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          • 韓國産 미꾸리에 關한 育種·繁殖學的 硏究 : Ⅴ. Ultrastructures Changes of Pituitary Gland and Testes in Male Loach Ⅴ. 미꾸리 수컷의 腦下垂體와 精巢의 微細構造

            윤종만,노순창,김계웅,박홍양 건국대학교 동물자원연구센터 1993 動物資源硏究誌 Vol.18 No.-

            본 연구는 1992년 3월부터 5월까지 자연채광 상태의 건국대학교 양어실습장에서 사육중인 한국산 미꾸리 수컷(Misgurnus anguillicaudatus)의 뇌하수체와 정소의 조직형태학적 변화를 이해하기 위해서 실시되었다. 미성숙 시기인 3월의 뇌하수체와 정소의 미세구조와 5월경의 성숙단계인 각 조직간의 발달상황을 비교 분석하기 위해서 광학 및 투과형 전자현미경을 이용하였다. 뇌하수체의 성선자극 호르몬이 분비되는 부위(GTH)의 발달은 정소의 주기적인 발달단계와 대체로 일치한다. 성성숙 지수(GSI)는 4월부터 5월에 이르는 시기에 증가하다가 정자세포와 정자의 수가 증가되는 5월에 가장 높게 나타났다. 하나의 小葉 속에 발달단계가 다른 nest가 들어있더라도 같은 정자형성 단계에 속한다. 미성숙 단계에서는 이형염색질이 분산되어 있다가 성숙 단계에서는 핵이 진하고 균질한 상태로서 존재한다. 핵막은 분화초기에 나타난다. 제1차 정모세포에는 15개 이상의 작은 미토콘드리아가 두부의 세포질 주변에 있다가 발달함에 따라 2개의 커다란 미토콘드리아로 변화되면서 한쪽으로 튀어나온 부위 주변에 위치하게 된다. 정자 중편부의 주위에는 미토콘드리아초와 외측 섬유소로 둘러싸여져 있다. This study was undertaken to understand the histomorphological changes of pituitary gland and testis of Korea loach(Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) under natural circumstances from March to May 1992. Sexual maturation was studied on 50 males Korean loach(Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). The results obtained in this study were as follows: The ultrastructures of the gonadotrophs largely parallel the cyclical changes in the testes. Gonadosomatic indices(GSI) increased from April to May, and showed the peak in May, coinciding with the increase of spermatids and spermatozoa in male. Each nest of cells belongs to one spermatogenetic stage, although nests at different stages can be found within the one lobule. At first heterochromatin is dispersed and then is condensed. In mature gamete, the nucleus is dense and homogeneous. The nuclear membrane appeared at the beginning of differentiation. In the primary spermatocytes, the small mitochondria are abundant over the outer cytoplasm. In the latter, the two large mitochondria are located over the cytoplasm. During cell differentiation, the cytoplasm decrease and the nucleus increases. Sperm mitochondria are assembled into an organized sheath surrounding the outer dense fibres and axoneme of the flagellar midpiece.

          • Laboratory Animal Industry in Japan

            Tsuyoshi,FURUYA 건국대학교 동물자원연구센터 1993 국제 심포지움 Vol.- No.4

            일본에서는 실험동물의 근대화가 1950년대 초에 시작되어 1980년대에는 미생물학 및 유전학적으로 콘트롤된 동물을 사육회사로부터 쉽게 구입할 수 있게 되었다. 동물실험에 있어서 실험동물의 콘트롤로 인해 정확하고 再現性있는 데이터를 구할 수 있고 미생물학적 콘트롤로써 감염에 의한 방해를 받지 않고 실험을 계속할 수 있다. 동시에 동물데이터에 영향을 미치는 사육 및 동물관리를 위한 설비, 시설건물, 기술 등이 개선되었고 마우스와 랫트에 대한 연구자들의 요구를 충족시킬 조직이 이 30년동안에 구성되었다. 일본에서 쓰이는 동물의 수를 보면, 최대치가 1970년도 1,150만 마리의 마우스가 사용되었으나 1986년 이후 500만 마리로 감소하였다. 한편, 랫트는 1970년 이후 점차 증가하여 1986년에는 250만 마리에 이르렀다. 이러한 랫트사용의 점차적인 증가의 주요인은 일본의 독성시험지침에 암수 양쪽에서의 약리검사와 독성시험이 요구되어 사용기회가 증가한 때문이다. 안전성시험을 요구하는 새로운 화학물질이 증가는 했지만 시험에 사용된 동물의 수는 1990년에는 감소하였다. 그 원인으로서는 동물권리주의자들의 운동과 치밀히 심의된 실험계획의 준비 및 동물품질의 개선을 들 수 있다. 1992년도에 사육회사가 판매한 실험동물의 조사에서 사람에 유사한 질환을 나타내는 변이계 마우스와 랫트의 수가 급격히 증가한 것을 알 수 있었다. 토끼의 수는 감소한 반면 개, 고양이 및 돼지는 증가하였는데, 이는 시험에 여러 품종을 사용하는 경향이 있음을 나타내는 것이다. 사육회사외에도 큐슈대학의대와 같은 몇몇 대학의 동물시설에서 마우스와 랫트의 근교계, 변이계 및 교잡군이 생산되어 연구자들에게 제공되었다. 일본에는 실험동물과 관련된 시설이 2,500에서 3,000개소가 존재한다. 그 중에는 의학과 약학 및 치학과 관련된 공공시설이 208개소, 제약회사의 GLP시설이 75개소, 안전성시험 수탁연구소가 35개소, 그리고 수의과대학 및 축산대학의 부속연구시설이 80개소로 구성되어 있다. 동물실험은 또한 지방연구소와 민간시설(식품, 철강, 건축)에서도 실시하고 있다. 이러한 환경속에서 「동물의 保護 및 管理에 관한 법률(法律 제105호, 1973)」과 「실험동물의 飼養 및 保管 등에 관한 基準(告示 제6호, 1980 總理府)」이 제정되었다. 끝으로, 본인은 실험동물학에 관한 연구분야가 양국의 과학자들간에 우정과 협력을 보다 촉진시킴으로써 더욱 발전하기를 기대한다. In Japan, the modernization of experimental animals began in early 1950s, and 1980s, microbiologically and genetic controlled animals have been easily available from breeding company. In animal experiments, genetical control in experimental animals makes us possible to obtain precise and reproducible data, and micro biological control to continue the experiment without interruption by infection. Simultaneously, facilities, institutions and technology for feed and animal care, these influencing animal data, were improved, and structure to satisfy researchers' demand in mice and rats were organized for these 30 years. On the number of animals used in Japan, 11.5 million mice, a maximum value, were used in 1970, but they reduced to 5 million after 1986. However, the number of rats used were gradually increased after 1970, and reached to 2.5 million in 1986. Main factor of gradual increase in the number of rats was due to increase in opportunity for pharmacological examination and safety study in which both sexes were required Japanese guidelines for toxicity studies. Although new chemical products required safety studies were increased, the number of animals in used in the study was decreased in 1990. The reasons for this include the movement of animal-rights activists, preparation of well-discussed protocol and improvement of animal quality. Survey of laboratory animals sold by breeding company in 1992 indicated that the number of mutant mice and rats with disease resemble to human were rapidly increased. The number of rabbits was decreased whereas those of dogs, cats and pigs were increased, showing that there was tendency to use many species in the study. Outside of the breeder, inbred, mutant and hybrid strains of mice and rats were bred to supply researchers in some animal facilities of University, ie. Kyushu University School of Medicine. There are 2500-3000 facilities related to laboratory animals in Japan. They are public institutes for medicine, pharmacy and dentistry (208), GLP facilities in pharmaceutical company (75), contact laboratories (35), and institutes of veterinary and animal husbandry school (80). Animal experiments were also carried out in prefectural institutes and corporational facilities (food, Steel, construction). Under these circumstances. "Law concerning the protection and control of animals" (Law No. 105, 1973) and "Standards relating to the care and management of experimental animals" (Notification, No.6, 1980 of the Prime Minister's Office) have been established in Japan. Finally, I hope that a field of study concerning laboratory animal science will be advanced by promoting further friendship and cooperation among scientists in both countries.

          • 優秀 愛玩犬의 效率的 增殖에 關한 硏究 : Ⅰ. 犬精液의 溫度變化가 精子性狀에 미치는 影響 Ⅰ. Effects of Temperature Changes on Spermatozoa Characteristicsin Canine Semen

            李炳翰,崔錫和,李東熙,張京鎭,鄭柄鉉 건국대학교 동물자원연구센터 1992 動物資源硏究誌 Vol.17 No.-

            This study was carried out to investigate the effects of temperature at handling procedures of collection, dilution and preservation of canine semen. The motility, progressive motility, velocity, and linearity of canine spermatozoa after diluted 1:1 with extenders at 35˚C were studied. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The motility, progressive motility, velocity, and linearity of the fresh spermatozoa were better at 39˚C than 25˚C or 15˚C (p<0.05). 2. The egg-yolk-tris (EYT) gave better than Cornell University extender(CUE) or Foote's extender (FE) in the motility, progressive motility, velocity, and linearity. 3. The motility, progressive motility, velocity, and linearity of spermatozoa in the semen diluted with EYT were better at 39˚C than 25˚C or 15˚C (p<0.05). 4. The motility of 70% was observed within 1.5 days in the EYT extender and it was better than other extenders. 5. The death rate of spermatozoa in CUE, FE, and EYT extenders was markedly increased between 2 and 2.5 days (p<0.01), and the death rate of 30% was observed between 1.5 and 2 days.

          • The Present and Future in the Study of Animal Feeds and Nutrition

            Milligan,,L.P. 건국대학교 동물자원연구센터 1990 국제 심포지움 Vol.- No.1

            동물산업의 발전을 위한 장기적인 목표는 적절한 영양소 공급에 의한 가축의 생산성과 이를 예측할 수 있는 모델의 개발, 사료자원의 최대활용과 축산물의 품질, 그리고 가축의 유전능력, 대사조절 및 면역반응에 따른 생리적 변화를 규명할 수 있는 체계를 확립하여야 한다. 그리고 사료자원에 따른 정확한 영양소 이용율 평가와 각종 영양소 공급에 따라 가축의 체내 대사과정과 생산성을 예측하는 연구가 요구된다.

          • THE ROLE OF N-3 FATTY ACIDS IN BRAIN AND BEHAVIOURAL DEVELOPMENT

            Wainwright,Patricia 건국대학교 동물자원연구센터 1994 국제 심포지움 Vol.- No.5

            The membrane phospholipids of the brain contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid, 20:4n-G, and docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3. Dietary deficiency of n-3 FA results in reductions in levels of DHA in the brain and retina, which are accompanied by a reciprocal increase in levels of 22:5n-6. The rapid accumulation of long-chain n-3 fatty acids during prenatal and preweaning development suggests that the provision of n-3 fatty acids to the developing brain may be necessary for functional development. This can be assessed by measuring behavioural outcomes. Changes in some aspects of retinal function appear to be well-established, but whether effects seen in learning tasks are reflective of differences in associative learning capacity independent of related sensory or motivational changes remains to be established. This paper provides critical discussion of the methodology of studies which investigate such relationships in animals. This will be illustrated by the presentation of data from recent work conducted in our laboratory on mice. The first study looks at the relationship between dietary fatty acids and environmental stimulation during development and their effects on maze-learning. In the second study animals were fed an n-3 deficient diet for three generations and tested on a battery of behavioural tests which better allows the disentanglement of effects on sensory capacity, arousal and cognitive function.

          • Determination of Chemical Structures of Biologically Active Substances

            Masakazu,Uramoto 건국대학교 동물자원연구센터 1992 국제 심포지움 Vol.- No.3

            Recently, techniques in structure determination of organic compounds by utilization of instrumental analyses have been developed remarkably. Especially, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) have been used as powerful tools for structure analysis. Various measuring techniques in NMR and MS, which were utilized for the structure analysis of bio-active microbial metabolites, were described. It was shown that appropriate application of instrumental measurement was important in each situation of the procedure of the structure analysis.

          • 단백질공학의 원리와 산업적 이용의 전망

            양철학 건국대학교 동물자원연구센터 1990 국제 심포지움 Vol.- No.1

            In the recent life sciences, protein engineering has been the new subject of interest because of its enormorous possible application both in basic research and industry. Recent development of site-directed mutagenesis techniques and application strategies for protein engineering will be introduced. This talk will include the future aspect of application for the development of industrial products and the possible area of life sciences in Korea.

          • The U.S.Beef Industry and Trade Policy

            Vernin,L.,Sorenson 건국대학교 동물자원연구센터 1992 국제 심포지움 Vol.- No.3

            Increased internationalization of agricultural markets has important economic and policy consequences. Policy needs to be viewed as a composite of domestic and international actions and must be judged in terms of its impact on society as a whole. During the post World War II Period much progress has been made under U.S. leadership to liberalize industrial trade but limited progress has occurred in agriculture despite major efforts in the Tokyo and the current Uraguay Rounds. For the future this poses the question of how agricultural trade policy can he developed to reduce market distortions and lower the costs of policies by individual countries to protect their domestic markets. This paper suggests the need for improved analysis of the political economy of agricultural trade to support future policy development.

          • Lactobacillus casei AHU 1055 및 Lactobacillus acidophilus JAM 1043의 凍結乾燥와 生存率에 關한 硏究

            金昌漢,金明浩,朴芝賢,李明燮,朴相瑨 건국대학교 동물자원연구센터 1992 動物資源硏究誌 Vol.17 No.-

            In order to find the most suitable conditions of freeze-drying for the long term preservation of lacto-bacillus casei AHU 1055 and Lactobacillus acidophilus JAM 1043, the growth phase, the cryoprotection medium and inoculum size have been studied. The results obtained in this study are summerized as follows : 1. L. casei AHU 1055 and L.acidophilus JAM 1043 reached to stationary phase after incubating at 37˚C for 16hrs and 12hrs in MRS broth, respectively. 2. The highest viability of each strains was obtained in 11% skim-milk for L. casei AHU 1055 and 9% skim-milk for L. acidophilus JAM 1043 as basic cryoprotection medium. 3. The complex medium contained 11% skim milk powder, 2.5% arginine and 3% glucose was the best suspending midium for freeze-drying of L. casei AHU 1055, and the medium contained 9% skim milk powder, 7% glycerol, 9% lactose, 0.5% arginine was the best suspending medium for freeze-drying of L. acidophilus JAM 1043. 4. The strong positive correlation was found between inoculum size and the survival rate in both strains. 5. When the tested strains were cultured and freeze-dried under the best optimal conditions, the survival rates of freeze- dried L. casei AHU 1055 and L. acidophilus JAM 1043 were 85.8% and 84.0%, respectively.

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