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In the present study, the concentration levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (or PCBs) in the environments in Korea are estimated based on some measured data in Korea, in comparison with the data from the other countries, Even though PCBs were banned as electrical fluids in 1970s in Korea, PCBs are still detected in the environment. PCBs levels in Korea are greatly lower than those in other countries, which are gradually decreased as well. However, the measured data are not sufficient in both numbers and quality, to estimate the average PCBs levels in Korea. The regulation limit on polychlorinated biphenyls (or PCBs) is 2mg/kg (ppm), which is too low compared to 50 ppm of many other countries including U.S. With this strict regulation, there are many problems expected, for example, in the analysis of PCBs in the transformers using in the field as well as the safe treatment of PCBs. The risk assessment on the PCBs in the environment is surely necessary prior to the change in the limit. Also the PCBs concentration monitoring in the environmental media(i.e. air, water, soil and sediment) and exposure assessment will be essential for the accurate risk assessment. If the PCB-waste guideline maintain as 2 ppm after 10 years, the excess cancer risk of PCBs exposure by ambient air, drinking water and soil was 10<SUP>-8</SUP> But if the guideline mitigate as 50 ppm after 10 years, the cancer risk was increased by 10<SUP>-7</SUP>. The ecological risk quotient by regulation change was not exceed '1'.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
This study was performed to investigate airborne volatile organic compounds(VOCs), formaldehyde, respiratory particulate for concentration in primary schools. The concentrations of major indoor air pollutants(VOCs ; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, styrene, formaldehyde, PM-10) were observed from November to December 2006. Sampling was undertaken at 81 primary schools. The sampling sites of air pollutants are classroom and hallway. VOCs with distribution of most of general environmental contamination material will be able to confirm that it shows the log-normal distribution which is similar exposure distribution. The exposure quality of VOCs and the place pollution level was indoor> hallway>outdoor, which whole is located in the metropolis and the industrial areas is higher than farm village area. It tried to observe the I/O ratio, it appeared highly from the interior of the material of most. The mean concentrations of formaldehyde, respiratory particulate were 22.07㎍/㎥, 88.06㎍/㎥ respectively. Indoor and outdoor ratios(I/O) of formaldehyde and respiratory particulate were 3.6 and 1.4, respectively. The concentration of respiratory particulate is 27.2% higher than guideline for school hygiene(100㎍/㎥). From the comparison in the construction year, the highest concentration of formaldehyde is showed under one year. However, as time passed by the concentrations of formaldehyde become lower.
임영욱(Young Wook Lim),양지연(Ji Yeon Yang),김호현(Ho Hyun Kim),이윤규(Yun Gyu Lee),김윤신(Yoon Shin Kim),장성기(Seong Ki Jang),손종렬(Jong Ryeul Sohn),노영만(Young-Man Roh),신동천(Dong-Chun Shin) 한국실내환경학회 2006 한국실내환경학회지 Vol.3 No.3
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
For indoor air quality at a newly built apartment before move-in, we monitored formaldehyde and VOCs and assessed human exposure and probabilistic health risk. We selected 801 newly built apartments all over the country. The results of the research on the condition show the mean concentrations of formaldehyde 294 ㎍/㎥, 210(median) 1497㎍/㎥(maximum), benzene 6㎍/㎥, (4 and 92㎍/㎥), toluene 1003㎍/㎥(773 and 5013 ㎍/㎥), ethylbenzene 120㎍/㎥, (62 and 1192㎍/㎥), xylene 287㎍/㎥(138 and 2723㎍/㎥) and styrene 64㎍/㎥, (42 and 531㎍/㎥). Formaldehyde from carcinogen and toluene and xylene from non-carcinogen were assessed the risk for human health. The excess cancer risk of formaldehyde for human beings between carcinogens is per 1.36 of average 1000 persons. This implies that it is over a level per 1.00 of 1000 persons demanding active risk reduction. Hence, we strongly need the active reduction plan and accurate source assumption. Among a variety of factors affecting indoor air quality for householders, closing construction or density of indoor air processing additional interior construction and indoor area, indoor air quality with a variety of districts show significant. The excess cancer risk for human beings of formaldehyde between carcinogens is per 1.36 of average 1000 persons. Non-carcinogen toxicity rate for human-beings with toluene and xylene among non-carcinogens is over HQ 1 from Seoul to local area.
목적: 소아에서 상완골 외과 골절 후 발생하는 불유합은 흔치 않은 합병증으로 주관절에 많은 합병증을 발생할 수 있다. 하지만, 상완골 외과 불유합의 치료는 아직도 논란의 여지가 있다. 저자들은 상완골 외과 불유합 환자에서 골유합술을 시행하고 그 결과를 보고하고자 한다. 대상 및 방법: 1994년부터 2007년까지 상완골 외과 불유합으로 진단받고 골유합술을 시행받은 16명(M:F=13:3, 11.8±5.2세)의 환자를 대상으로 실시하였다. 불유합의 기간은 평균 56.1개월(5-132개월)이었다. 수술전후의 방사선학적, 임상적 결과를 비교하였다. 결과: 모든 환자에서 수술 후 3개월 이내에 골유합을 얻었으며 수술로 인한 특별한 합병증은 없었다. 16명 중 3명의 환자에서 수술 전보다 운동범위가 감소하였지만, 모든 환자에서 기능향상을 보였다. 결론: 오랜 기간 불유합이 진행한 경우는 해부학적 위치로의 골유합은 불가능 했지만 연부 조직 박리를 최소화하고 견고한 내고정을 시행함으로써 상완골 외과 불유합에서도 골유합을 얻을 수 있었다. 그로 인하여 다소간 운동범위의 감소는 있을 수 있으니 근력을 향상시킴과 동시에 변형의 교정을 할 수 있었다. 저자들은 오랜 기간 동안 지속되었던 상완골 외과 불유합에서도 골유합술을 시행할 것을 추천한다. Purpose: Although nonunion of the lateral humeral condyle is a rare complication in children, it can result in a number of complications, and treatment is controversial. Our study shows the results of using osteosynthesis in patients whose lateral humeral condyle was not united. Materials and Methods: We studies 16 patients (M : F= 13 : 3; Age: 11.8±5.2 years) who were diagnosed with nonunion of the lateral humeral condyle and who underwent osteosynthesis. The mean period of nonunion was 56.2 months (5-132 months). Outcome measures were range of movement, bone union, functional score, and carrying angle and were assessed both before and after surgery. Results: Bones of all patients were united within 3 months of the operation; there were no complications. After surgery. a decreased range of movement was observed for 3 of 16 patients. However, the functional index for all patients was improved. In other words. the range of movement could be reduced while the functional index was improved so that the deformity would be lessened. Conclusion: Osteosynthesis was successful in repairing the nonunion of the humeral lateral condyle Therefore. osteosynthesis is suggested for patients who have had no treatment for nonunion of lateral humeral condyle for a long time.
이 논문의 목적은 정형외과 의사에게 골다공증을 치료하고 관리하기 위한 치료의 가이드 라인을 제시하기 위함이다. 골다공증을 치료하는 목적은 노인인구에서 골절을 예방하는 것이며 이를 위해서는 칼슘이나 비타민 D 섭취 같은 단순한 약물 치료뿐만 아니라 식생활 개선이나 생활 습관의 변화가 있어야 한다. 정형외과 의사들은 골다공증에 의한 골절환자들을 직접적으로 대하는 사람들이기 때문에, 골다공증에 의한 골절의 예방 및 골다공증의 치료를 적극적으로 하여야 할 의무가 있는 것이다. 이는 의료비용의 절감뿐만 아니라 수명연장 및 삶의 질 향상에도 기여할 수 있을 것이다. The purpose of this article is to provide orthopaedic surgeons with a guide for the management and treatment of osteoporosis. Preventing fracture prevention is the key efficacy end point in the medical management of osteoporosis for any patient. Enhancement of the bone mass and improving the bone quality are achieved by a combination of lifestyle modification, dietary supplementation with calcium and Vitamin D and pharmacologic treatment. This has proved effective for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The orthopedic surgeon is frequently contacted to identify patients with an osteoporotic fracture. As the orthopaedic surgeon is often the only physician to see a patient who has sustained such a fracture, orthopaedic surgeons must make every effort to determine if the injury is a fragility fracture so that the patient can be treated to prevent future fractures.