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Renal artery aneurysms (RAA) are being recognized with increasing frequency mainly due to the introduction of abdominal aorto graphy and especially of selec- tive arteriography for the evaluation of patient with suspected renovascular hypertension. But the incidence of RAA based on autopsy studies is 0,01 percent and the precise relationship of RAA to hypertension, the natural history and prognosis of RAA remains controversial. This report describes a case of renovascular hypertension associated with huge renal artery aneurysm and arteriovenous fistula.
이 연구의 목적은 성별의 차이가 염증인자(CRP, WBC), 근손상인자(CK)와 심박수에 미치는 영향을 규명하기 위한 것이다. 20명의 남성(n=10)과 여성(n=10) 운동선수를 대상으로 자전거에르코메터를 이용하여 80%HRmax에서 30분간 최대하운동을 수행하였으며 그 후 운동강도를 2분마다 남자는 1kp, 여자는 0.5kp를 증가시켜 최대운동 시점 까지 운동을 수행하였다. 심박수는 안정 시, 운동직후, 회복 1분, 2분, 3분에 측정하였다. 염증인자와 근손상인자는 안정 시, 운동직후, 회복 2시간에 측정되었다. 결과 일회성운동은 심박수를 증가시켰으며 회복기에 다시 감소되었다. 운동에 따른 심박수의 회복율은 남성이 여성에 비하여 유의하게 높았다. 혈중 CRP농도는 일회성 운동과 회복에 따른 유의한 변화를 보여주지 않았다. WBC는 운동직후 증가하여 회복기에 감소하였지만 집단에 따른 차이변화는 없었다. 혈중 CK의 경우 두 집단 모두 안정 시에 비하여 운동직후 증가하였으며 회복기에 더욱 높은 증가를 보였다. 한편 이러한 증가율은 남성이 여성에 비하여 높게 나타났다. 요약하면 남성과 여성의 심박회복율과 근손상에는 차이가 있었으며 보다 명확한 규명을 위하여 다른 염증인자와 관련된 추가적인 연구가 요망된다. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute exercise on inflammatory factors(CRP, WBC), CK and heart rate between male and female. Twenty subjects participated in this study and composed of male(n=10) and female(n=10). Submaximal exercise sessions took place on a bicycle ergometer performing 4 minutes of cycling to reach targeted intensity (80%HRmax) and continued during 30 minutes. After 30minutes, work rate was gradually increased (1kp for male, 0.5kp for female per every 2minutes) until exhaustion. Heart rate was measured before, immediately after exercise and recovery period(1, 2, 3minute, respectively). Inflammatory and CK concentration were measured before, immediately after exercise and recovery period(2hour). Acute exercise increased heart rate and decreased during recovery period and recovery rate was more high in male than female(p=.032). CRP concentration did not show any significant change with acute exercise and group. WBC concentration significantly increased immediately after exercise and then decreased for recovery period but there were any significant difference between male and female. CK concentration increased immediately after exercise and continued to the recovery period and such exercise induced increase was more high in male than female(p=.033). In conclusion there was significant difference between male and female in heart rate and CK. Further study needed to elucidate exact mechanism on sex difference on inflammation, heart rate, muscle damage related to other inflammatory factors.
Recently there has been a growing debate in Korea on criminality of impossible attempts which is regulated by the Criminal Code of Korea Article 27. Several well written articles on this topic have already been published. However these articles primarily compare the German and Japanese laws of criminal attempt with the Criminal Code of Korea. Thus, the author of this article strives to expand the boundaries of the debate by introducing to a Korean audience the court opinions and theories of American criminal law on impossible attempts. Under US law, impossibility may serve as a defense to criminal attempt. There is, however, a distinction between factual impossibility and legal impossibility. According to US case law, legal impossibility is a defense to a charge of attempt but factual impossibility is not. Thus factual impossibility is rarely a defense. Factual impossibility is one in which the defendant is unable to accomplish what he intends because of some facts unknown to him. An example is a defendant that fires a shot at a hole in the roof, believing his victim to be there, but the attempted crime fails because the victim who had been on the roof only moments before, is no longer there at the time of the attempt. Accordingly, the defendant would be found guilty for attempted murder. Legal impossibility is considered a valid defense to criminal attempt. If the defendant completes all of his intended acts, but fails to fulfill a requisite element of the crime, this is considered to be a legal impossibility. For example, a court would hold that a defendant is not guilty of attempted bribery of a juror when he offered a bribe to a man he mistakenly believed to be a juror. Another example is when a defendant who engages in conduct, thinking it is a crime when, in fact, there is no law making it a crime. The defendant could not be convicted of an attempt in such cases. Facts and opinions of US courts cases related to impossible attempts are very similar to those in Korean court rulings. However, US legal theory of criminal attempt and the defense of impossibility is primarily based on subjectivism. The drafters of the Criminal Code of Korea took an objectivist approach, thinking that even when the occurrence of a crime is impossible, if there is any objective danger, the defendant may still be convicted of criminal attempt. Under the Criminal Code of Korea Article 27, in case of impossible attempts, punishment is imposed if there is resulting danger. Article 27 of Criminal Code of Korea is very unique legislation compared to German law and the US case law theory of impossible attempts, and it narrows somewhat the liability of a person who makes an impossible attempt. Thus, the author of this article argues that judges and scholars should understand the uniqueness of Article 27, and positively interpret and apply it as necessary to properly adjudicate impossible attempt cases.