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Industrialization in Germany in the 19th century took place in a shorter period compared with that in England and France, which entered the industrial age decades earlier. In the 1870`s, the total gross domestic product of Germany surpassed that of France, and even exceeded it by 1910, at the end of the industrial era. Germany`s production also surpassed that of England, which was known then as the "the world factory." During the industrial age, world expositions were held, and nation-states like England, France, and Austria presented their own industrialized products and artworks in these events. They all sought to establish their prominence among other neighboring countries. Germany visited these world exhibitions and expressed the greatest interest. This paper analyzes why the German state has shown keen interest in world expositions and what German nationals think of these exhibits. The German government`s interest towards world expositions has characterized its national identity, and it affected national economy and the political activities of the state ruler. The people`s interest, on the other hand, showcased their patriotism as various companies participated in these expositions and helped in boosting the economy. Moreover, this paper examines how these world expositions influenced the process of industrialization in Germany, especially in the aspect of technical education. Germany is interested in technical education because the country sets high regard for industrialization and the education of engineers. To develop more effective methods of education, the curriculum in every middle and elementary technical-vocational school was changed. Especially for this purpose, the technical arts museum (Kunstgewerbemuseum) was established. Arts education was in fact one of the most important subjects in their curriculum. Arts (Kunst) and technical arts were regarded as the most significant aspects of the state`s industrialization. During the industrial era, the quality of German products was exemplary. So, with the development of these world exhibitions, small commercial exhibitions in Germany were arranged and developed. As a matter of fact, every technical-vocational school had its own exhibition to showcase the works of their graduating students. Indeed, industrialization and technical education in Germany were both largely affected by the world exhibitions. German nationals continue to develop their education to improve their qualification in these global events.
Chefoo is one of the open-port city in China modern time. It is located in the eastern-tip of Shandong peninsular, and offshore across from Korean peninsula. After it was opened in 1861, Chefoo had always been the only trading port in Shandong until Qingdao opened port in 1898. So the research value of Chefoo Open-port is very important both in chinese modern history and exchange history of China and Korea. There were abound of natural resources in Chefoo before it was opened, one may say, it was well suited to open port. But the traffic inconveniences and winter storms strangled the development of Chefoo to a certain extent. Chefoo got its name from the fire tower called "Yantai", then the Chefoo region was called ``Yantai``(but it was called ``Chefoo`` in English). Port trading went up after Opium War. And it had already developed into the wealthiest town of Fushanxian before Chefoo was opened, while the port development did not change the economic environment of Chefoo because traditional self-sufficiency production was in a dominant position yet. There were a lot of ports opened after Opium War, but it can not meet Western countries requirements in economic and military needs. Although Dengzhou should be opened after Second Opium War by treaty, because the geographical position and harbour environment of Chefoo was better than Dengzhou`s. Qing government consented to western countries requests to Change the open-port from Dengzhou to Chefoo. Then Chefoo was opened in 1861. Chefoo customs that was established immediately after this. It was the first official port management administration in Chefoo history. Then the managing authority of Chefoo customs gradually turned to Westerners. They managed the harbor with the western management methodology, objectively promoting the growth and development of Chefoo.
Recently, in the academic circles began to emerge a trend that is raising strong questions about basic historical fact of the history of the immigration of the China. At first, such questions raised in the Huanan(華南). These studies revealed that some clans in the Pearl River(珠江) delta, who claims that they are descendants of Han Chinese who moves from north through Nanxiong(南雄) ‘Zhujixiang’(珠璣巷) during the Song dynasty, were in fact native people of these region and even some of them were “Danmin(蛋民)”. The cause of fabrication of the origins was some kinds of trick for obtaining some advantageous terms in dispute about lands in the mouth of the Pearl River(珠江). After these studies, scholars began raising questions about another region's legend of immigration. For example, Zhao-Shiyu(趙世瑜), while acknowledge basic historical fact about immigration, pointed out that legend about immigration in the Huabei(華北) region have many fictional elements by studying legend about ‘Dahuaishu(大槐樹)’ in the Hongdong(洪洞), Shanxi(山西). In the Chinese immigration history, so many legends about immigration have emgerged same time with ‘Dahuaishu(大槐樹)’, but Jianghuai(江淮) and Sichuan(四川) were never been neighboring with another races. Recent interpretation about ‘Dahuaishu(大槐樹)’ can't make an application for ‘Waxieba(瓦屑壩)’ and legend of another regions because feud between races never been exist in the these regions. This article, based on the institution and historical fact that found in legends, is an attempt to prove that immigration to south of the Huaihe-River(淮河) was organized by central government and to certify hypothesis about "immigration channels" by example of the ‘Waxieba(瓦屑壩)’. And last, this article is an attempt to make new hypothesis and prove about ‘Waxieba(瓦屑壩)’ in genealogical records and immigration registers. Recently, in the academic circles began to emerge a trend that is raising strong questions about basic historical fact of the history of the immigration of the China. At first, such questions raised in the Huanan(華南). These studies revealed that some clans in the Pearl River(珠江) delta, who claims that they are descendants of Han Chinese who moves from north through Nanxiong(南雄) ‘Zhujixiang’(珠璣巷) during the Song dynasty, were in fact native people of these region and even some of them were “Danmin(蛋民)”. The cause of fabrication of the origins was some kinds of trick for obtaining some advantageous terms in dispute about lands in the mouth of the Pearl River(珠江). After these studies, scholars began raising questions about another region's legend of immigration. For example, Zhao-Shiyu(趙世瑜), while acknowledge basic historical fact about immigration, pointed out that legend about immigration in the Huabei(華北) region have many fictional elements by studying legend about ‘Dahuaishu(大槐樹)’ in the Hongdong(洪洞), Shanxi(山西). In the Chinese immigration history, so many legends about immigration have emgerged same time with ‘Dahuaishu(大槐樹)’, but Jianghuai(江淮) and Sichuan(四川) were never been neighboring with another races. Recent interpretation about ‘Dahuaishu(大槐樹)’ can't make an application for ‘Waxieba(瓦屑壩)’ and legend of another regions because feud between races never been exist in the these regions. This article, based on the institution and historical fact that found in legends, is an attempt to prove that immigration to south of the Huaihe-River(淮河) was organized by central government and to certify hypothesis about "immigration channels" by example of the ‘Waxieba(瓦屑壩)’. And last, this article is an attempt to make new hypothesis and prove about ‘Waxieba(瓦屑壩)’ in genealogical records and immigration registers.
Japan`s religion of ``Loyalty and Patriotism`` newly created in the 20th century, invented numerous anniversaries with its institution. Also, by mobilizing the public in its rituals, it imprinted ``Loyalty and Patriotism`` on them and nationalized them. Colonial Joseon people could not but conform to or accept while resisting these Japanese Imperial ceremonies after merger. However, such ceremonies became a ``national life`` by being imprinted physically in their everyday life in the war situation at the end of the Japanese Empire. The colonial power that promoted the policy of the bond of Joseon and Japan for the purpose of the total mobilization of colonial Joseon during the war actively utilized such ceremonies as one of the tools of the promotion of Japanese spirit. To approach how the ceremonies are imprinted on the body of the public and further change their mind-set, a region-based microscopic analysis is necessary. The rituals (festivals, ceremonies, athletic meetings, a variety of entertainments and street parades, etc.) held regionally lasted as historical memories through their visual effects and spatial arrangements, or they added significances to communities` identity through the regulations of the locals` daily life.
This article deals with the everyday life of the communes in West Germany, which came into existence 1967 and played an important role in the German student movement of the 1960s. However, their names and figures were well known, not because they led big demonstrations and protests at that time, but because they represented the ``sex wave``, which penetrated into the masses from the first half of the 1960s. The communes with the slogan "the personal is political" was originally intended as counter-model against the small conservative middle-class family, which supported the conservative political milieu. By analysing the everyday life of the commune members, we come to the conclusion that the activities of the communes didn`t concentrate on the private things of their members and could not help be involved with the political issues. In their political activities the traditional methods were not used, but new staged satire and provocation were invented. But those were not strong enough. In the long run, they resorted to the body politics, waging to give wide publicity to the photograph of the communards` naked behinds against a wall. The communes, finally dissolved 1969, had strong impact on the political movements and the culture not by politicizing the personal, but by appealing to body politics and mobilizing the masses who already accepted the sexual revolution.
This study is the stone relics of the SukSusa temple site. Located in Young-ju, Kyungsangbuk Province, the Suksusa temple site is not well-known as the Silla Period Temple because of the Sosu-Seowon was built on the site and few historical records on the temple. Examination results of the stone relics, Suksusa temple was founded in the 7th century and was reestablished in the 9th century. Especially the shape and patterns of the stone Danggan prop and pedestals of Buddha Figures are similar to them of Birosa temple and Buseoksa temple that were sponsored mainly by royal family in the 9th century. Since ancient times, Sun-Heung province is very important place that was a cultural hub of transportation passage. In Sun-Heung province, the influences of the Hwaeom-jong around Buseoksa temple seems to have stimulated the growth of Buddhist arts in the 9th century. Also Suksusa temple was reflected on belong to the same buddhist culture such as relics. Its style of stone relics will be explained within the category of other stone relics in Sun-Heung province overall relics in same century. In addition to stone relics through the architectural member, also Suksusa temple was sponsored mainly by royal family in the 9th century. Therefore it is considered that Suksusa temple is high status which representative of the Unified Silla Period.
In the academic circles, A.D. 433, when Goguryeo(高句麗) relocated its capital to Pyeongyang(平壤), is believed as the starting point of the bilateral alliance of Silla(新羅) and Baekje(百濟). I also agree with the theory that Silla adopted pro-Baekje policy when Baekje asked her to establish friendly relations. But I assume that this change does not necessarily mean that Silla immediately conduct an anti-Goguryeo policy. It was very hard for Silla to completely revolt against Goguryeo since she had been in an amicable relations with Goguryeo for a long time and Goguryeo`s new capital had gotten closer to Silla. And Silla did not entirely trust Baekje who had been her long-time enemy. Gogurye also did not want Silla to establish a new relation with Baekje. So Goguryeo tried to keep Silla under its influence by notifying her with the capital relocation plan and its purpose. Silla maintained her traditional relations with Goguryeo, and at the same time, she built a new relation with Baekje. In this way, she adopted equidistance diplomacy. However, Goguryeo started to have more suspicion over Silla, and in the middle of 5th century, it adopted both moderated and hard-line policies of Silla. On this, King Nulji(訥祗王), who experienced the death of King Silseong(實聖王), had a sense of crisis due to the fact that Goguryeo changed its policies and he decided to remove Goguryeo`s force which was stationed in Silla territory. Moreover, he dispatched his army to rescue Baekje when Goguryeo attacked Baekje in A. D. 455, and by doing so, he expressed his strong will to maintain the amicable relation with Baekje. Therefore, it is believed in the academic circles that the amicable relation between Silla and Baekje actually began to work at this point of time. But Baekje was also aware of Silla`s equidistance diplomacy, and Silla`s military aid of A.D. 455 were not enough for it to completely trust Silla. Three years later, King Jabi(慈悲王) ascended the throne following the passing of king Nulji and it gave Baekje a need to re-assure Silla`s anti-Goguryeo policy. And Baekje instigated Waegook(倭國), which was expanding its influence in the southern part of Korean Peninsula at the time, to invade Silla three times. After then, Silla and Baekje individually reacted to Goguryeo, and at the same time, they also held each other in check. In this way, despite Silla showed Baekje that she completely adopted an anti-Goguryeo policy, the amicable relation between Silla and Baekje did not work well due to the fact that Silla kept equidistance diplomacy and thus Baekje had suspicion over Silla. Baekje, who could not trust Silla, needed to diversify its diplomatic relations and it asked a military aid to Northern Wee in A.D. 469. This provided a reason to Goguryeo to invade Baekje and it attacked the capital of Baekje, Hanseong(漢城), with an enormous power in A.D. 475. Since the fall of Hanseong, both Silla and Baekje were put in an urgent situation so that they could not help but realizing a real alliance with each other.
The American immigration policy has changed over times; the time of open immigration, the restrictive era, the time of liberalization of immigration, and then the time of new restrictions. The compositions of immigrants changed over times as well. Thanks to the Civil Rights Movements in the 1960s, American door to immigrants was wildly opened since the liberalization of immigration in 1965, and the States experienced unexpected mass immigrations from undesirable regions such as Asia and Latin America. Due to the chain migration based on ``Brothers and Sisters Act,`` about 50% of the legal immigration population was Asian and 40% was Hispanics (especially Mexican) compared with 5% for Europeans. Facing these dramatic and overwhelming changes, the restricionism was resurged since the 1970-80s, called neo-restrictionism. According to the neo-nativist, in other words, the population of the States has reached its maximum due mainly to immigrants, hence American identity has been endangered especially by the growing number of Hispanics and Asians. Americans clearly revealed fear to become the "majority minority nation." For them, it`s about time to control the number of immigrants. As the global power of economics and the world leader in multiculturalism, however, it never been easy for restrictionists to reveal their racist intend on any part of immigration policy. They did need some other way to appeal for anti-immigration sentiment to Americans, sealing their racism. Demographic-Environmentology was given new validity for restrictionists who excessively focused on negative effects of overpopulation on the environmental pollution. Namely, they argued that America has been overpopulated due mainly to immigrants, and those ecocidal immigrants should be restricted for sure. Therefore, this study focuses on: what the demographic, environmentological, and ecological arguments that neo-restrictionists strongly supported;why and how those arguments came from;and what restrictionists tried to hide behind the mask of demographic-environmentology. In addition, it examines why and how different reactions between the federal government and state governments to the demographic-environmentological discourse on immigration. By doing so, it reveals both what neo-restrictionism really want and what unfortunately they miss.