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Purpose: Recent studies have reported that Asian sand dust (ASD) has a potential risk of aggravating airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ASD on inflammation and mucin production in the airways of allergic mice. Methods: Forty BALB/c female mice were divided into four groups: saline (group 1); ASD (group 2); ovalbumin (OVA) alone (group 3); and OVA+ASD (group 4). OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum and interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining was performed on lung tissues. In addition,immunohistochemical staining for IL-4, IL-5, MUC5AC, and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) was conducted. Results: Serum IgE levels were significantly higher in group 4 than in group 3 (P<0.05). IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF were significantly higher in group 4 than in group 3 (P<0.05,respectively). Based on H&E staining, inflammatory cell numbers were significantly greater in group 4 than in the other groups (P<0.05). The number of PAS-positive cells was also significantly greater in groups 3 and 4 than in groups 1 and 2 (P<0.05). The numbers of IL-4 and IL-5-positive cells were higher in group 4 than in group 3 (P<0.05). The number of MUC5AC and TGF-α-positive cells were also higher in group 4 than in group 3 (P<0.05). Conclusions: Our data suggest that ASD increases cytokine expression and mucin production in an allergic murine model. The increased inflammatory reactions were related to cytokine production.
Precise fixation of fracture fragments is important for the successful management of facial bone fractures. However, the conventional metal plates and screws used in such procedures are sometimes difficult to place when the facial bone fracture occurs in a narrow area or has significant comminution. We report herein our experience with 6 patients with facial fractures, which were difficult to fix using titanium plates and screws. All injuries were satisfactorily repaired using octyl-2-cyanoacrylate (OCA). In addition, there were no significant complications related to OCA during the follow-up period.
Performance of facial aesthetic surgeries except rhinoplasty in otorlarygoloic department is not usual in South Korea. However, otolaryngologic doctors have been performing facial surgeries, thus, their knowledge of facial surgical anatomy is better than that of other doctors. For this reason, otolaryngologic doctors should study hard in order to learn about performance of facial aesthetic surgeries. Recently, in South Korea, because many facial aesthetic surgeries have been performed, many complications have been reported and facial aesthetic surgery techniques have been developed rapidly. Herein, I would like to introduce some facial aesthetic and reconstructive techniques that are not usually performed in the otolaryngologic department in South Korea.
Columellar skin defects may be caused by excision of cutaneous malignancy, trauma, or tissue necrosis associated with sur- gery. Although columellar skin necrosis rarely occurs following rhinoplasty, this condition might be more common when using an external approach than a closed approach. Columellar skin incision performed with exaggerated tip augmentation may cause columellar necrosis. The nasolabial island flap, used unilaterally to cover columellar skin defects, is used for a single-stage reconstruction procedure and is generally not associated with the need for secondary surgeries. This technique is well suited for repairing columellar skin defects. We experienced a patient with columellar skin necrosis occurring after rhinoplasty which was reconstructed using a unilateral single-stage nasolabial island flap.
Objectives. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with repeated hypoxia and re-oxygenation. This characteristic of OSAS may cause oxidative stress and DNA damage. However, the link of OSAS with oxidative stress and DNA damage is still controversial. In the current study, we investigated whether OSAS causes DNA damage using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and measuring oxidative stress by monitoring serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Methods. From March 2009 to August 2010, 51 patients who underwent polysomnography (PSG) during the night were enrolled in this study. We obtained serum from the patients at 6 AM. DNA damage and oxidative stress were evaluated using a comet assay and measuring serum MDA, respectively. We divided the patients into two groups according to the existence of comets appearing in the comet assay. Group 1 included 44 patients with negative assay results and group 2 consisted of seven patients with positive comet assay findings. We compared the age, gender proportion, PSG data (respiratory disturbance index [RDI], lowest O2 saturation level, and arousal index [AI]), time of disease onset, smoking habits, and serum MDA levels between the two groups. Results. The average age and gender proportion of the two groups were not statistically different (P>0.05). The average of RDI for group 1 was 30.4±18.4 and 8.0±7.7 (P<0.01) for group 2. The average of lowest O2 saturation level for group 1 was 81.2±7.2 and 87.4±6.5 (P<0.05) for group 2. The average AI for group 1 was 32.8±15.1 and 20.8±7.7 (P<0.05) for group 2. Similarly, serum MDA levels of the two groups were not statistically different (P>0.05). No relationship between positive comet assay results and OSAS severity was identified. Conclusion. Results of the current study showed that OSAS was not associated with DNA damage as measured by comet assays or oxidative stress according to serum MDA levels.
Numerous materials have been used in augmentation rhinoplasty. The representative materials include silastics, Gore-Tex,autologous cartilage, and homologous materials. The use of alloplastic materials in rhinoplasty is often discouraged due to possible risk of infection and extrusion. Currently, the use of Tutoplast-processed fascia lata (TPFL) in augmentation rhinoplasty is increasing in Korea because it can avoid donor site morbidity and decrease the surgical time. However, there have been no reports of infections related to rhinoplasty using TPFL in Korea. We experienced a case of infection that occurred after rhinoplasty using TPFL. We report this case along with a brief review of the literature.
This study reviews the Emerging System Theory and focuses on General Systems Theory(GST) for Human Resource Development (HRD). The study also examines the General Systems Theory and its application in providing policy formation guidance as related to HRD. The study begins with the retrieval of the existing literature on the GST and a look into the policy making for the development of the human resources. The retrieval shows that GST works to be an effective method for social science research. In addition, the facts reveal that the effectiveness of the GST and it influences related to scientific policy making in social science fields. Particularly, GST is used as a scientific approach for successful policy making in various situations that are related to HRD. The policy for HRD can achieve its goals when it fully encompasses critical elements, including the demands and supports and performance of HRD. The study perceives the elements are changed, according to their own systems and how they interact in policy making. So the study finds that the GST could play a large role in monitoring, analyzing and diagnosing each system and their related functions. These systematic approaches in policy making can promote effective policy making for human resources development. However, this study also admits that the GST has excessive generality, so many that it has limitations in the ability to explain and describe specific situations. Finally, this study suggests that the enduring patterns of GST can help support and overcome its perceived limitations.