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People want to watch a sports game which cannot anticipate the result until the end of the game. Sometimes, however, excessive tension of contest lowers the interest of audience. Vast amount of existing researches have focused on finding explanation about what makes a difference of the preference level of suspense among sports fans and where is the optimal level of suspense. We apply Expected Utility Theory and Prospect theory to illustrate the expected utility of sports spectators. According to our findings, if someone someone who is satisfied more when the cheering team wins, he or she may prefer lopsided match than close match. And fans who support winning team, which means team which wins often, prefer lopsided match to close match because they forecast their team will win more than fans who support losing team, which means team which loses often. We manipulate the level of satisfaction when the cheering team wins (S) and subjective forecasted probability of win before the game (Q) of respondents and measure the utility of them toward difference game aspect (P) to verify our hypothesis. This study was carried out to investigate how the satisfaction of sports spectators will change according to the change of the game aspect. In particular, research model was set up using the Expected Utility Theory and Prospect Theory of economics. The use of economics models to explain sports consumer behavior is different from that of previous studies, and consumers' prior expectations can affect the current game viewing based on Prospect Theory is another contribution of this research.
The cosmetic industry has been rapidly expanding over the last decades. The industry itself generates about $230 billion each year and is consumed daily by 90% of female consumers. Despite its weight in the economy, consumer research has largely neglected the specificity of beauty products and consumption. The first aim of this paper is thus to offer an integrative conceptual framework to better understand beauty consumption from a consumer psychology point of view, incorporating findings from evolutionary, cognitive and cultural psychology. The second aim is to encourage consumer research on the topic by offering a research agenda taking into consideration different dimensions of beauty perception. This working paper is based on a critical and systematic literature review conducted on the topic of beauty in cognitive, evolutionary and cultural psychology. Whilst the beauty industry is booming, a gap exists in the consumer research literature in terms of understanding the applications of traditional evolutionary, cognitive and crosscultural research on the topic. This working paper introduces a framework and agenda to understand, frame, and study beauty in consumer research. On the basis of the literature reviewed, we propose a model with two decision-making systems related to beautyrelated cognition and behaviors: an impulsive decision-making system and a socially constructed decision-making system. In the impulsive decision-making system, sexual selection and cognitive mechanisms function simultaneously. We expect impulsive buying behavior to occur when consumers are exposed to highly aesthetic packaging of beauty products. In the socially constructed decision-making system, consumers choose certain brands depending on the brand image being aligned with the consumer's cultural perception of beauty. We argue that decision-making behavior is reflective, as opposed to impulsive. Finally, we argue that both systems are mutually reinforcing and need to be better integrated into further studies looking at beauty consumption.
In real life most are searching for ways to pursue happiness through positive affirmation from others. This practice includes conspicuous luxury consumption in capitalist societies. Veblen Thorstein critically describes this construct as lavishing money on unnecessary evident goods as a means to gain social status and recognition from others (Veblen, 1899). Following Veblen, researchers have examined various antecedent and consequent factors of conspicuous luxury consumption behaviour from broad research streams such as power, social class, culture and materialism (e.g., Berger & Ward, 2010; Han, Nunes, & Drèze, 2010; Lee & Shrum, 2012; Rucker & Galinsky, 2008, 2009; Sivanathan & Pettit, 2010; Wang & Griskevicius, 2014). Though research on conspicuous luxury consumption has received great attention over the past decade, and previous research discovered how various factors affect conspicuous luxury consumption, the ways in which core factors influence conspicuous luxury consumption are still not well understood. In this research, we revealed two important factors; self-focus versus other-focus and self-transformative versus self-expressive motivation. In multiple experiments, the major dependent variable is the logo size of luxury brands, which is generally accepted to reflect the conspicuous consumption intentions of the purchaser. This research reveals the following two important findings. First, individuals have a greater desire for conspicuous luxury products when they focus more on others than themselves, because of brand logo visibility of luxury consumption. This is because focusing on others makes individuals more concerned about others' opinions of them and social criticism (Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975), thus leading individuals to gravitate towards the products that can guard against potential social criticism. This in turn, makes other-focused individuals place more value than self-focused individuals on conspicuous luxury products that have socially favourable indicators. Secondly, the current research shows that individuals who are motivated to transform themselves into the person they wish to be prefer conspicuous luxury products more than those who are motivated to express their actual selves. This is because conspicuous luxury products are highly associated with an ideal self. The current research offers several important contributions. First, the studies reported here will enrich the extant conspicuous luxury consumption literature by unveiling the fundamental motivations lying behind the various factors that have been shown to influence conspicuous consumption in previous research (e.g., Lee & Shrum, 2012; Rucker & Galinsky, 2008, 2009). Second, the findings of this research highlight ways to attenuate conspicuous luxury consumption that affect the happiness of individuals; the self-focused and self-expression. Consequently, this research's findings advance understanding of luxury consumption as most research has focused more on antecedents that increase conspicuous luxury consumption behaviour (e.g., Lee & Shrum, 2012; Sivanathan & Pettit, 2010; Wang & Griskevicius, 2014) than factors that decrease conspicuous luxury consumption behaviour (Stillman, Fincham, Vohs, Lambert, & Phillips, 2012).
Korean society is aging at a fast rate and the ratio of elderly population is expected to increase by 38.2% in 2050 (Statistics Korea, 2011). The extension of average life expectancy of the elderly generation leads to various problems and the most important issue is the mental health of the elderly. The suicide rate of the elderly is increasing every year and is the highest rate among OECD nations (OECD, 2014). The primary reason for the rapidly increasing suicide rate is psychological hardship caused by personal, social, and environmental factors such as a generation gap from nuclearization, decreased social position, retirement, economic hardship, spousal bereavement, and separation. The importance of education to improve quality of life through the mental stability of the elderly generation is emphasized. Continued education has a positive effect on the physical, social, and psychological health of the elderly generation (Kim, 2011), successful aging (Jee, 2010), and quality of life (Kim &An, 2008). Arts and crafts education can achieve development in visual perception, sense of touch, and continued elderly education (Mo, 2011). Arts and crafts education improves accomplishments and creative thinking ability through analogue behavior of making by hand. This study conducted 12 hours of education for 3 days from 1pm to 5 pm at 1 week intervals on 5 elderly women between 55 and 70 years of age to investigate physical and psychological effects on elderly women through natural wool craft activity. Before the education, the anxiety degree of subjects of the past week was measured with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) to verify the effect of sensibility education by conducting electroencephalogram(EEG) and PortaLite before after conducting education on subjects. As a result of analyzing the before and after numerical mean value through brainwave test, the increasing phenomenon of an alpha waves appeared and showed that the psychology of subjects is stable and secure. The result of this study showed that wool craft education decreased anxiety, increased alpha waves and improved the psychological stability of elderly women.
Measuring body size with a 3D scanner can reduce inter-measurer variability and provide better accuracy compared to using a traditional methods of measurement (Park, Nam, & Park, 2009). Many size measurement projects (or studies) that measure body size established a size measurement method prior to the development of a 3D scanner and automatic size measurement programs that produce 3D virtual body size measurements (Park, &Nam, 2012). Size data measured through an automatic size measurement program are more accurate and have a lower variability that is more appropriate for body measurements (Han, & Nam, 2004; Nam, Choi, Jung, & Yun, 2004). However, this method is limited to healthy subjects who can maintain a correct posture in a 3D scanner. It is difficult for the elderly to maintain the correct posture for body measurements in ‘Basic Human Body Measurements for Technological Design' of ISO 7250(1997). Body measurement definitions are based on vertical and horizontal directions consequently, it is hard to measure those with a bent body type even if they stand in a correct posture. Most body measurement items are automatically measured in vertical and horizontal directions because current automatic size measurement programs utilize algorithms based on typical body measurement definitions. The size measurement method based on a vertical and horizontal directions tends to have a problem for elderly individuals with a bent body type who have difficulty maintaining a correct posture for 3D scanning as defined in ISO 7250(1997)(Ashdown, & Na, 2008).This study analyzes the problem of present auto-measurement programs that use elderly's 3D body scan data. We conducted a comparative analysis of elderly's body sizes using an auto-measurement program from virtual 3D body scan data and direct measurement with traditional measurement methods. We establish 34 typical body size measurements for the use of data from 464 males and 472 females (total 936) between the ages of 70 to 85. For error analysis, data separated to normal values and outliers compared with ISO 20655(2003). ISO 20685 defines the accuracy of extracted measurements by classification and measurement type (segment lengths, body height/breaths/depth, large/small circumferences, and head/hand/foot dimensions). The majority of outliers for the male and female body height type was “height”. Total number of persons with outliers for Height's data was 603; consequently, 64.4% of subjects (elderly group of 70-85 yrs.) could not maintain a correct posture when scanning. Other data also had many errors from inaccurate measurement postures. A total of 72.3% of males and 70% of females have incorrect values in small circumferences. The segment lengths' error data was 76.5% of males and 75% of females; in addition, the head dimension' outliers were 87% for both male and female subjects. Especially 57.46% of males had incorrect data, while 74.67% of females had a type of large circumference. Female chest circumference had significant errors due to sagging breasts. The differences identify with a correlation between type of large circumference (chest, hip, under bust, waist, waist of omphalion) and gender. There were several correlations between the many measurement errors because values over 70% of data have outliers; however, each measurement type has properties in regards to correlation. A substantial positive correlation was found between all measurements (except hip circumference) in the type of large circumference; in addition, one-way ANOVA indicated that the measurements influenced height and were statistically significant. Outliers found in height data for the elderly's were more likely to have errors in the type of large circumference. The type of body height indicated a strong correlation and statistical significance between the axilla height and other measurements (height, waist, crotch, lateral malleolus). Axilla height with more outliers indicated that other type of body height measurements had a higher potential for errors. The posture for body measurement was standardized as standing erect; however, this study indicated that many measurement errors were possible between using an auto-measurement program and direct measurement. The value of outlier about a particular measurement item can expect increased errors about any group (height: large circumference group/ axilla height: body height group). We have to study the relation in measurements in these types ‘large circumference' because ‘head dimensions' types correlate between measurements in each group. We need a more detailed analysis about outliers to find the major factors for measurement errors in regards to the elderly as well as discuss the possibility of ISO measurement-standard's application for the elderly.
The advancement of industry and science in modern society has facilitated the inherent growth of humanity due to the provisions of large amounts of information and knowledge. Deconstructionism originated from the desire for self-expression rooted in the inherent growth of humanity and desires to express various characteristics through deconstruction and not be classified and constrained by existing dichotomous structures and forms. Deconstructism (an idea to resist dichotomous ideas and existing structuralism) seeks androgyny as well as the deconstruction of sex vis-à-vis human desire. Human androgyny, inherent in history and ancient Greek myths (Kwon, 2002), is now being adapted by modern society, psychology, culture, and art (Han & Kim, 2012). Androgyny, adapted by literature, sculpture, and painting, is now being used by the production of various images as well as modern fashion costumes. It is necessary to study androgyny to provide an aesthetic value for modern fashion design that can also deeply analyze the ideas and philosophies of fashion designers. This study considers androgyny with a focus on deconstructive fashion, understanding the tendency of androgyny in modern fashion, and providing a reference material for future fashion designs as well as for the direction and development of various fashion accessories and hair accessories. This study uses internet resources and previous research from professional journals and books about deconstructionism and androgyny for a literature review. It adapts an empirical method based on visual images from the design collections of designers defined as deconstructive fashion designers by researchers and professional editors. The androgyny of deconstructive fashion is classified in this study as follows. The first are ambiguous designs that show no clear distinction between sexes. The designers show designs unconstrained by sexes and which seek human instinct through wearing fashion items of the opposite sex that use masks and express sexual ambiguity with makeup and costumes. The second is integration shown in designs with both masculine and feminine characteristics. The designers integrates the lines and details of the opposite sex with costumes and patterns to escape existing ideas and show a silhouette that eliminate sexual stereotypes. The third is deconstructivity as shown in designs with no sexual characteristic and no sexual concept. It is a trend that originated from the interpretative view that adapts the super realism of deconstructionism and is free from an existing aesthetic consciousness to deconstruct a sex role for existing costumes and refuse all standardized ideas; consequently, the roles of costumes and items are eliminated and a new fashion style emerges from the individual values and ideas of designers. The androgyny of modern fashion from deconstructionism diverges from traditional form, integrates with aesthetic factors, and becomes one of a modern style that also provides more creative design motifs for fashion designers.
Padded outers (jackets, jumpers or coats) are a popular and “must have” item for cold weather because they provide light weight warmth and good style. This study investigates Korean female' attitudes and factors on purchase decisions for luxury padding outers by level of involvement. A total of 287 female respondents participated in the survey with data obtained using a random sampling method from on and off line respondents aged20'sto40'sinthe Seoul and Gyeonggi area. The study was based on the Maslow's Hierarchy of needs and Zaichkowsky's concept. Respondents were asked to indicate their degree of agreement on a 5 point Likert scaled that measured involvement, attitudes, and decision purchased factors. Factor analysis, cluster analysis, correlation and T test were conducted. A factor analysis on 9 needs/motivation measures about padded outer products indicated two factors of a motivation factor and physiological factor for “expectations to have a more positive outcome”. Involvement related to 10 measures about padded outer products indicated two factors of “personality/desires” and “interest/value”. In addition, two other factors were extracted in attitude measure variables of “positive attitudes” and “negative attitudes” towards premium outers. We realized that “expectations to have a more positive outcome” motivation influenced positive attitudes more than “physiological” motivation about premium padded outers. “Personality” involvement factor correlated highly with “positive” attitude factor towards exclusive padded outers (Pearson r=0.766), while the “interest” involvement factor correlated slightly. We can interpret individuals are very positive towards premium products if someone has expectancy to achieve desirable outcomes and wants to express personality. Clustering from involvement measures based on needs, values and interests were classified into two groups. There was a significant difference in the respondents' purchase decision factors between two segments based on the levels of involvement (p<0.001). The high product involvement group was brand and country of origin conscious, material conscious, trend sensitive, luxury image seeking, and less padding outer price conscious. The low product involvement group was more color conscious in purchases. The findings imply that different marketing approaches are recommended to target each segment in the outer clothing markets.
The newly developed green fashion product, Eco-friendly Faux Leather Apparel (E-FLA) helps minimize harmful environmental impact with a low carbon footprint utilizing the progression of Bio-based Polyurethane and Nanocellulose technique. This study investigates green product purchase intentions along with the best available socio-psychological determinants and product criteria of the consumer green product adoption that can assist to launch E-FLA products in both western (England and the US) and eastern (China and South Korea) marketplaces. A total of 1,202 female respondents between the ages of 20 and 50 from England (N=297), the US (N=305), China (N=300), and Korea (N=300) completed the online survey. ANOVA indicated significant difference in consumers' socio-psychological characteristics (consumption values, ethical consumption beliefs, self-satisfaction of ethical consumption, perceived consumer effectiveness, and environmental knowledge) and product criteria (product attributes of E-FLA) across four countries. Purchase intention and willingness to pay a premium for E-FLA products were shown differently across four countries. Multiple regression analysis results demonstrated differences in consumers' socio-psychological and product criteria determinants for the purchase intention of E-FLA products across countries. Evidence suggests that differentiated marketing strategies for E-FLA products are required when targeting global consumers. Practical implications and theoretical suggestions to understand consumer sustainable consumption attitudes are proposed.
This research examines the effect of luxury brand's logo on disparity between explicit and implicit attitudes. Using implicit association test, the results show that there is no correlation between implicit attitude and explicit attitude towrd a luxury product when luxury brand's logo is present (i.e., Prada). In contrast, implicit attitude and explicit attitude are negatively correlated when luxury logo is absent (i.e., Bottega Veneta).