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This thesis analyzes texts of Japanese translation from a Korean novel in order to study how Japanese first-person pronouns are used in Korean-Japanese translation First, when the speaker is female, "watashi" corresponds to "jeo" and "na" and "atashi" corresponds to "na" which is relatively less polite than "jeo". This shows that "watashi" which is used by female speakers is used both in formal and informal circumstances in general. Second, when the speaker is male, "watashi" corresponds to "jeo" and "na" as is used by female speakers but there is a gender difference in the identification of level of treatment in a sense that "watashi" is used in more formal circumstances when spoken by male speakers. "boku" is a first-person pronoun that is used only by men in more informal circumstances than "watashi" but in reality, it can correspond to "jeo" and is used more widely than its traditional perception. "Ore" has been perceived to be used in much more informal circumstances when compared with "watashi" and "boku" but the analysis shows that it can correspond to "jeo" and is used even in polite expressions in Japanese in some cases. Also according to the analysis, the male speaker distinguishes "boku" and "ore", depending on the top-bottom relationship and close/distant relationship with the listener, the gender of the listener, the change of close/distant relationship, and the change of speaking scenes. Lastly, the result of analysis demonstrates that the distinction among "watashi", "boku", and "ore" is becoming blurred in line with changing times and therefore, a Japanese first-person pronoun that corresponds to "jeo“ is not limited to "watshi" and a Japanese first-person pronoun that corresponds to "na” is used in diverse ways according to speaker"s relationship with the listener, speaking scenes, and speaker"s characters.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences stated between Korea and Japan is the result of the Neo-Confucian acceptance process and the social characteristics of each nation. Japan and Korea have very different social structures. The Neo-Confucian acceptance process and the social characteristics of each nation lent significantly to the differences between Korea's and Japan's structure of consciousness. Since Neo-Confucianism was as much a moral and political philosophy as it was a religion the extent and rate of its implementation governed the thought and behavior of each society. Zhu Xi's family rituals and the national civil and military examinations solidified Neo-Confucianism as the dominant feature of Korean societal thought. On the other hand, Japan's eclectic coexistence of adopted religions and their placement of Military at the top of their social hierarchy, instead of intellectuals as in Korean society, drove Japan in a slightly different direction of social consciousness than happened in Korea. Also, most importantly, Japan's system allowed for little upward advancement regarding status. The societal pressures in Japan led the populace to find an occupational niche and in so doing thrive for a time individually and pass on their tradition to their progeny. Whereas, in Korea all were driven to compete in the same tests for the same coveted high status positions which created a disproportionate amount of jobs routed in abstract thought and paper pushing rather than jobs that produced tangible items or services. Most families sought out an elevated status, thus Korean social consciousness was firmly rooted in the advancement of status.
This study is based on the viewpoint of the human body as a symbol of its culture and focused on Japanese legs and feet. In this paper I reconsidered about Japanese acts of shoes wearing and off by investigating indoor-shoes (slippers). As a result, Japanese have a long history of wearing indoor-shoes while they have a custom to remove shoes for indoor. And modern Japanese continues this custom of wearing slippers when indoors. I suppose that their original reason of wearing indoor shoes was to get warm because of the function in Japanese traditional house and also Japanese high level of hygiene. For most modern Japanese wearing indoor shoes became a custom without being aware of its purpose and they developed this custom to have a tendency of changing shoes for each space which was divided by a line. I concluded that investigating Japanese act of shoes-off was also needed for research of Japanese foot culture.
In recent years, although the situation in which success of Japanese women in business as expected has arrived, research on women entrepreneurs that were analyzed in detail about what to do from idea conception until the business establishment is still limited. It is, therefore, an object of this paper, for Japanese women entrepreneurs to acquire any such resources through their career, is to analyze in detail how to mobilize to whether to become entrepreneurs and their resources. In other words, for women entrepreneurs to be entrepreneurs, what resources, from anyone (from where), how to secure, how to use, and, the results will be discussed. In this paper, first, it was analyzed that women entrepreneurs had to transfer capital over to adulthood from childhood, and exemplified the case in which women entrepreneurs to win each capital to another area. And, it was analyzed for typology of vocational career patterns of women entrepreneurs. The result of the cluster analysis in which from the seven variables that make up the vocational career patterns of women entrepreneurs, It has been divided into four clusters-"specialist", "unintended carrier", "generalist", and "intended carrier”.
This paper considered the relationship between the elements of a folk story and a change or variation in media, focused on a tale left in MIYAMA-shi, Fukuoka-prefecture, whose name is "HANATARE-KOZOU-SAN, A Sniveling Boy". The writer chose four investigation methods namely: (1) To make the influence from media about "narratives by ORAL" clear by interview survey from the people who live in MIYAMA-shi. (2) To make the influence from media about "narratives by a PRINTING TYPE" clear by reading document material and historical sources including the one left only in a local (=MIYAMA-shi) library. (3) To make the influence from media about "narratives with a PRINTING TYPE + a PICTURE" clear by watching a remaining cartoon as archive material of television media. (4) To make the influence from the media about "narratives on the web" clear by reading sites made privately or publicly, using a checking function of web. As a result, from the above-mentioned investigation, the possibility of the influence of "external action from media and marketing" to words became clear.