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Asthma is associated with increased levels of eosinophils in tissues, body fluids, and bone marrow. Elevated levels of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) have been noted in asthma patients. Higher levels of EDN and ECP are also associated with exacerbated asthmatic conditions. Thus, EDN, along with ECP, may aid the diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. Several groups have suggested that EDN is more useful than ECP in evaluating disease severity. This may partially be because of the recoverability of EDN (not sticky, 100% recovery rate), as ECP is a sticky and more highly charged protein. In terms of clinical utility, EDN level is a more accurate biomarker than ECP when analyzing the underlying pathophysiology of asthma. As a monitoring tool, EDN has shown good results in children with asthma as well as other allergic diseases. In children too young to fully participate in lung function tests, EDN levels may be useful as an alternative measurement of eosinophilic inflammation. EDN can also be used in adult patients and in multiple specimen types (e.g.,serum, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and nasal lavage fluid). These results are repeatable and reproducible. In conclusion, EDN may be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of asthma/allergic disease.
Blend of bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) and (acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylic rubber) terpolymer (ASA) having excellent balance in the interfacial properties and mechanical strength was developed for the automobile applications. Since interfacial adhesion between PC and styrne-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) matrix of ASA is not strong enough, two different types of compatibilizers, i.e, diblock copolymer composed of tetramethyl polycarbonate (TMPC) and SAN (TMPC-b-SAN) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were examined to improve interfacial adhesion between PC and SAN. TMPC-b-SAN was more effective than PMMA in increasing interfacial adhesion between PC and SAN matrix of ASA (or weld-line strength of PC/ASA blend). When blend composition was fixed, PC/ASA blends exhibited similar mechanical properties except impact strength and weld-line strength. Impact strength of PC/ASA blend at low temperature was influenced by rubber particle size and its morphology. PC/ASA blends containing commercially available PMMA as compatibilizer also exhibited excellent balance in mechanical properties and interfacial adhesion.
Purpose: Adherence is a major component of successful medical treatment. However, non-adherence remains a barrier to effective delivery of healthcare worldwide. Methods: Twenty healthcare facilities (secondary or tertiary hospitals) belonging to the Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Diseases (KAPARD) participated. Questionnaires were given to patients currently receiving treatment in the form of inhalant useor oral intake or transdermal patch for mild to moderate asthma. Results: A total of 1,838 patients responded to the questionnaire. Mean age was 5.98 ± 3.79 years (range: 0-18 years). With help from their caregivers, the percentage of patients that answered “taking as prescribed” was 38.04% for inhalant users, 50.09% for oral medication users and 67.42% for transdermal users. Transdermal patch users had significantly greater adherence compared to the other 2 groups (P < 0.001). The 34.15% of inhalant users, 70.33% of oral medication users and 93.00% of transdermal patch users felt that their medication delivery system was “Easy” or “Very easy” to use (P < 0.001). “Method of administration” was deemed to be the most difficult part of the treatment regimen to follow, and 76.7% of patients preferred once-daily administration (i.e., “Frequency of administration”). Conclusions: Asthma medication adherence in young children was found to be better in the transdermal patch group. This may be due to requiring fewer doses and easy to follow instructions. From an adherence point of view, the transdermal patch seems more useful for long-term asthma control in children compared to oral or inhaled medicine.
이 글은 베네수엘라의 볼리바리안 혁명이 진정한 21세기 사회주의 건설을 이룰수 있는 가능성과 한계 및 과제를 고찰하는데, ① 볼리바리안 운동이 급진적 포퓰리즘에서 사회주의적 혁명의 가능성을 보여주는 단계로 급진화되어왔고, 추가적으로급진화될 가능성을 가지고 있으며, ② 사회적 경제의 중추를 이루고 있는 협동조합은 사회적 통제를 강화시키지 않은 한 사회주의 경제의 일부분이 될 수 없고, ③공동체위원회는 중앙정부에 대한 의존에서 벗어날 때에만 지속 가능하고, 국유기업노동자위원회와 함께 사회주의 코뮌을 형성해야 하며, ④ 볼리바리안 혁명이 진정한 사회주의혁명이 되기 위해서는 광범위한 국유화와 노동자 통제가 결정적으로중요하다고 주장한다. This article will examine the possibilities, limits and the tasks for Bolivarian revolution to construct ‘the 21st century Socialism’ in Venezuela. It argue as follows: The revolution has been radicalized and evolved from radical populism to one with the potential to socialist revolution, and that it can be radicalized further; Cooperatives which is the core of ‘social economy’ cannot be a part of socialist production as long as it is not controlled by the society; Community councils will not sustainable as far as it continues to depend on the state, thus it must constitute socialist communes along with workers’ committee in state-owned companies; In order that the revolution will be a true socialist one,nationalization and control by labors of factories is crucially important and necessary.
This paper critically assesses the recent debates on Marx’s value theory. Simultaneous Dual System Interpretation(SDSI) and New Interpretation(NI) on Marx’s value theory have flaws that Fundamental Marian Theorem may not hold,when there are negative physical surplus or net products. And NI and TSSI(Temporal Single System Interpretation)’s monetary expression of labour-time are challenged by the problem of circular reasoning because they are defined or determined in the transformation procedure. Therefore, Marx’s MELT should be determined based on his theory of commodity money.
Background and Objective: Previous studies, during acute asthma exacerbations, have suggested roles for the Th2 cytokines in promoting airway inflammation in asthma patients. We assessed mediators of airway inflammation during the chronic asymptomatic phase of asthma. Method: Nine nonatopic asthma (NAA) patients, 15 atopic asthma (AA) patients, 15 atopic controls (AC), and 21 normal controls (NC) underwent sputum induction in asymptomatic phase. Sputum total cell counts and differentials were determined. Levels of the cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, GM-CSF, IFN-γ were measured by ELISA. Result: NAA and AA patients showed a higher percentage of sputum eosinophils compared to AC (P<0.001, P<0.01, respectively) and NC (P<0.001); furthermore, NAA patients showed higher percentage of sputum eosinophils and total eosinophils compared to AA (P<0.01, P=0.001, respectively). No differences were observed in the sputum levels of IL-4 and IL-5 among the four groups. In contrast, the IFN-γ levels were higher in NAA (P<0.001) and AA (P<0.001) patients compared to AC and NC. Interestingly, the GM-CSF levels were higher in AA patients compared to AC (P=0.01) or NC (P<0.001). In NAA, AA, and AC patients, the percentage of sputum eosinophils and total eosonphils correlated positively with the levels of IFN-γ (Rs=0.643 and P<0.001, Rs=0.580 and P<0.001), GM-CSF (Rs=0.459 and P<0.01, Rs=0.394 and P<0.05), but not with the IL-5 levels. Conclusions: The baseline airway inflammation of asthma, irrespective of an atopic or nonatopic diathesis, is characterized by eosinophilic inflammation and a Th1 cytokine, IFN-γ. GM-CSF, instead of IL-5 may have a role in airway eosinophilia during the chronic phase of asthma.
본 연구는 소의 미성숙 난포란의 체외성숙시 β-mercaptoethanol(β-ME)의 첨가가 체외성숙, 체외수정 후 웅성전핵의 형성 및 세포질 내의 GSH 수준에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 실시하였다. 체외성숙시 25μM과 50μM의 β-ME를 첨가한 경우 대조구에 비하여 성숙율이 증가하는 것으로 나타났으며(p<0.05), 모든 실험구에 있어서 12시간 체외성숙보다 24시간 체외성숙에서 높은 성숙율을 나타냈다(p<0.05). 체외수정 후 웅성전핵 형성에 있어서는 25μM와 50μM 농도의 β-ME 첨가구에서 대조구에 비하여 높게 나타났으나(p<0.05), 25μM과 50μM 농도구와의 유의적인 차이는 없었다. GSH의 수준은 체외성숙 후 50μM의 β-ME 첨가구가 다른 처리구에 비교하여 높게 나타났으며(p<0.05), 체외수정 후 웅성전핵이 형성된 다음 세포질 내 GSH 수준 역시 50μM의 β-ME 첨가구에서 가장 높은 결과를 나타냈다(p<0.05).