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More frequent cruisers prefer attractive cruising destinations, excellent geographical locations, diversified oriental cultures, local wildlife, rich tourism resource and exotic experiences in Asia for western travellers. Cruising in the Asian regions has considered as a potential growth in the transport and tourism industry. In this paper, we aim to provide suggestions to industrial practitioners on the development of the cruise port in Asia and identify the key elements of a regional leading cruise hub as desired by different users. Nevertheless, the majority of cruising-related studies were focused on tourism management in the North American and European regions. Relevant cruising studies on maritime transport management in the Asian region are under-researched. In doing so, we newly propose the CRUISE PORT framework by illustrating four representative countries in Asia (South Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Singapore) to look for common characteristics and unique features of cruise ship market in the Asian region. In order to give the valuable information and provide insight into the framework, we carried out semi-structured, in-depth interviews with different practitioners involved in the cruise industry. Through the framework, it fosters the industrial practitioners to implement cruise port strategies, cruise lines strategies and local government planning for the cruise destinations.
Referees as facilitators or conductors of every game play an extremely critical role in sports because they are one of the most important elements in providing pleasant and fair experiences to participants, spectators, and others in sporting events (Cuskelly & Hoye, 2013; Grunska, 2002). Referees' role becomes even more significant in sanctioned, formal, or important competitions (Yip, Kim, & Love, 2017). To smoothly manage each game, referees should have not only sufficient knowledge of the rules and regulations of their sport but also a correct understanding of the aims of each event based on the level of competition so that they can adopt an appropriate standard in officiating in line with those aims. For instance, the objectives and values of recreational sports are fun, a healthy lifestyle, and skill development through sport participation rather than winning, which is the most highly valued element in competitive sports (Chelladurai & Kerwin, 2017). Therefore, referees' approach to recreational sports should focus more on positive sport experiences and enjoyment than on winning. Sport officiating is a challenging and demanding task performed under great stress because referees are expected to continuously make correct, safe and fair judgments of every individual play during a match (Kim, 2017; Yip et al., 2017). Since referees are well aware of how important their calls are in a game, they make great efforts to remain focused on each play to meet these expectations. However, it is almost impossible for them to perform perfectly with no mistakes during every competition. Although bad calls unwittingly made by referees are often accepted as part of a game, it is not uncommon to see fans and media criticizing and blaming bad calls that may actually have altered the outcome of a match, which could ultimately intensify the stress and pressure on referees (Folkesson, Nyberg, Archer, & Norlander, 2002; Parsons & Bairner, 2015). Infuriated critics often go beyond merely blaming referees for bad calls. Players and coaches often verbally abuse and even physically attack referees when the players and coaches do not agree with their calls. For instance, soccer players who were angry about being shown a red card killed referees during amateur soccer matches in Argentina and Mexico in 2016 (Couzens, 2017; Gibson, 2016).
Initial science teacher education in Hong Kong is provided by the Post-graduate Diploma in Education Programme (PGDE) for both pre-service and in-service secondary school teachers. This programme includes a balanced treatment of subject curriculum and teaching in science, general pedagogical knowledge and skills, educational psychology and school administration. The science courses in this programme also have some units that equip science teachers with the knowledge and skills that are essential for teaching a science curriculum that emphasises conceptual change and understanding of the nature and methods of science. This emphasis is illustrated by two studies: (1) Developing a conceptual change model of instruction in Biology teachers, and (2) Constructing understanding of the nature and methods of science.
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This paper aims to use threshold values of housing price index, economic growth and mortgage rate as guidance to predict the onset of housing affordability problem by recursive forecasting method using graphical and autoregressive distributed lag model. These threshold values are taken from the findings of our previous study entitled “Housing Affordability Dynamics”, featured in the International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research (November 2017). We define housing affordability index and its threshold value, 130, below which, there is housing affordability problem. Next, we obtained the threshold values respectively for housing price index which must be less than 162, economic growth more than 5.32% and mortgage rate less than 5.57% for housing affordability to prevail. Applying the research in the Malaysian context, the results show that Malaysia is still in the midst of housing affordability problem and through the current study, we come to the conclusion that we should use the autoregressive distributed lag model every quarter so that if housing affordability index is found to be between 117 and 143, legislation should be introduced and implemented to ensure that housing affordability does not fall into unaffordability zone. The implication of the research result is that with prior knowledge of the imminent onset of housing affordability, policymakers could initiate timely intervention measures to stabilize housing affordability and thus minimize the damaging effect brought about by housing unaffordability if not deflect the crisis from occurring altogether.
Study Design: Retrospective cohort. Purpose: To review the clinical presentation of operated patients with delayed neurological deficits after osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs). Overview of Literature: Delayed neurological deficits can occur from 1 week to 5.7 months after OVFs. Baba has reported 78% good-to-excellent improvement (i.e., ≥50%) after 20 posterior (Cotrel-Dubousset) and 7 anterior (Kaneda in 4, Zielke ventral derotational spondylodesis in 2, and un-instrumented anterior fusion in 1) fusions. Predictive factors for neurological deficits include burst type, vacuum sign, kyphosis, angular instability, and retropulsion. Methods: Patients with neurological deficits after OVF who received spinal operations between 2000 and 2016 were included. Results: Totally, 28 patients with a mean age of 77 years underwent surgery. Neurological deficits occurred at an average of 5.4 weeks after the onset of back pain. The most common site was L1. Burst fracture was present in 14 patients and vacuum sign in seven. Surgery was performed within an average of 3.9 days of the onset of neurological deficit. Baba's score improved significantly from 5.96 to 9.81, with good-to-excellent improvement in 18 (64%) patients. Better outcomes based on Baba's scores (improvement>60% [median]) were associated with compression fractures, preoperative retropulsion of <41%, and correction of >16%. Poor improvement in Baba's scores (<25%) was associated with surgical complications and burst fracture type. Twenty-two patients (79%) regained walking ability, and seven of 15 (47%) patients demonstrated improved sphincter control at the latest follow-up. Six Frankel grade B patients did not achieve neurological recovery, four of whom exhibited postoperative surgical complications and died at 2 years because of medical problems. Implant migration occurred in six patients, albeit this was of no clinical significance. Conclusions: Although OVFs are commonly considered benign, delayed neurological deficits can occur. The significant improvement in clinical function after surgery for neurological deficits is associated with compression (and not burst) fractures, lack of surgical complications, and optimal restoration of retropulsion.
Yip,,CH,Bhoo-Pathy,,N,Daniel,,JM,Foo,,YC,Mohamed,,AK,Abdullah,,MM,Ng,,YS,Yap,,BK,Pathmanathan,,R Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2016 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.17 No.3
Background: The three standard biomarkers used in breast cancer are the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The Ki-67 index, a proliferative marker, has been shown to be associated with a poorer outcome, and despite absence of standardization of pathological assessment, is widely used for therapy decision making. We aim to study the role of the Ki-67 index in a group of Asian women with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 450 women newly diagnosed with Stage 1 to 3 invasive breast cancer in a single centre from July 2013 to Dec 2014 were included in this study. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between Ki-67 (positive defined as 14% and above) and age, ethnicity, grade, mitotic index, ER, PR, HER2, lymph node status and size. All analyses were performed using SPSS Version 22. Results: In univariable analysis, Ki -67 index was associated with younger age, higher grade, ER and PR negativity, HER2 positivity, high mitotic index and positive lymph nodes. However on multivariable analysis only tumour size, grade, PR and HER2 remained significant. Out of 102 stage 1 patients who had ER positive/PR positive/HER2 negative tumours and non-grade 3, only 5 (4.9%) had a positive Ki-67 index and may have been offered chemotherapy. However, it is interesting to note that none of these patients received chemotherapy. Conclusions: Information on Ki67 would have potentially changed management in an insignificant proportion of patients with stage 1 breast cancer.
This study describes an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of two subgroups of genotype AAA bananas (Musa acuminata cv. Pei Chiao and Musa acuminata cv. Gros Michel). Instead of using suspension cells, cauliflower-like bud clumps, also known as multiple bud clumps (MBC), were induced from sucker buds on MS medium containing $N^6$-Benzylaminopurine (BA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), and Paclobutrazol (PP333). Bud slices were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens C58C1 or EHA105 that carry a plasmid containing Arabidopsis root-type ferredoxin gene (Atfd3) and a plant ferredoxin-like protein (pflp) gene, respectively. These two strains showed differences in transformation efficiency. The EHA105 strain was more sensitive in Pei Chiao, 51.3% bud slices were pflp-transformed, and 12.6% slices were Atfd3-transformed. Gros Michel was susceptible to C58C1 and the transformation efficiency is 4.4% for pflp and 13.1% for Atfd3. Additionally, gene integration of the putative pflp was confirmed by Southern blot. Resulting from the pathogen inoculation assay, we found that the pflp transgenic banana exhibited resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4. This protocol is highly advantageous to banana cultivars that have difficulties in setting up suspension cultures for the purpose of quality improvement through genetic transformation. In addition, this protocol would save at least 6 months in obtaining explants for transformation and reduce labor for weekly subculture in embryogenic cell suspension culture systems.
Transition from school-to-work is important for people with disabilities because they have shown a pattern of overwhelming low expectations and are particularly vulnerable to unemployment. How effective are the students with disabilities prepared for school-to-work transition is not yet evaluated in Singapore. Results of the inquiry would add to the body of knowledge on transition planning and aid transition planners to make progress towards transition services. The purpose of this study was to identify the success factors in increasing the employability outcomes and barriers faced in implementing school-to-work transition for students with mild intellectual disability in two schools from the Association for Persons with Special Needs. The schools, a secondary and a post-secondary school, were selected as they were successful in providing transition services for students aged 16 to 21 years. Using the mixed methods research paradigm, data were collected for the study. The views of 16 employers, 16 parents and 84 students who were involved in the transition planning were sought. The findings of the study recommended an integrated approach to transition planning comprising four key elements: prevocational and vocational training, transition assessment and counseling, homeschool-community partnership and work experiences. The study also provided grounds to advocate for a competency-based training model in advancing life-long planning for individuals with mild intellectual disability to prepare them for employment.