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Violence portrayed in mass media has increased. Furthermore, at home or outside, children and adolescence uncritically pursue sensational and amusing programs centering on violence, which are not filtered. Thus, a study is urgently needed, which investigates the content of violence provided by mass media and their influence on children and adolescence. Particularly, previous research on the effects of media violence tends to concentrate on traditional media, especially television. Also, there is not a proper theoretical framework to study for new media. Accordingly, there are relatively a few researches on video and computer games which are popular to children and adolescence. The purpose of this study is to examine how violence provided by media affects on children and adolescence, especially their senses of values and their actions, as comparing the content of traditional media with that of new media. The major findings of this study are summarized as follows: First, males use television and computer games more frequently than females do. Younger age group uses video more often than older one does. The more parents, as a mediator, involve in their childrens media use, the more their children use video. Second, this research shows that television, video and computer games tend to be selected mainly for entertainment. In terms of age, older group tends to be more fascinated with media than younger on e does. Third, using multiple regression, the amount of exposure to violence provided by TV, video and computer games are analyzed respectively. Age, TV watching time and parents mediation significantly explain the variance of exposure to TV violence(20%), Sex, age and parents mediation significantly contribute to the variance of exposure to video violence(42%). In case of computer games, sex and motivation of accomplishment are the major variables that explain the exposure of violence(46%). Fourth, a multiple regression analysis indicates that motivations of media selection account for the degree of fascination with media more than other variables. Fifth, a multiple regression is also conducted to examine major factors related to subjects experience of violence. In case of TV, the amount of exposure to violence, the degree of fascination TV watching time, motivations of selection and sex significantly explain the experience of violence(30%). In terms of video, the amount of exposure to violence and the degree of fascination contribute to the experience of violence(27%). For computer games, age and the degree of fascination account for the experience of violence(27%). Sixth, an analysis on the sense of values about violence reveals that children and adolescence tent to be non-violent. Regardless of media types, the attitudes toward general violence are closely related to the degree of fascination with media and the amount of exposure to violence content, while attitudes toward specific violence, especially social violence, are closely related to subjects demographic characteristics such as sex, age and fathers education level. Finally, this study finds that parents mediation tends to be negative, such as prohibition and scolding. Parents tend to intervene their childrens uses of television more frequently than those of new media such as video and computer games. Females and younger age group are mediated more often by their parents than their counterparts are. The middle-educated parents intervene their childrens uses of traditional media more than other parents do, while the high-educated parents do their childrens uses of new media more than other parents do.
For designing a flywheel system using superconductor, it is necessary to understand the basic characteristics of the classical superconductor bearing. It is difficult to expect the characteristics of superconductor bearings using models that have been introduced up to now. In the "Frozen image" concept, the farce between the permanent magnet and the superconductor can be divided into two forces between permanent magnet and two imaginary magnets in the superconductor; one represents attraction farce and the other represents a repulsion force. We calculated the characteristics of two superconductor bearings, such as an axial, the radial stiffness and the levitation force. This calculation method was very helpful to expect the characteristics of the superconductor bearings. Using this model, we established the optimum condition for the superconductor bearing.r bearing.
현대 사회에서 PR이란 많은 문제에 대처하는 효율적인 방안임에는 틀림없으나 모든 문제를 해결하는 만능의 도구는 결코 아니다. 그러므로 효율적인 PR의 활용방안은 곧 그것이 대처하는 문제의 정확한 인식에 근거하고 있으므로 대학의 책임자들이 자기 조직의 문제점을 정확하게 인식하고 인정하는 것이 바로 건전한 대학 PR 활용의 출발점이 된다. "오늘날 많은 조직들이 어려움을 겪고 있는 이유는 그들이 문제를 해결할 수 없기 때문이 아니라 그들이 문제를 보려(인정)하지 않기 때문이다."라고 말한 가드너의 지적은 오늘날 대학사회에서도 그대로 적용된다.
The purpose of this study is to analyze and to evaluate media use behavior of adults and its problem in Korea. For this purpose this research analyzed six categories such as general media ownership, use pattern, content preference, selection motivation, media attitude and purchasing behavior. The audience survey was carried out in the Seoul area through a prestructured questionnaire. The results and problems raised through research are as follow: 1. Analysis on individual difference of media ownership pattern shows a remarkable change of media ownership according to the levels of income and education. Expensive media, especially new media, are owned more by the person of high-income and higher educational bracket. Also the study shows that young age group tend to own more of new media than traditional media. 2. Media use pattern indicates overwhelming television use in Korea. Though new media is used les than traditional media, the use of video was relatively high. Analysis on individual ownership pattern and individual use pattern of media shows a close relationships to each other. In other words, media ownership by low-income group and clerical and technical workers was less than that of high-income group, management group and professional workers. 3. Special phenomenon of content preference indicates a remarkable substitution of new media for traditional media: television is superior to newspaper in news function, while video is superior to television and movie in content preference of entertainment. And substitution phenomenon appears mainly in content preference of newspaper to television and movie to video. 4. As far as the media selection motivation and individual difference, television appears as the medium which satisfy most of motives. In terms of age, young age group are aggressive and active in selecting various media while old age group tend to satisfy their motives with only television medium. A high dependence on television medium appears among the low-educated, low-income groups and labor groups, and labor groups, and their media behavior is similar to that of young age group. Also, higher educated group, high-income group, management group and professional group satisfy their various motives with various media like young age group. Selection motive of video is mainly due to the recording function. 5. Media attitude is analyzed with three different viewpoints. In view of three points (news dependence, realization of fiction, attitude toward advertising) media attitude show a strong inter-relationship among them in the same media even under the different territorial circumstances. 6. An analysis on purchasing behavior of media indicates the people of high-income and young student groups tend to show a strong buying rate of new media.
The fundamental concept of polarization propagation modes of electromagnetic waves is a newly understood cardinal keyword in the age of speed transport technology and the Standard Model in modern physics. Accordingly, the propagation mechanism of polarized electromagnetism and its helicity have received attention in modern technology and science. We have provided a dynamic polarization platform presenting various propagation modes interactively with Mathematica system. In the platform, we confirm that the propagation mechanism satisfies the Maxwell's two vector equations graphically by realizing the Poynting vector in time-domain vector functions in a Graphics3D scheme. 광파의 편광 특성은 현대의 초고속 정보통신 시스템 구축의 핵심요체이며표준모형 (Standard Model)에서 소립자를 규명하는 기본요소이다. 이제편광의 벡터적 진행메커니즘과 그의 나선도 (helicity)는 현대물리학을이해하고 지식 정보화시스템 구축에 중요한 키워드가 되었다. 우리는편광파의 벡터적 진행과정을 역동적으로 관찰하고 편광의 나선도도 쉽게판별할 수 있는 편광파 진행 플랫폼을 $Mathematica$ 시스템에서제작하였다. 플랫폼은 포인팅 벡터의 진행과정을 시간 도메인벡터어래이로 구현함으로써 편광파의 진행 과정이 맥스웰 벡터방정식을만족하는 전자파임을 그래픽으로 확인할 수 있게 하였다.
Vector analysis in a coordinate system is a main component of the physics curriculum in undergraduate school. Because physical systems exhibits structures with special symmetries and singularities that make particular coordinate system especially useful, it is essential to choose a proper coordinate system in which the physical system can be more easily analyzed. Obviously,curvilinear coordinate systems are appropriate for natural physical systems while the Cartesian rectangular coordinate system is more appropriate for continued objects. We have presented the capability of Mathematica for use in vector analysis and in manipulating the 14-coordinate systems.