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The current study aimed to investigate whether video-based e-learning (i.e., the Educational Broadcasting Service (EBS)) influences the achievement of Korean high school students (years 2-3) in English as a foreign language (EFL) through the mediation of their use of behavior control strategies. The study used data from the 2010 and 2011 Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2,309 students. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze whether the behavior control strategies mediated consistent use of EBS with high school students and whether video-based e-learning led to an increase or a decrease in the students’ EFL achievement test scores. In general, consistent EBS use resulted in changes in the high school students’ EFL achievement test results with the mediation of the behavior control strategies. However, a decrease model showed slightly better model-data fit than an increase model because in the decrease model the time management and resource use strategies had a significant negative relationship to decreases in the EFL test scores between year 2 and year 3. As a significant function of time management, EBS use seemed to work in preventing decreases in EFL achievement.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Studies on students' executive functions and methods of measuring them are being actively developed. In this study, the usefulness of the Amsterdam Executive Function Scale (AEFS), a simple tool to measure executive function, was explored. The factor structure of the AEFS was identified. In addition the correlation between the AEFS sub-factor and the relational reasoning ability sub-factor was examined. The subjects of the study were 176 undergraduate and graduate students [average age 27.37 years old, 51 male students (28.8%), 128 female students (72.3%)]. Participants responded to the recently developed Korean online version of the Amsterdam Executive Function Test and the Korean version of the Test of Relational Reasoning, assuming 4 factors (analogy, anomaly, antinomy, antithesis) as sub-constructs. The Amsterdam executive function score data were analyzed using confirmatory factors. The existing three-factor structure, including the sub-constructs of attention, planning/initiative, and control, was found to be an appropriate model for Koreans in higher education. As a result of the correlation analysis between the three sub-constructs of executive function and the relational reasoning sub-constructs, a significant quantitative correlation between control and pseudo-inference was identified. Finally, the implications of the study and future research directions are presented. 학생들의 집행기능과 이를 측정하는 방법에 관한 연구가 활발하게 전개되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 집행기능을 측정하기 위한 간편 도구인 암스테르담 집행기능 척도의 활용성에 대해 탐색하였다. 먼저 암스테르담 집행 기능척도의 요인 구조를 확인하였다. 또한 암스테르담 집행기능척도 하위요인과 관계추론 능력 하위요인의 상관을 살펴보았다. 연구대상은 대학생 및 대학원생 176명[연령평균 27.37세, 남학생 51명(28.8%), 여학생 128명(72.3%)]이었다. 참여자는 최근 개발된 암스테르담 집행기능 검사 한국어 온라인 버전과 4요인(유사, 변칙, 모순, 대조) 을 하위구인으로 가정한 관계추론능력검사(Test of Relational Reasoning) 한국어판에 응답하였다. 암스테르담 집행기능 점수 데이터를 확인적 요인 분석하였다. 기존의 주의집중, 계획/착수, 조절의 하위 구인을 포함한 3요인 구조가 한국 고등교육 대상자에게도 적절한 모형인 것으로 나타났다. 집행기능 3개 하위 구인과 관계추론 하위 구인 간 상관분석 결과, 통제와 유사추론 간 유의한 양적 상관을 확인하였다. 마지막으로 연구의 시사점과 추후 연구 방향에 대해 제시하였다.
Timing of exposure to an L2 is critical for maximizing language acquisition. Research from behavioral and brain studies has given rise to 4 main hypotheses regarding the L2 critical period. The hypotheses are as follows: (1) The critical period of L2 is equal to that of L1; (2) The first year of experience is decisive for acquiring L2 sounds; (3) Plasticity is progressively lost as one gets older, and; (4) Language sub-processes are differentially sensitive to biological time. The current paper reviews studies on these four lines of research within the framework of Greenough's and O'Connor's developmental models. Based on the present review, we suggest that earlier exposure to L2 is desirable for the second language acquisition. However, the length and the onset of the language ability was debatable according to the four topics of the research area. Elaboration of task-specific timetables in L2 acquisition was suggested to draw fuller educational implications.
The current study sought to examine the influence of Korean college students’ initial motivation on their English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing development, as well as the relationships among EFL writing performance, self-efficacy, communicative interest, and instrumental interest. A total of 187 Korean college students completed questionnaires at repeated intervals during one semester of an EFL writing course. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the longitudinal data. The findings showed that the students’ performance and self-efficacy developed significantly, whereas their interest decreased over the semester. The results of growth curve modeling with longitudinal data from three time points suggested that the students’ motivational orientation significantly predicted their EFL writing performance at the beginning of the semester. However, the influence of initial motivation on the growth rate of EFL writing proficiency, specifically EFL writing performance, was negative. The conclusion of this study is that the contribution of motivational constructs to EFL writing performance depends on time.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
This study examines what predicts levels of father participation (e.g., verbal stimulation, caregiving, and physical play) using a path analysis. Its sample of 5,089 U.S. infants and their families was drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Fathers were participated in their infants in high levels of caregiving and physical play but less so in verbal stimulating activities. According to the result based on Belsky’s process model of parenting, predictors of father participation depended on the type of father participation; father’s human capital (college level) is most predictive of fathers engaging with their infants in verbal stimulating activities. Fathers’ psychological well-being and the quality of their relationships with their couple consisently predicted to less participation in caregiving and physical play. Surprisingly, cohabiting fathers were more likely to show more father participation than married fathers. 아버지의 육아활동 참여 형태(언어적, 참여, 돌봄, 신체놀이)에 영향을 미치는 요소에 대하여 경로분석을 하였다. 미국에서 실시한 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) 조사에서 얻은 5,089명의 유아와 그 가족을 표본으로 하였다. 전반적으로 미국 아버지들은 돌봄과 신체적 활동에 높은 참여율을 보였지만 언어적 참여는 적었다. Belsky의 육아 절차 모형(process model of parenting)을 개념 모형으로 활용한 본 연구에서 아버지의 육아참여를 결정하는 요인은 육아활동 형태에 따라 다른 것으로 나타났다. 예컨대, 아버지의 교육 수준은 언어적 참여 형태에 가장 결정적인 요인이었다. 반면 아버지의 심리적 건강과 배우자와의 관계는 돌봄과 신체적 활동에 많은 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 예상과 달리 동거형 아버지가 법적 혼인관계를 가진 아버지에 비해 육아에 적극적이었다.
Prior research on the relationship between parent involvement in schools and children's academic achievement has been inconclusive, finding some positive effects and some negative effects of parent involvement. This study investigated the effects of parent involvement on kindergarten children's reading achievement. Working from a conceptual basis in Bronfenbrenner's Ecological System Theory (1998), the present study distinguishes between the effect of an individual child's parent involvement at home and at school and the collective effect of a school atmosphere in which parents are actively involved in kindergarten students and their parents. The study data (N=3,142) were drawn from Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class-Kindergarten version. A Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) technique was used to uncover both the effects of individual parent activities and collective parent activities. The major finding resulted from HLM analyses was that while there is no significant effect of an individual child's parent involvement at school, a school atmosphere in which parents are actively and collectively involved mitigates the effect of children's prior achievement on their reading achievement at the end of kindergarten year. That is, in educational environments characterized by high collective parent involvement, kindergarten children are more likely to end their school year with higher reading achievement compared to the start of the year.
The current study aimed to explore how students’ L2 writing self-efficacy and interest contribute to strategy use and writing performance. An exploratory factor analysis with 212 Korean college students’ self-reported motivation scores revealed three underlying constructs of self-efficacy, communicative interest, and instrumental interest. Subsequent multiple regression analyses indicated significant positive relations between self-efficacy and the five types of strategy use. Communicative interest appeared to positively contribute to use of planning,monitoring, and compensatory strategies. Instrumental interest was a predictor of retrieval and compensatory strategies. L2 writing strategy use was a statistically significant but minor contributor to L2 writing performance. The current study also suggests that students’ instrumental interest and communicative interest should be balanced. Further research is needed to identify mitigating effects of L2writing strategy use for motivation and performance development.
This study aimed to explore which parental commutation styles were associated with Korean adolescents’ problem behavior. We also examined the potential mediating influence of life satisfaction. We examined this association by gender. Participants were 12- to 13-year-old Korean students (N=2,280) from the Korea Child and Youth Panel Study. We tested gender differences using t-test and a predefined conceptual model using structural equation modeling technique. Effects of parents’ communication styles on frequent adolescents’ problem behaviors varied. The patterns and directions of the parental communication styles differed by gender as well. “Authoritative”, “rational explanation”, and “affection” predicted Korean boys’ life satisfaction, which, however, did not result in subsequent effects on problem behaviors. For girls, no parental communication styles were associated with life satisfaction, which, however, subsequently predicted more frequent problem behaviors. We suggested future research to incorporate analysis by parent gender and types of problem behavior experienced in Korean adolescents.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
본 연구에서는 문화적 동화 수준에 차이가 있는 재미 아시아청소년과 재미 백인청소년의 정치적 효능감에 영향을 주는 요인을 비교분석하였다. 이를 위해 Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civic Education Study (CIVED) 1차년도 데이터에 포함된 14세의 재미 아시아청소년(154명)과 재미 백인청소년(1,811명) 데이터를 다집단구조방정식모형을 활용하여 분석하였다. 그 결과 첫째, 본 연구에 포함된 여러 정치교육 관련 요인 가운데 정치적 자아효능감과 부모 및 또래와의 토론 빈도에 있어서 두 개 집단 간 현격한 차이를 발견하였으며 평균적으로 백인청소년들이 아시아청소년들에 비해 대부분의 변인에서 스스로 높게 평가하는 경향을 발견하였다. 둘째, “또래와의 토론” 빈도는 아시아청소년과 백인청소년의 정치적 지식형성에 유의한 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났으며, 매체에 대한 신뢰는 백인청소년의 정치적 자아정체감 형성에 유의한 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 집단별로 유의한 영향 관계를 보인 매개효과 변인을 추적해 본 결과 재미 아시아청소년의 정치적 자아형성 경로와 재미 백인청소년의 정치적 자아형성 경로에서 다소 차이가 있었다. 연구결과를 토대로 다문화청소년의 정치교육과 관련된 시사점을 도출하였다. A school report should play its role not only as a material for teaching and learning but also as a reference for school admissions and employment. It is expected to reflect students’ overall achievements at school, helping to better understand them. However, under the current school report system, it is hard to have a clear idea of how the students have developed because it prefers a descriptive narrative to a score-based evaluation. It also lacks objectivity and reliability due to its high dependence on personal experiences and anecdotes. Therefore, under such a situation, it is a timely move to look into other foreign countries’ examples and analyse the global trend of utilizing school reports. This research aims to closely examine how France runs its school report systems and present a guideline, along with related policy implications, to improve the South Korean system. For this study, literature review and interview method were adopted as main research methods. France has three kinds of school records system such as student file, school bulletin, personal competence record. Those three school records have their own purpose and function in the french public school. Based on the analysis, several educational implications are drawn.