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      • KCI등재

        3차원 인텐시티 프로브의 근거리 음장 측정에서의 오차 수치해석

        김석재,지석근,김천덕,Kim, Suk-Jae,Jee, Suk-Kun,Suzuki, Hideo,Kim, Chun-Duck 한국음향학회 1994 韓國音響學會誌 Vol.13 No.3

        이 연구에서는 3차원 음향 인텐시티를 동시에 측정할 수 있는 프로브를 이용하여 음향 인텐시티를 측정할 때 필연적으로 발생하는 오차를 컴퓨터의 수치계산으로 검토하였다. 이 3차원 음향 인텐시티 프로브는 Suzuki등에 의해 제안된 4개의 마이크로폰으로 구성된 것이고, 수치계산에서는 이상적인 점음원과 유한 크기를 가지는 면음원에 대해서 프로브의 각 축방향 및 임의의 방향에 대한 측정오차를 근거리 음장에서 분석하였다. 그 결과, 점음원의 경우 측정거리가 프로브를 구성하는 마이크로폰 사이의 간격보다 약 2.5배 이상 떨어진 거리에서 오차 1dB 이하의 정밀한 측정을 할 수 있었고, 유한 크기의 면음원의 경우, 면음원의 한 변의 길이가 0.02m이상일 때 근거리 음장의 측정오차가 크게 감소하기 시작하여, 한 변의 길이가 0.2m일 때 측정거리가 마이크로폰 사이의 간격보다 0.67배로 근접하여 측정하여도 1dB 이하의 정밀한 측정이 가능한 것으로 평가되어 이 프로브의 근거리 음장 측정의 유효성이 확인되었다. We studied an inherent error be caused by a measuring acoustic intensity using probe which can measure simultaneously the three-dimensional acoustic intensity. This three-dimensional intensity probe was constructed with four microphones, proposed by Suzuki et al. . In the computer simulation, we analyzed the nearfield measurement error with arbitary direction and each of axis direction on the ideal point source and the plate sound source which have finite size. From the results, in case of point source, we obtained accurate measurement below about 1dB when the distance of measurement was about 2.5 times with the distance among microphones in this probe. And in the case of plate sound source, the nearfield measurement error was decreased as the length of one side became above 0.02m, we obtained accurate measurement below about 1dB when the length of one side is 0.2m. The nearfield measurement error of finite size sound is small to ignore. Therefore this probe is useful to measure nearfield intensity.

      • KCI등재

        Changing Frontiers and Invisible Politics in Northeast Asia: A Conversation with Tessa Morris-Suzuki

        Tessa Morris-Suzuki 고려대학교 민족문화연구원 2018 Cross-Currents Vol.0 No.27

        This is an edited and updated transcript of a November 2016 interview that was part of the Tianxia Podcast Series (http://www.chinoiresie.info/tessa-morris-suzuki-podcast-diamond-mountains/). The conversation transcribed here focuses on a discussion of Tessa Morris-Suzuki’s To the Diamond Mountains: A Hundred-Year Journey through China and Korea (2010), a travelogue based on a trip she took in 2009 to Northeast China, North Korea, and South Korea with the purpose of retracing the 1910 journey of the English adventurer and artist Emily Georgiana Kemp. We discuss the book in relation to the momentous transformations that have occurred over the long twentieth century in the areas visited by Kemp, and to the ways in which grassroots movements and new forms of survival politics are remaking Northeast Asia today.

      • A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF USA FOOD AND BEVERAGE ADVERTISEMENTS ON CHILDREN’S TELEVISION: FOCUS ON HEALTH PROMOTION AND OTHER PERSUATION TECHNIQUES

        Kanae Suzuki,Michelle R. Nelson 글로벌지식마케팅경영학회 2018 Global Marketing Conference Vol.2018 No.07

        Introduction Despite the rise of digital media, TV remains the number one place children spend their media time (Moses, 2014). Past research has shown that less healthy food and beverages such as those containing high fat, sugar, and salt (HFSS) are prominent in TV commercials (e.g., Carter, Patterson, Donovan, Ewing, & Roberts, 2011). In these commercials, various persuasive techniques (e.g., taste/smell, convenience), which promote the purchase of the products, have been used (Hebden, King, & Kelly, 2011). Extensive studies have found that exposure to advertising for HFSS products, including confectionery, soft drinks, crisps or savory snacks, fast food, pre-sugared breakfast cereals, is associated with children‟s cognition, food consumption, and obesity (e.g., Harris, Bargh, & Brownell, 2009; Macklin, 1994; see also Moore, Wilkie, & Desrochers, 2017). Since younger children, especially those in the “perceptual stage” of development, may not understand the persuasive or selling intent of commercials (e.g., John, 1999), they may be vulnerable to this advertising. As a result, several countries such as UK and Ireland (Hawkes, Lobstein, & For the Polmark Consortium, 2011) have introduced restrictions or regulations for broadcasting food and beverage commercials for children. The commercials of HFSS food and beverage have sometimes introduced these products with healthier images and words / phrases like health and nutrition claims. Health claims refer to any representation that states, suggests, or implies that a relationship exists between a food (/beverage) or a constituent of that food (/beverage) and health. Nutrition claims mean any representation which states, suggests or implies that a food (/beverage) has particular nutritional properties including but not limited to the energy value and to the content of protein, fat and carbohydrates, as well as the content of vitamins and minerals (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States & World Health Organization, 2013). Using health messages for HFSS food presents the risk of a biased image of the products (i.e., they are „healthy‟), which may result in unhealthy life styles and conditions. In recent years, there has been regulatory pressure on food advertisers to market their products responsibly (e.g., WHO regulations; Kraak et al., 2016). At the same time, the Children‟s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) emerged, in which several leading companies pledged to market their products to children responsibly (see editorial by Boyland & Harris, 2017). Therefore, we were interested in seeing if food and beverage advertising had changed in 2017. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the relative frequency of food and beverage commercials targeting children with a focus on healthy aspects of the products, their health and nutrition claims, as well as other persuasive techniques. Method A total of twenty hours of programming targeting children was recorded on Nickelodeon and Cartoon Networks in the United States during the hours of 5 p.m. to 10 p.m. on two weekdays in September 2017. The advertisements were coded for product type (“food”, “beverage”, fast-food restaurant (“Restaurant: Quick-service/fast food restaurant”), and sit-down restaurant (“Restaurant: Sit-down restaurant”), food type (e.g., “confectionary”, “savory snacks”, “pre-prepared convenience foods”, “bread”, “fruits”, and “vegetables”) (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations & World Health Organization, 2016; Suzuki, 2018), and persuasive techniques (e.g., “health claims”, “nutrition claims”, “taste/smell/flavor”, “convenience”, “scientific information”, “celebrities/a well-known person”, and “eating /drinking behavior”) (e.g., Hebden et. al., 2011; Jenkin, Madhvani, Signal & Bowers, 2014; Kraak & Story, 2015; Warren, Wicks, Wicks, Fosu, & Chung, 2008). Food type can be classified into two categories; Less healthy (“confectionary”, “savory snacks”, “sweet bakery wares”, “other sweets/desserts”, “Sugared breakfast cereals”, “pre-prepared convenience foods”) or healthier categories related to other food categories (Ofcom, 2004; Nutrition Australia, 2013; Suzuki, 2018). Seven coders independently evaluated the advertisements, with two coders assigned to every programming block. They were trained for about three weeks to read the coding manual, practice coding and discuss the coding scheme, and revise their coding after receiving feedback of the trial coding. To check coding reliability, two independent coders evaluated the same programs. 94.3% agreement was achieved for product type. Results and discussion A total of 856 commercials appeared. Food and beverage advertisements represented 29.0% (N=248). On average, children were exposed to 12.4 food and beverage advertisements per hour. Of all the food, beverage and restaurant advertisements, “food” and fast-food commercials were frequently broadcasted; 40.7% (N=101) were for “food” commercials, and fast-food restaurant commercials accounted for 43.5% (N=108). 12.1% (N=30) “beverage” commercials and 3.6% (N=9) sit-down restaurant commercials were included. Food, beverage and restaurant commercials were more likely to appear on Nickelodeon (36.2%, N=129) than on the Cartoon network (28.4%, N=419) (χ2=5.43, df=1, p<.05). As for the appearances of product type, “food” advertisements frequently appeared on Nickelodeon (54.6%, N=65), whereas the programs of Cartoon network included a lot of fast food commercials (61.2%, N=79). In examining the appearances of “beverage”, “food”, “fast food”, and “others (except food, beverage, and restaurant)” between the channels, the results showed that the programs of Cartoon network were more likely to broadcast “fast food” commercials than those of Nickelodeon, whereas the programs of Nickelodeon were more likely to broadcast “food” commercials (χ2=38.23, df=3, p<.01)1. The majority of food types were “confectionary” (25.7%, N=26), “savory snacks” (16.8%, N=17), “breakfast cereals” (14.9%, N=15), and “pre-prepared convenience foods” (13.9%, N=14). In classifying various kinds of foods into two big categories related to health (healthier or less healthy) as above-mentioned, less healthy food accounted for 88.1% (N=89). No commercials were categorized into three of the healthier categories (bread, fruits, and vegetables). As persuasive techniques for consumers, “health claims”, and “nutrition claims” were low (8.9%). For example, grape juice produced by Welch‟s used the appeal “sugar free”. In the commercials with nutrition claims, there was no significant difference in the appearance between the “beverage” and “food” commercials (χ2=1.70, df=1, n.s.). The other persuasive techniques like “convenience” (75.8%, N=188), “taste/smell/flavor” (51.2%, N=127), and “eating/drinking behavior” (49.2%, N=122) were frequently used. In contrast, the rates of some techniques (e.g., “celebrities/a well-known person”, “scientific information”) were very low. As for the persuasive technique of “celebrities/a well-known person”, the category of product type was classified in only the “beverage” category. Thus, this study indicated that there were not many less-healthy food commercials that appealed to health and nutrition aspects of the products by using health and nutrition claims, or scientific information. In previous studies, the rate of health and nutrition claims varied between less than 10% to more than 30% (Jenkin et al., 2014). This may be due to the differences in the definitions of health and nutrition claims. Our study referred to the international standard definitions. Therefore, the findings regarding the rate of health and nutrition claims in this study can contribute to overall knowledge about the current spread of health and nutrition claims in “less healthy” food commercials of children‟s television programs. It may also be the case that food companies are acting more responsibly by limiting their persuasion techniques to those that relate to taste or convenience and not by misrepresenting the products as healthy. However, overall, the proportion of less healthy food commercials was high, and various persuasive techniques were used. At the same time, there were no commercials for fruits or vegetables presented during this time frame despite governmental regulations for eating these healthier foods. These findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the ways that certain foods are promoted (or are not promoted) among parents and policy-makers. As the sample used in this study was recorded only on weekdays and through the two kids' channels. It would be expected that the future study develop the analysis for the recorded commercials on weekends and on the other local channels. The sample used in this study was analyzed only on weekdays and through two children‟s channels. Future research might examine food and beverage advertising across different time frames and channels.

      • KCI등재후보

        Effect of Propolis Volatiles from a Stingless Honeybee(Apidae : Meliponinae) on the Immune System of Elderly Residents in a Nursing Home

        Suzuki, Seiko,Amano, Kazuhiro,Suzuki, Koichi Korean Society of Sericultural Science 2009 International Journal of Industrial Entomology Vol.19 No.1

        We report an evaluation of the immunostimulatory effect of propolis volatiles from a stingless honeybee. We studied 34 elderly residents at a special nursing home. Twenty-one subjects were treated with propolis, 8 with $Binch\hat{o}$ charcoal and 5 subjects acted as controls. Subjects treated with either propolis or Bincho charcoal were housed in rooms separated from the other non-study residents in the nursing home. The effects of each treatment on natural killer (NK) cell activity and lymphocyte levels were examined after 2 months and then for a longer period. The results indicated that NK cell activity was significantly improved to that within the normal range only after propolis treatment.

      • Efficacy of Oral Administration of Lentinula eododes Mycelia Extract for Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Postoperative Hormone Therapy

        Suzuki, Nobutaka,Takimoto, Yuko,Suzuki, Riho,Arai, Takanari,Uebaba, Kazuo,Nakai, Masuo,Strong, Jeffry Michael,Tokuda, Harukuni Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2013 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.14 No.6

        Extract of Lentinula edodes mycelia (LEM) is currently utilized as an oral biological response modifier (BRM) medicine for cancer patients. However, its effectiveness for breast cancer patients with postoperative adjuvant hormone therapy has not yet been scientifically verified. In this study, we investigated the influence of LEM on the quality of life (QOL) and immune response in breast cancer patients undergoing postoperative adjuvant hormone therapy. Twenty patients were studied in total. They received only hormone therapy in the first 4 weeks followed by hormone therapy and LEM during the next 8 weeks. Laboratory tests, QOL score and peripheral blood cytokine production levels were evaluated during the study period. No changes in QOL or cytokines were noted after the first 4 weeks. In contrast, during the following combined therapy period, improvements were noted in QOL and cytokine levels. Although a future large-scale investigation is necessary to confirm these results, these data suggest that the concomitant use of LEM with postoperative adjuvant hormone therapy improves the QOL and immune function of patients.

      • Development of the Bitterling, Acheilognathus rhombeus(Cyprinidae) from Korea.

        Suzuki, Nobuhiro,Jeon, Sang Rin 상명대학교 기초과학연구소 1991 기초과학연구 Vol.5 No.-

        江原道鐵原郡의 漢灘江에서 採集한 납지리의 個體發生을 22℃의 水溫飼育下에서 經詩的으로 觀察하였다. 本種의 卵은 鷄卵形으로 제리狀인 物質에 덮여 있으며 1回에 平均19粒의 卵이 搾出되었다. 卵發生 및 仔魚의 發育形態는 Nakamura(1969)가 記載한 日本産의 것과 매우 닮았다. 特히 仔魚는 S子狀으로 몸을 꿈틀거리는 듯한 運動을 하는데 이로 미루어 볼때 납지리 Acheilognathus rhombeus는 日本産인 A. typus와 A. longipinnis, 그리고 韓半島産인 큰납지리 Acanthorhodeus asmussi와 가시납지리 Acan. gracilis와 近緣關係에 있음이 示唆되었다. 本種은 韓半島産 납자루類中에서는 唯一하게 秋季産卵型으로 仔魚의 發育이 一定한 段階에서 遲延되었다. 이러한 發育의 遲延은 遺傳的인 支配를 받으며 水溫低下等의 環境要因에 依하지 않는다는 事實이 밝혀졌다. 그리고 이 現象은 秋季産卵型의 適應形質이라고 解釋되었다. 또한 仔魚의 S字狀運動은 日本産인 납자루類에서는 秋季産卵型에 出現하는 形質인데 韓半島産에서는 큰납지리와 가시납지리처럼 春季産卵型에도 出現하는 形質이다. 이러한 事實로부터 系統發生은 큰납지리나 가시납지리 같은 種들로부터 秋季産卵型인 種이 出現하였음이 示唆되어진다. The development of eggs and larvae in Acheilognathus rhombeus from Korea were observed. As regards the morphological characters of the egg and larval developnemt, these from Korea are closely similar to those from Japan. For the duration of all larval stages, A. rhombeus larvae share the character such as the incessant wiggly move ment pattern as that of fly maggot with the larvae of A. typus, A. longipinnis, Acanthorhodeus asmussi and Acan. gracilis. From this fact, it should be supposed that A. rhombeus is closely related to these species in the phylogenetic relationships. This species is the only autumun-spawning bitterling in Korea and the larval growth always retards in such larval stage as the duration from B to D in Suzuki and Hibiya's (1985) developmental stage, of which the larval satge shows no appearence of melanophores on the body. The heritable retardation is a adaptation for relation to the autumn-spawning. Thus, these facts seem to be the relation of evolutionary trend between the spring- summer spawning species and autumn- spawning species.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Olig2 labeling index is correlated with histological and molecular classifications in low-grade diffuse gliomas.

        Suzuki, Aya,Nobusawa, Sumihito,Natsume, Atsushi,Suzuki, Hiromichi,Kim, Young-Ho,Yokoo, Hideaki,Nagaishi, Masaya,Ikota, Hayato,Nakazawa, Takuro,Wakabayashi, Toshihiko,Ohgaki, Hiroko,Nakazato, Yoichi M. Nijhoff ; Kluwer Academic Publishers 2014 Journal of neuro-oncology Vol.120 No.2

        <P>Diagnosis of low-grade diffuse gliomas based on morphology is highly subjective and, therefore, is often difficult, with significant intra- and interobserver variability. Here, we investigated WHO grade II diffuse astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas for immunohistochemical expression of Olig2, measuring its labeling index (LI), and evaluated the significance of Olig2 LI in the histological and molecular classifications. The means of Olig2 LI in glioma cells were 43.7 % in diffuse astrocytomas, 59.3 % in oligoastrocytomas and 76.1 % in oligodendrogliomas. There was a statistically significant difference between all pairs of histological types. The mean of Olig2 LI of gliomas with 1p/19q loss ± IDH1/2 mutation, the majority of them being oligodendrogliomas, was significantly higher than the means of those with TP53 mutation ± IDH1/2 mutation and IDH1/2 mutation only, the majority of which were diffuse astrocytomas (70.1 vs. 47.2 and 46.5 %, respectively). When categorized according to the classification of Jiao et al., Olig2 LI of I-CF gliomas (cases with IDH and one or more of CIC, FUBP1 or combined 1p/19q loss; mean 71.0 %) was significantly higher than that of I-A gliomas (cases with IDH and ATRX alterations; mean 45.3 %). These molecular classifications were reported to correlate well with clinical outcome. However, borderlines of Olig2 LI were broad and could not clearly distinguish genotypes in the molecular classifications. In conclusion, Olig2 LI cannot be taken as a complete surrogate marker for molecular genotype, but could possibly provide some ancillary information when molecular assay is not availabe.</P>

      • KCI등재후보

        東京出身の世代別外来語のアクセントの比較分析

        鈴木美?(Suzuki, Mie),崔英淑(Choi, Young-Sook) 한국일본문화학회 2016 日本文化學報 Vol.0 No.70

        Suzuki · Choi(2016) research compared and analyzed 4 Japanese dictionaries : NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary(1993, 2015), Meikai Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary(1994,2014). This study analyzed Japanese Native pronunciation of a woman in her 20s and in her 50s from Tokyo to research expressing types when the Japanese Native speakers pronouced Japanese loanword Accent. Japanese loanwords for testing are Japanese loanwords of JLPT N1 and N2. The result shows the difference between pronouciation of the Japanese Native speakers and Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary. To make generalizations about this study, this study need to extend experimenters. Furthermore, this study leave a matter in building a database for education of Koreans studying Japanese Accents.

      • KCI등재

        Reflux-related Extraesophageal Symptoms Until Proven Otherwise: A Direct Measurement of Abnormal Proximal Exposure Based on Hypopharyngeal Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance as a Reliable Indicator for Successful Treatment Outcomes

        ( Takeshi Suzuki ),( Yosuke Seki ),( Tomoaki Matsumura ),( Makoto Arai ),( Toyoyuki Hanazawa ),( Yoshitaka Okamoto ),( Haruhiko Suzuki ),( Kazunori Kasama ),( Akiko Umezawa ),( Yoshimoti Kurokawa ),( 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 2022 Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (JNM Vol.28 No.1

        Background/Aims The Lyon Consensus defined parameters based on upper endoscopy and 24-hour combined multichannel intraluminal impedancepH (MII-pH), that conclusively establish the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the true role of upper endoscopy and MII-pH to evaluate patients with extraesophageal symptoms (EES) has not been well established. Hypopharyngeal MII (HMII), which directly measures laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) events, has been utilized to evaluate patients with EES suggestive of LPR. Methods This was a retrospective study involving patients with EES for > 12 weeks despite proton pump inhibitor therapy, and had no endoscopic confirmatory evidence for GERD and negative MII-pH. All patients were subsequently referred for further evaluation of EES with “unknown” etiology and underwent laryngoscopy and HMII. Based on HMII, abnormal proximal exposure (APE) was defined as LPR ≥ 1/day and/or full column reflux (reflux 2 cm distal to the upper esophageal sphincter) > 4/day. Patients with APE were offered antireflux surgery (ARS) and the outcome of ARS was objectively assessed using Reflux Symptom Index. Results Of 21 patients with EES which was thought to be GERD-unrelated based on endoscopy and MII-pH, 17 patients (81%) had APE. Eight patients with APE who had undergone ARS had significant symptomatic improvement in the Reflux Symptom Index score (19.6 ± 4.9 pre-ARS to 5.8 ± 1.4 post-ARS, P = 0.008). Conclusions A conventional diagnostic approach using endoscopy and MII-pH may not be sufficient to evaluate patients with EES suggestive of LPR. HMII is essential to evaluate patients with EES, and APE could be a reliable indicator for successful treatment outcomes. (J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2022;28:69-77)

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