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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of immobilization on muscle fiber composition, mass, area and capillarization after 4 - wk of hindlimb suspension. Significant reductions in soleus mass, area and capillary density were occured after 4 wks of hindlimb suspension, Wheres type IIa fiber percentage was significantly increased in the experimental group. The results suggest that hindlimb unweighting induced soleus muscle atropy and these results also demonstrate that muscle fiber atropy not necessarily being associated with a loss in capillary supply.
The purpose of this study was to investigate housewife bowling injuries in relation to bowling exercise frequency, intensity and bowl conditions. There were 200 subjects who participated in this study that were selected by random sampling in 1997 from Seoul bowling center. The questions about participation degree by sports injury were asked according to the Ohe'(1992) and Ohe'(1193) study. One-way ANOVA was calculated for the purpose of analysis. The results of this study were as follows : First, there were difference found in injury degree and form of injuries according to exercise frequence of the housewife of bowler. Second, there were difference found in injury degree and form of injuries according to exercise intensity of the housewife of bowler. Third, there were difference found in injury degree and form of injuries according to exercise bowl condition of the housewife of bowler. Fourth, there is the difference found in warm up time, state of exercise, prevention of injuries according to exercise personal experiments of housewife bowler.
This study was undertaken to examine the effect of attention control training(ACT) on the attentional profile patterns and performance outcomes in shooting. 36 high school shooters participated in this study. They consisted of male shooters with a mean of 15.4 years old and shooting careers of 3.4 years. The results of an analysis of covariance conducted on the variables revealed that the ACT had an impact on the overall attentional profile patterns including narrow-effective(NAR), external-overload(OET), internal-overload(OIT) and reduced focuses, thereby having a positive influence on the enhancement of the performance outcomes in shooting.
The Purpose of this study was to determine the effects of circuit weigh training on the health-related fitness of the climacteric women. This study employed 20 climacteric women who were 40∼59 years old. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of two (one experimental groups and one control). Each group ended up with 10 subjects. The analysis of this study utilized 2×3 ANOVA repeated measure design. The results of the study were as follows : 1. The Experimental group which received circuit weigh training had a greater improvement related to maximal O₂ uptake, vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second. 2. The circuit weigh training administered to the experimental groups showed statistically significant effects with respect to the positive changes in many of the measurement items(% body fat, sit-ups, sit and reach) during the treatment period.
The racial differences in exercise performance was determined. Eleven subjects who well trained athletes in martial arts(Tae Kwon Do) participated in this study from Nigeria(n=7) and Egypt(n=4). Wingate Anaerobic Power Test(WAPT) and Åstrand Incremental Test were performed to measure the differences in aerobic and anaerobic power capacity. The results of this study showed that there was no significant difference in lactate concentration immediately after WAPT and during recovery. The recovery rate of blood lactate in Nigerian athletes was about 8% higher than that of Egyptian athletes. There were no significant differences in Mean Power Output level than that of Egyptian athletes. The recovery rate of heart rate at 10min after Åstrand incremental test was about 5% higher in Egyptian athletes than that of Nigerian athletes. The time to exhaustion with Åstrand incremental test was slightly longer in Nigerian athletes. In conclusion, aerobic and anaerobic capacity were somewhat higher in Nigerian Tae Kwon Do players and a mark interindividual differences in aerobic and anaerobic power existed in this study. Therefore, further studies must be performed before definitive conclusions can be made to generalize racial differences in performance in specific sports events.
The purpose of this study was to discriminate body composition of male athletes from different sports. Limb girth and skinfold thickness were measured in 170 male athletes. The subjects were selected by sport events of taekundo, judo, handball, rugby, table tennis, badminton, short track, tennis, rowing, long distance running. The analysis of this study utilized correlation and oneway-ANOVA. The result is followed by that. The first, the muscle mass(MM) means. Rugby players gad significantly greater MM than taekundo, badminton, table tennis, short track, long-distance runner. Also, MM was in long-distance runners than in judo, handball, rugby, rowing players and less in table tennis players than in judo and rugby. The second, the MM as percentage of body mass (MM%) ranged from 58.24kg for the long-distance runner to 65.35kg for short track players. Long-distance runners had significantly less MM% than taekundo, handball, rugby, short track players. The third, the sum of the skinfold thickness (SS) ranged from 22.78kg for he long-distance runner to 37.04kg for judo players. Taekundo players had significantly less SS than judo, rowing, tennis players. The forth, controlling for body mass by analysis of covariance altered the ranking of the group means such that the judo players had the greatest adjusted MM and the short track players had the greatest adjusted MM%.
Through this study, I have tried to give a help for the scientific and effective coaching method and the competive strength development, by analysing the situational kinematics and kinetics variable with 3-D (Three-dimensional) motion, when we take the Yurtchenko motion in female gymnast Vaulting, and the result is the following. 1. Phase timed vaulting time (Second) In PreF.HC time, the korean athletes took longer time than the Olympic athletes in YLF or YL. 2. COG Displacement during Post-flight (In Meters) During the PoF, the Korean athletes showed the same result as the Olympic athletes, on the whole, in phsical CG variable. 3. Horizontal and Vertical velocities or Body COG at Events (m/s). In case of Vertical velocity (Vv HTO) in vault take off, The Korean athletes showed distinctly low result as compared with the olympic athletes performed in Vv of contact phase BC, as compared with the Olympic athletes. 4. Velocity change during contact (m/s). It was distictly low that the Korean athletes performed in Vv of contact phase BC, as compared with the olympic athletes. 5. Angular Momentum of means during PreF and change during HC In Angular Momentum during PreF, PoF, the Korean athletes reached distinctly low as compared with the Olympic athletes.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of different stances, cardiac cycles, breathing patterns, and body sway on performance in archery. It was hypothesized that subjects demonstrate different performances in archery relative to different stances, distances, cardiac cycles, breading patterns, and the body sway while in release position. 10 varsity caliber archery were randomly selected from archer groups of Korean National College of Physical Education and National representatives. The independent variables were body sway, breathing patterns, cardiac cycles for different stances and distances with testing order assigned in a counterbalanced manner for each subjects. The dependent variable was score upon release of the 9 arrows. Hypothesis were tested at the .05 level of significance. The study design was a 2-way(stance X distance)factorial ANOVA with repeated measures on assigned factors. The levels of assigned factors were. open, square, and close stance;30, 50 and 70 meters. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and multiple regression. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The performance in archery was not effected by stances, cardiac cycles, breading patterns, but effected by distances. 2. In general, the performance in archery was not effected by cardiac cycles, but there was significant individual differences between cardiac cycles and the performance in archery. 3. The performance in archery was not effected by breading patterns, but most of subjects accustomed to breading pattern 4 and 5 than others. 4. There were individual differences in breading patterns and all of the archers did not have their own fixed breading pattern. 5. The body sway was effected in accordance with change of the distance. 6. The performance in archery was not effected by body sway with different distances.
The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare times, distances, degrees and velocities in long instep kick and shooting. Five women, soccer player, were selected as the subjects. 3-D cinematography method and Wilcoxon signed rank test were employed in this study. From left heel touch down to impact, the results of this study are as follows l. In the swing phase, the average time of long kick and shooting is 0.100sec and O.104sec, respectively. 2. There is no significantly difference the distance between kicking foot and suppoeting foot, but it shows that there is significantly difference between ball and supporting foot. 3. There is no significantly difference between kicking limb and supporting limb in the projecting angle of ball, leaning angle of COG, angle of ankle, knee and hip. 4.Velocity factors are no diference in initial ball, COG, segments of foot, shank and thigh in kicking limb.