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          Growth and Development of the Academic Societies and Animal Production in Korea, China and Asia over the Last 50 Years

          Han, In K.,Ha, Jong K.,Lee, J.H. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2009 Animal Bioscience Vol.22 No.6

          The Korean Society of Animal Science (KSAS) was officially born on October 8, 1956 under the leadership of Professor Sang W. Yun of Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea a few years after the end of the Korean War. At that time, there were 0.9 million Korean native cattle, 1.3 million pigs and 8.9 million chickens in Korea. Per capita income for Korea (US$ 66) or China (US$ 59) was about 10% of Asian's average income (US$ 513) in 1956. Korea produced less than 0.2 million M/T of formula feed and consumed 6.1 kg/person/year of animal products. One could say that Korea was an example of an under-developed country in the world. Although the first issue of the Proceedings of the KSAS was published on October 28, 1958, regular quarterly journals of the KSAS were not published until March 1, 1969. Major activities other than publishing its journal were: holding an annual meeting and/or scientific forum at national or international level. The Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) was founded on September 1, 1980 at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia with founding members from Australia, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, NZ, Philippines and Thailand. Thirteen AAAP Animal Science Congresses have been held in its 28 year history. Hosting countries were Malaysia (1980), Philippines (1982), Korea (1985), NZ (1987), Taiwan (1990), Thailand (1992), Indonesia (1994), Japan (1996), Australia (2000), India (2002), Malaysia (2004), Korea (2006) and Vietnam(2008). In 1988, significant progress of the AAAP was made by creating an official English journal of the AAAP entitled "Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences (AJAS)" under the initiative of the KSAS. This journal is now published monthly and distributed to more than 50 countries in the AAAP region and the world. It should be mentioned that the KSAS was able to successfully host the $3^{rd}$ AAAP Animal Science Congress in 1985 and the 12th in 2006, as well as the $8^{th}$ WCAP in 1998. During the last 50 years of KSAS history, per capita income of Korea increased to US$ 17,690 (268 fold), formula feed production increased to 15 million M/T (97 fold) and consumption of animal products increased to 105 kg/person/year (17 fold). Cattle, pig and chicken numbers also increased to 2.5 million (2.8 fold), 9 million (7.4 fold) and 119 million (13 fold). This trend was also found for China and Asia, even if the rate of growth was slightly lower than that of Korea. It is expected that a similar rate of growth in economics, animal numbers, formula feed production and animal protein intake will likely be achieved by other Asian countries in the $21^{st}$ century with somewhat lower rate of development than that of Korea.


          Guidelines for experimental design and statistical analyses in animal studies submitted for publication in the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences

          Seo, Seongwon,Jeon, Seoyoung,Ha, Jong K. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2018 Animal Bioscience Vol.31 No.9

          Animal experiments are essential to the study of animal nutrition. Because of the large variations among individual animals and ethical and economic constraints, experimental designs and statistical analyses are particularly important in animal experiments. To increase the scientific validity of the results and maximize the knowledge gained from animal experiments, each experiment should be appropriately designed, and the observations need to be correctly analyzed and transparently reported. There are many experimental designs and statistical methods. This editorial does not aim to review and present particular experimental designs and statistical methods. Instead, we discuss some essential elements when designing an animal experiment and conducting statistical analyses in animal nutritional studies and provide guidelines for submitting a manuscript to the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences for consideration for publication.


          Publication Report of the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences over its History of 15 Years - A Review

          Han, In K. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2002 Animal Bioscience Vol.15 No.1

          As an official journal of the Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP), the Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences (AJAS) was born in February 1987 and the first issue (Volume 1, Number 1) was published in March 1988 under the Editorship of Professor In K. Han (Korea). By the end of 2001, a total of 84 issues in 14 volumes and 1,761 papers in 11,462 pages had been published. In addition to these 14 volumes, a special issue entitled "Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition" (April, 2000) and 3 supplements entitled "Proceedings of the 9th AAAP Animal Science Congress" (July, 2000) were also published. Publication frequency has steadily increased from 4 issues in 1988, to 6 issues in 1997 and to 12 issues in 2000. The total number of pages per volume and the number of original or review papers published also increased. Some significant milestones in the history of the AJAS include that (1) it became a Science Citation Index (SCI) journal in 1997, (2) the impact factor of the journal improved from 0.257 in 1999 to 0.446 in 2000, (3) it became a monthly journal (12 issues per volume) in 2000, (4) it adopted an English editing system in 1999, and (5) it has been covered in "Current Contents/Agriculture, Biology and Environmental Science since 2000. The AJAS is subscribed by 842 individuals or institutions. Annual subscription fees of US$ 50 (Category B) or US$ 70 (Category A) for individuals and US$ 70 (Category B) or US$ 120 (Category A) for institutions are much less than the actual production costs of US$ 130. A list of the 1,761 papers published in AJAS, listed according to subject area, may be found in the AJAS homepage (http://www.ajas.snu.ac.kr) and a very well prepared "Editorial Policy with Guide for Authors" is available in the Appendix of this paper. With regard to the submission status of manuscripts from AAAP member countries, India (235), Korea (235) and Japan (198) have submitted the most manuscripts. On the other hand, Mongolia, Nepal, and Papua New Guinea have never submitted any articles. The average time required from submission of a manuscript to printing in the AJAS has been reduced from 11 months in 1997-2000 to 7.8 months in 2001. The average rejection rate of manuscripts was 35.3%, a percentage slightly higher than most leading animal science journals. The total number of scientific papers published in the AJAS by AAAP member countries during a 14-year period (1988-2001) was 1,333 papers (75.7%) and that by non- AAAP member countries was 428 papers (24.3%). Japanese animal scientists have published the largest number of papers (397), followed by Korea (275), India (160), Bangladesh (111), Pakistan (85), Australia (71), Malaysia (59), China (53), Thailand (53), and Indonesia (34). It is regrettable that the Philippines (15), Vietnam (10), New Zealand (8), Nepal (2), Mongolia (0) and Papua New Guinea (0) have not actively participated in publishing papers in the AJAS. It is also interesting to note that the top 5 countries (Bangladesh, India, Japan, Korea and Pakistan) have published 1,028 papers in total indicating 77% of the total papers being published by AAAP animal scientists from Vol. 1 to 14 of the AJAS. The largest number of papers were published in the ruminant nutrition section (591 papers-44.3%), followed by the non-ruminant nutrition section (251 papers-18.8%), the animal reproduction section (153 papers-11.5%) and the animal breeding section (115 papers-8.6%). The largest portion of AJAS manuscripts was reviewed by Korean editors (44.3%), followed by Japanese editors (18.1%), Australian editors (6.0%) and Chinese editors (5.6%). Editors from the rest of the AAAP member countries have reviewed slightly less than 5% of the total AJAS manuscripts. It was regrettably noticed that editorial members representing Nepal (66.7%), Mongolia (50.0%), India (35.7%), Pakistan (25.0%), Papua New Guinea (25.0%), Malaysia (22.8%) and New Zealand (21.5%) have failed to return many of t


          Studies on the Mode of Uptake of Plasma Glucose, Acetate, β- hydroxybutyrate Triglyceride Fatty Acids and Glycerol by the Mammary Gland of Crossbred Holstein Cattle Feeding on Different Types of Roughage

          Chaiyabutr, N.,Thammacharoen, S.,Komolvanich, S.,Chanpongsang, S. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2002 Animal Bioscience Vol.15 No.10

          The present experiment was carried out to study the utilization of substrates in the mammary gland of crossbred Holstein Friesian during feeding on different types of roughage. Sixteen pregnant crossbred Holstein heifers consisted of two breed types of eight animals each; Holstein Friesian${\times}$Red Sindhi (50:50=50%HF) and Holstein Friesian${\times}$Red Sindhi (87.5:12.5=87.5%HF). Animals were divided into four groups of the same breed type in each group which were fed with either rice straw treated with 5% urea or pangola hay (Digitaria decumbens) as the source of roughage throughout the experiments. Four consecutive experimental periods were carried out in late pregnancy (20-23 days before parturition), early lactation (30 days postpartum), mid-lactation (120 days postpartum) and late lactation (210 days postpartum). Measurement of mammary blood flow in combining with measurement of AV difference was performed for the mammary uptake of substrates. In the period of lactation, udder blood flow was nearly three times higher than that of late pregnant period (p<0.05) in both 50%HF and 87.5%HF feeding on either hay or urea treated rice straw. During mid- and late lactation of both groups of 87.5%HF animals, mammary blood flow and milk yield showed decrease when compared to those during the early lactating period while the trends for persistency were apparent in both groups of 50%HF animals throughout experimental periods. The mean arterial plasma concentrations of glucose, acetate, $\beta$-hydroxybutyrate and free glycerol in each group remained constant throughout experimental periods. During late pregnancy in all groups, the AV difference and extraction ratio of glucose, $\beta$-hydroxybutyrate and triacylglycerol across the mammary gland markedly lowered (p<0.05), which coincided with a lower net uptake by the mammary gland in comparison to the early lactating period. The mean arterial plasma concentration, AV difference and extraction ratio for acetate showed no significant differences between late pregnancy and the early lactating period. The AV difference of free glycerol showed apparent release from mammary tissue during late pregnancy in all groups. In mid- and late lactation, the mammary uptake for glucose, acetate and $\beta$-hydroxybutyrate in both groups of 87.5%HF animals showed apparent decrease as compared to that in the early lactating period, whereas no appearances were observed in 50%HF animals feeding either hay or urea treated rice straw. The mean arterial plasma concentrations for free fatty acid (FFA) and triacylglycerol (C16 to C18) were higher in late pregnancy than in early lactation in both types of crossbred animals. The values of AV difference and the net uptake by the mammary gland for FFA were variable during late pregnancy and lactating periods in all groups. There were no significant differences for AV difference, extraction ratio and net uptake of triacylglycerol during lactation advance in both groups of 50%HF and 87.5%HF animals feeding either hay or urea treated rice straw. These results suggest that the adaptations to either hay or urea treated rice straw by the mammary gland of crossbred HF animals allow for an adequate nutrient supply during pregnancy and lactation. There is no difference in the mode of mammary uptake of substrates in the same crossbred animals in response to feeding hay or urea treated rice straw. The differences in utilizing nutrients by the mammary gland for milk production between 87.5%HF and 50%HF animals would be dependent on changes in both intra-mammary factors and extra-mammary factors.



          Abdullah, N.,Hanita, H.,Ho, Y.W.,Kudo, H.,Jalaludin, S.,Ivan, M. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 1995 Animal Bioscience Vol.8 No.3

          The effects of bentonite (B) on rumen protozoal population and rumen fluid characteristics of sheep fed palm kernel cake (PKC) were studied for a period of 21 days. Two groups, each comprising two sheep were fed either PKC or PKC + B ad libitum A third group was left at pasture. Rumen fluid was sampled through a rumen cannula three times daily from all animals. Palm kernel cake contained 16% crude protein, 1 % crude fat and high amounts of copper, zinc, iron and manganese. Protozoal population in the rumen fluid decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the onset of feeding PKC or PKC + B. However, sheep given bentonite supplementation at 2% of the dietary dry matter, maintained higher protozoal densities ($15{\times}10^4/ml$) when compared to animals fed only PKC ($8{\times}10^4/ml$). With both diets, the protozoa were mainly of the small entodinia species. Animals at pasture had higher protozoal population ($47{\times}10^4/ml$) with varying species of entodiniomorphids and holotrichs. Rumen fluid pH and ammonia concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in animals at pasture compared to animals fed PKC or PKC + B. Volatile fatty acid concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in animals fed PKC when compared to animals at pasture. There was a shift in fermentation pattern in animals fed PKC or PKC + B towards a lower acetate; and higher propionate, isovalerate and valerate. Studies in vitro also showed the positive effect of bentonite on protozoal numbers.


          Plasma Levels of Hormones and Metabolites as Affected by the Forages Type in Two Different Types of Crossbred Holstein Cattle

          Chaiyabutr, N.,Preuksagorn, S.,Komolvanich, S.,Chanpongsang, S. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2000 Animal Bioscience Vol.13 No.10

          An experiment was carried out to study plasma levels of hormones and metabolites of crossbred Holstein cattle during late pregnancy (28 days pre partum), early lactation (30 days post partum), mid-lactation (120 days post partum) and late lactation (210 days post partum). Two breed types of Holstein $Friesian{\times}Red$ Sindhi (50:50 = 50%HF) and Holstein $Friesian{\times}Red$ Sindhi (87.5:12.5 = 87.5%HF) were divided into four groups of four animals each. Two groups of each breed were fed with either rice straw treated with 5% urea or pangola hay (Digitaria decumbens) as the source of roughage throughout the experiments. There were a substantial increases in the mean levels of total triiodothyronine ($T_3$), insulin and glucagon at the onset of lactation, and maintained in a high levels during lactation advance for all groups of experiments. The mean levels of prolactin and thyroxine ($T_4$) were not significantly different among groups of animals, but the plasma cortisol concentration was slightly higher in both groups of 50%HF in comparison with those of 87.5%HF animals. The mean levels of plasma growth hormone (GH) of both groups of 87.5%HF animals feeding on either hay or urea treated rice straw markedly rose in the early period of lactation and markedly reduced in mid- and late lactation. These changes were accompanied with changes of milk yield. In contrast to 50%HF animals, plasma GH levels were considerably higher in the late pregnant period than in the early period of lactation and it remained constant as its value at the early lactation throughout the experimental period. The high levels of both plasma progesterone and estradiol concentration significantly declined after parturition and remained low through lactating period. The plasma glucose level in the 50%HF animals feeding on either hay or urea treated rice straw was higher than the 87.5%HF animals in all periods of experiments. Changes in plasma FFA levels of both types of crossbred animals were depended on the endocrine status during late pregnancy and lactation. The levels of plasma FFA of 50%HF animals were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of 87.5%HF animals during late pregnancy. Both plasma ${\beta}$-hydroxybutyrate and lactate concentrations were not affected by feeding on either hay or urea treated rice straw during late pregnancy and lactation. These data demonstrate that there were no differences in the physiological performances in the same crossbred animals fed either hay or urea treated rice straw. The 87.5%HF animal has the genetic potential for a high milk yield and homeorhetic adaptation for mammary function differed from 50%HF animals during periods of lactation. Altering lactation persistency in 87.5%HF is regulated mainly by chronically acting growth hormones through the period of lactation.


          Selenium in Food Chain and Animal Nutrition: Lessons from Nature -Review-

          Lyons, M.P.,Papazyan, T.T.,Surai, P.F. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2007 Animal Bioscience Vol.20 No.7

          Selenium is considered to be one of the most controversial trace elements. On the one hand, it is toxic at high doses and there is a great body of information related to environmental issues of Se contamination. On the other hand, Se deficiency is a global problem related to an increased susceptibility to various diseases of animals and humans and decreased productive and reproductive performance of farm animals. Optimisation of Se nutrition of poultry and farm animals will result in increased efficiency of egg, meat and milk production and even more important, will improve quality. From the data presented in the review it is clear that the main lesson which we have to learn from nature is how to use organic selenium in animal and human diets. Selenium-enriched yeast (Sel-Plex) is the result of such a lesson and it is just a matter of time before animal nutrition moves completely from using ineffective sodium selenite to organic selenium. Other lessons from nature will follow. Recent advances in genomics and proteomics, in association with descriptions of new selenoproteins, will be a driving force in reconsidering old approaches related to Se nutrition. Probably 90% of all Se research has been conducted with sodium selenite and we now understand that the natural form of selenium is different. The main advances in Se status assessment and Se requirements were established based on the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), an enzyme which for many years was considered to be the main selenoprotein. Recently it was discovered that it is only one of at least 25 various selenoproteins. Se research and practical applications are developing quickly and they are very exciting and promising.


          Studies on Milk Allantoin and Uric Acid in Relation to Feeding Regimens and Production Performance in Buffaloes

          Sikka, P.,Saxena, N.K.,Gupta, R.,Sethi, R.K.,Lall, D. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2001 Animal Bioscience Vol.14 No.11

          Allantoin and uric acid were estimated in milk to study the association between the levels of these purine derivatives and milk production per day under given feeding regimens. Keeping the stage of lactation, parity and initial milk yield in view thirty lactating buffaloes were randomly selected from early lactating group. All the animals were fed 30 kg green, 2 kg straw and 5 kg concentrate mixture on per animal/day basis at basal level up to 8 1 produce. 1 kg concentrate mixture, soaked cotton seed and boiled cotton seed was fed for every 2 I milk, respectively in Group I (control), Group II and Group III animals. Average milk Allantoin and Uric acid levels were $120{\pm}11.7g/ml$ and $4.03{\pm}0.63g/ml$, respectively in milk. Cotton seed feeding enhanced the milk production significantly (p<0.01) in comparison to concentrate mixture fed control group animals. A significant difference (p<0.01) in milk allantoin levels was found over the different feeding management at higher level of production group animals. Study also revealed a significant negative correlation between the milk allantoin and production per day r=-0.43 (p<0.05).


          Effects of Season, Housing and Physiological Stage on Drinking and Other Related Behavior of Dairy Cows (Bos taurus)

          Lainez, Marielena Moncada,Hsia, Liang Chou Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2004 Animal Bioscience Vol.17 No.10

          The objective of the paper was to study the drinking and other related behavior of dairy cows (Bos taurus). There were 142 Holstein dairy cows observed and compared in this study. The experiment was designed on the basis of two different housing systems (wet pad with forced ventilation cooling house and open house); two different seasons (winter and summer); four different stages (high milk yielding cows, low milk yielding cows, dry cows, and heifers); and grouping (home and visitor animals). All cows had free access to water. Dairy cows spent 13.8 min/day drinking in wet-pad house and 11.7 min/day in open house. owever, there was no significant difference in the duration of water drinking between these two housing systems (p>0.05). The water consumption was significantly higher in wet-pad housed animals (68 L/day) than open-housed animals (31.5 L/day) (p<0.05). A significant interaction between housing and grouping (p<0.05) was found. Home and visitor animals spent more time drinking in open house, wet-pad house, respectively. A highly significant interaction was found between housing and drinking time during the day (p<0.001). Animals in open house drank more during the morning (6:00 to 10:00 h), whereas wet-pad housed animals drank in the afternoon (14:00 to 15:00 h) and evening (18:00 to 20:00 h). The average time a cow spent in drinking in summer was not ignificantly different from that of drinking in winter. However, the water intake was significantly higher in summer (61.9 L/day) than in winter (38.6 L/day) (p<0.05). Drinking activity showed a highly significant interaction between season and physiological stage (p<0.01). High milk yield cows spent more time drinking in summer than in winter, whereas cows in all other stages followed the opposite drinking pattern. Grouping exchange did not influence the drinking behavior of dairy cows in either season (p>0.05); both home and visitor animals spent almost the same time in drinking water. A strong significant interaction between season and time during the day was found(p<0.01), suggesting that animal's high drinking frequency occurred during the daytime for both seasons, with a peak midday in winter and two peaks at 10:00 h in the morning and 19:00 h in summer. Thus, drinking behavior was associated with the cooler time of day in summer and with the warmer hours of day in winter. High and low milk yielding cows and heifers spent 15.3 min/day, 14.3 min/day, and 12.8 min/day, respectively, in water drinking activity, but there was no significant difference among them (p>0.05). There was, however, a significant difference in water drinking activity found in dry cows, which spent less time in drinking at 8.2 min/day (p<0.05).


          Food-Feed Systems in Asia - Review -

          Devendra, C.,Sevilla, C.,Pezo, D. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2001 Animal Bioscience Vol.14 No.5

          This review paper discusses the relevance and potential importance of food-feed systems in Asian agricultural systems, and in particular the role and contribution of legumes to these systems. A food-feed system is one that maintains, if not increases, the yield of food crops, sustains soil fertility, and provides dietary nutrients for animals. It involves a cropping pattern within which the feed crop has many beneficial effects without competing for land, soil nutrients and water with the food crops. The agricultural environment is described with reference to the priority agro-ecological zones and prevailing mixed farming systems in Asia. Within these systems, animal production is severely hampered by critical feed shortages which can however, be alleviated by the integration of suitable leguminous forages into the cropping systems. The review also focuses on the role and potential importance of leguminous forages in terms of biodiversity, their uses in farming systems, beneficial effects on animal performance, and draws attention to six case studies in different countries that clearly demonstrate many benefits of developing such food-feed systems. Considerable opportunities exist for widening the use of forage legumes in the development of systems with several complementary advantages (e.g. fenceline, cover crops, fodder banks, forage source and erosion control) to improve the development of sustainable crop-animal systems in Asia.

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