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인간은 출생과 더불어 가족이라는 집단의 구성원으로 살아간다. 가족의 구성원에 대한 정의는 문화와 환경에 따라 다소 이견이 있을 수 있으나 대체로 부모와 형제 자매로 이루어진다. 이러한 가족의 구성원은 출생에서 죽음까지 함께하는 동안 부모는 아동에게 생활 양식을 전수하면서 교육시키고, 아동은 부모를 존경하고 애정을 느끼면서 성장한다. 부모와 자식간의 상호작용은 부모의 애정에 기초한 상호 의사소통을 기초로 하고 있는데 부모와 자식의 원활한 의사소통은 단순한 현상에 관한 의미를 전달하는 지식 이상의 의미를 가진다. 부모와 아동의 원활한 의사소통은 부모의 입장에서는 아동을 사랑한다는 의미전달과 함께 부모 스스로의 이상과 희망을 확인하는 과정으로 이해되고, 아동은 부모의 애정에 기초하여 원활한 인격을 형성하고 나아가 건전한 사회인으포 성장할 수 있다. 그래서 부모와 아동의 의사소통 단절은 단순한 의사소통의 부재보다는 아동의 인격 성장과 사고방식에 많은 영향을 올 미치게 된다. 그러나 부모와 아동의 의사소통 단절로 예상되는 제반 문제는 심리적 또는 사회적 요인에서 다양하게 접근하여 찾 을 수 있으나, 정상 부모와 청각창애아의 의사소통 단절은 정상적인 가족 또는 아동과는 달리 접근되어야 한다(원영조 외 1995, 최성규, 1997a, 1997b). Most human beings have a family which is a basic social unit. During childhood most human beings acquire basic social interactions from their parents and/or family members. Especially, communication is an important social interaction in human societies. However, about 90% of the deaf children is born from hearing parents. Therefore the deaf children have experienced in difficult time because of communication mode. During young childhood, the deaf children cannot understand what their parents want or say, whereas the parents cannot recognize what their children want also. when the deaf children use sign Ianguage, their parents do not know the sign language which is a language mode in deaf community. The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between Kinetic Family Drawing(KFD) test scores and communication needs for the deaf children in their family environments. The subjects were ten deaf children who have parents and family. The children drew a picture for KFD test. To analyze the deaf children's attitudes toward communication modes and growing backgrounds, individual interview and a questionnaire were utilized. The results of the questionnaire, the five-Likert scale was used. In the test negative aspects were pointed in 0, and positive factors were given in 1 point. Interactions in figure actions, the score of the interactions with famíly was 23, and the score of the interactions with the drawers was 27. The score of the devices in styles was 43. In the part of dynamics, the score of the distance was 57, the score related with omission of family members was 23, and the score related with description of the other peop1e who are not family member was 30. The correlation between the results of the inclividual interviews and the scores of the KFD was not significant This results indicated that: (a) the deaf children felt communication difficulties with their hearing parents; and (b) in one-way ANOV A and correlation, the interactions with fa
In order to investingate of utilizing of seed buld as a bulb size in Lycoris radiata HERB, the bulb classified by the size was planted in May 10, 1987. Tte effect of bulb size (5-10,11-15,16-20,21-25,26-30,31-35 and 36-40㎜) on the growth and Yield of Lycoris radiata HERB, was compared The larger the size of seed bulb was, the more the number of leaves developed, and the higher the yield was. It was considered that higher yield and quality of Lycoris radiata Herb., was obtained by using larger seed bulb.
Advance in fiberoptic endoscopy have improved diagnostic capabilities and management in patients with gastric polyps and increased experience with endoscopic polypectomy offers the most simple and safe method in removal of gastric polyps. Sixty six endoscopic gastric polypectomies was performed in 59 patients who visited Chonnam National University Hospital from 1980 to 1989 The results obtained were as follows. 1) The most patients were in the seventh decade followed by fifth, fourth decade. The ratio of male to female was 1: 1.95. 2) The common clinical symptoms with which patients presented were epigastric discomfort (54. 2%), epigastric pain (44.1%), indigestion (16.9%), nausea and vomiting (13.6%) and hematemesis (3.4%). The associated diseases of gastric polyp were chronic superficial gastritis (28.8%), chronic atrophic gastritis (13.6%), benign gastric ulcer, gastric caecer, cancer of ampulla of Vater. 3) The number of patients with single gastric polyp wa 47 (79.7%), and that of multiple gastric polyps was 12 (20.3%). The most common location of gastric polyps was gastric antrum (66.6%) follawed by gastric body (27.3%) and gastric fundus (6.1%). 4) The removed polyps were mostly 1.0 cm to 2.0 cm in size and in the gross findings by Yamadas classification, type IV (48.5%) was most common. 5) Histogical examinations revealed that 49.6% of remoyed polyps were hyperplastic polys and 18. 7% of those were adenomatous polyps. Only one case of adenomatous polyp had contaied focally malignant change of mucosa. 6) Almost all cases were in the absenee of significant complications, but three patients showed bleeding at the site of polypectomy, which controlled by conservative means.
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This study was carried out to examine used as fertilizer on growth and yield of Gastache rugosa. The medicinal herbs('Yeonryeonggobondan') remnant which have prescriptions of high frequency by Korean was analyzed. The medicinal herbs remnant have high content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potassium and organic. The growth of Agastache rugosa by application of medicinal herbs remnants were more effective than that of control. As the amount of fertilizers were increased, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and number of branches were increased. The growth was the highest in the treatment of 30〜50 g/pot. Weight of whole plant of Agastache rugosa has a tendency to be heavy in application of medicinal herbs remnant than that of control. 최근 한약추출박은 배출되는 양이 많아 쓰레기화 되어 환경을 크게 오염시키고 있다. 이러한 한약추출박을 퇴비로 재활용하기 위한 기초시험으로 첩약(貼藥)인 '연령고본단(延齡固本丹)'의 한약추출박 성분을 분석하였고, 여기에 배초향을 재배하여 비료로 시용한 후 생육특성과 전초수량을 조사한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 한약추출박의 분석 성분 중 유기물은 89.6%가 함유되어 있었고, 염분은 0.1%로 약초의 생장에 지장이 없는 공정규격(1.0%)이하의 범위였다. 약초의 생장에 직접적으로 필요한 비료 3요소 중 질소는 2.8%가 함유되어 있었고, 인산은 0.6%, 그리고 칼륨은 0.5%가 함유되어 있었다. 미량성분으로 식물체의 영양분이 될 수 있는 성분은 아연과 구리 등이 함유되어있었다. 이러한 분석결과, 한약추출박 성분은 유기물과 질소, 인산, 가리, 미량요소 등이 골고루 함유되어 유기질 비료로 사용 될 수 있을 것으로 본다. 2. 한약추출박의 시용에 따른 배초향의 생육은 한약추출박 시용이 무시용보다 초장과 경직경이 크고, 엽수와 가지수가 많아 생장이 양호 하였고, 수량도 전초 1주중이 무거워 증수되는 경향이었다. 한약추출박의 시용농도는 30〜50 g의 시용에서 효과가 인정되었으므로 추출박 30 g의 농도가 적정 시용 농도로 판단된다. 이상의 결과를 종합하여 볼 때 한약추출박은 배초향과 같은 전초이용 약초에 유기질 비료로 재활용 할 수 있을 것으로 본다.
The present study was carried out to assess the possibility of rapid multiplication of ginger through in vitro culture. The factors investigated were effects sucrose in the initial culture and activated charcoal. The optimal concentration of sucrose for in vitro culture of ginger was found to be 3.0%. Rooting growth of the shoots were enhanced by addition of activated charcoal at 2g/ℓ.
Objectives: Gastric carcinoma is the leading cause of death among cancer patients in Korea. The etiologic factors of gastric carcinoma were suggested to chronic gastritis, genetic defect, food and environmental factor. Recently, the studies for oncogene and tumor marker have been actively performed to investigate the causes of gastric carcinoma. Epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) has homology in amino acids with c-erb B2 oncogene product. EGFR was identified in the placenta, chorionic villi and gastrointestinal mucosa. But it was more expressed in tumor cells, and it may be usedas a tumor marker. Methods: To investigate the correlation between EGFR and malignant potentiality in gastric carcinoma, we performed in situ hybridization of EGFR mRNA and immunohistochemistry of c-erb B2 and EGFR in 127 cases of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections of gastric carcinoma. Results: The positive reaction for c-erb B2, EGFR protein and EGFR mRNA was identified in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. The positive ratio was 44.196 in c-erb B2, 63.8% in EGFR, and EGFR mRNA was expressed in 72.4% of cases. The expression of c-erb B2 was not related with differentiation of cells, tumor size, invasiveness and metastasis. However the expression of EGFR and EGFR mRNA was related to the invasion of primary tumor and lymph node metastasis (p$lt;.0.05). And expression of EGFR mRNA was increased in the advances of clinical stage. Conclusion: These above results suggest that the expression of EGFR mRNA is related with malignant potentiality of gastric carcinoma. EGFR mRNA might be used as tumor marker and prognostic factor of gastric carcinoma.
Backgroud: Hepatitis C virus(HCV) is well known major cause of posttransfusion hepatitis. There were a lot of studies about the prevalence of anti-HCV. But, most of these focused on healthy blood donors or patients with liver diseases in urban areas. So they may not represent the prevalence of anti-HCV in the entire Korean population. This study focused on people of a rural area which consisted of six towns near Reservoir Juam in the Chonnam province in Korea, Methods: Nine hundred and sixty three persons were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method from January to February in 19%, Anti-HCV and HBsAg were examined by microparticle enzyme immunoassy(MELA; Abbott Co., USA). Alanine aminotransferase(ALT) was examined by enzyme kinetic method. Results: 1) The positivity of anti-HCV in all subjects was 0.9%. 2) The positivity of anti-HCV in male(1.1%) was not significantly higher than in female(0.9%). 3) The positivity of anti-HCV was 0% below the 5th decade, 0.7% in the 6th decade, 1.4% in the 7th decade, 1.7% in 8th decade, 0% above the 9th decade. There was no significant relationship between the positivity of anti-HCV and age. 4) The positivity of anti-HCV was 0.8% in normal ALT( 435U/L) subjects, and 1.6% in elevated ALT($gt;35U/L) subjects. There was no statistical relationship between the positivity of anti-HCV and ALT level. 5) HBsAg was serologically negative in all of nine anti-HCV positive subjects. Conclusion : The positivity of anti-HCV was 0.9% in rural area of Korea and was similar to the prevalence of anti-HCV in urban areas.
Background/Aims: Gastric dysplasia or flat adenoma is regarded as a premalignant lesion in clinical practice. However, it is not clear yet whether the molecular events in colorectal adenomacarcinoma sequence are involved in the possible gastric dysplasia-carcinoma relationship. In this study, p53 mutation, the most common genetic alteration in human malignancies, was investigated in dysplastic epithelial lesions of the stomach by means of polymerase chain reaction-single strand confarmational polymarphism (PCR-SSCP) and immunohistochemistry. Methods: DNA was extracted from the paraffin-embedded tissue of 34 cases and served as template for PCR of exons 4, 5/6, 7 and 8/9. Among the 34 cases, 24 cases yielded PCR products for at least one of the exons and then, were subjected to SSCP: 21 cases for exon 4, 15 cases for exon 5/6, 23 cases for exon 7 and 18 cases for exon 8/9. The same paraffin-embedded tissue of the 24 cases was also used for immunohistochemisry of p53 protein. Normel full-term placental tissue and gastric carcinoma tissue served as control for wild type and mutant p53 gene or protein, respectively. Results: Histopathologically, 14 cases .of dyplasia of moderate degree, 9 cases of rnoderate to severe degree and 1 case of severe degree were observed. By PCR-SSCP, only one case deonstrated an aberrant band of exon 7 in addition to the wild type bands of placental tissue. Immunocytochemistry revealed focal positivity in three cases of moderate dysplasia and diffuse positivity in one case of moderate to severe dysplasia, the case of mutant exon 7 shown by PCR-SSCP, Conclusions: The low incidence of p53 mutation in gastric dysplasia suggest that p53 mutation does not play a major role in pathogenesis of dysplasia, and the mutation may occur in advanced stage of dysplasia or in carcinoma stage.