정립미세화(<30㎚)로 보자력이 207㎄/m(2.6kOe)로 증가하나 잔류자화는 개선되지 않았다. 이 합금조성에 8at.%Co 첨가는 결정립을 더욱 미세화시키며 자기특성을 개선시킨다. 최적열처리조건에서 Nd₄Fe_(74)Co_8B_(10)Nb₃Cu₁ 합금의 잔류자화, 보자력 및 최대에너지적이 각각 1.34T, 219㎄/m(2.75kOe) 및 95.5kJ/㎥(12MGOe)이다. The effects of Nb and Cu additives as will as substitutional Co into Nd₄Fe_(85.5)B_(10.5) melt-spun alloy were studied aiming for finding a α-Fe based Nd-Fe-B composite alloys with high energy product. The addition of Nb and Cu to Nd₄Fe_(85.5)B_(10.5) decreased the average grain size and increased the coercivity up to 207㎄/m(2.6kOe). Furthermore, the substitution of Co for Fe in Nd₄Fe_(82)B_(10)Nd₃Cu₁ alloy resulted in the decrease of the average grain size (< 2O㎚) and improved the hard magnetic properties. The remanence, coercivity and energy product of optimally annealed Nd₄Fe_(74)Co_8B_(10)Nb₃Cu₁ alloy were 1.345, 219㎄/m(2.75kOe) and 95.5kJ/㎥ (12MGOe), respectively.

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