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Background/Aims: No clinical model exists to predict the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in sustained virologic response-achieving (HCC after SVR) patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Methods: We performed a case-control study using a clinical database to research the risk factors for HCC after SVR. A predictive model based on risk factors was established, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated. Results: In the multivariate model, an initial diagnosis of compensated cirrhosis and post-SVR albumin reductions of 1 g/L were associated with 21.7-fold (95% CI, 4.2 to 112.3; p< 0.001) and 1.3-fold (95% CI, 1.1 to 1.7; p=0.004) increases in the risk of HCC after SVR, respectively. A predictive model based on an initial diagnosis of compensated cirrhosis (yes, +1; no, 0) and post- SVR albumin ≤36.0 g/L (yes, +1; not, 0) predicted the occurrence of HCC after SVR with a cutoff value of >0, an AUC of 0.880, a sensitivity of 0.833, a specificity of 0.896, and a negative predictive value of 0.956. Conclusions: An initial diagnosis of compensated cirrhosis combined with a post-SVR albumin value of ≤36.0 g/L predicts the occurrence of HCC after SVR in patients with CHC. (Gut Liver 2016;10:955-961)
A new acid deoxyribonuclease (DNase) was purified from the cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis, and designated CSDNase. CSDNase was purified by (NH₄)₂SO₄ precipitation, Sephacryl S-100 HR gel filtration, weak anion-exchange HPLC, and gel filtration HPLC. The protein was single-chained, with an apparent molecular mass of ca. 34 kDa, as revealed by SDS-PAGE, and an isoelectric point of 7.05, as estimated by isoelectric focusing. CSDNase acted on both double-stranded (ds) and single- stranded (ss) DNA, but preferentially on dsDNA. The optimum pH of CSDNase was pH 5.5 and its optimum temperature 55. The activity of CSDNase was not dependent on divalent cations, but its enzymic activity was inhibited by high concentration of the cation: MgC1₂ above 150 mM, MnCl₂ above 200 mM, ZnCl₂ above 150 mM, CaCl₂ above 200 mM, NaCl above 300 mM, and KCI above 300 mM. CSDNase was found to hydrolyze DNA, and to generate 3-phosphate and 5-OH termini. These results indicate that the nucleolytic properties of CSDNase are essentially the same as those of other well-characterized acid DNases, and that CSDNase is a member of the acid DNase family. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an acid DNase in a fungus.
Objective: To assess the performance of a whole-tumor histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in differentiating thymic carcinoma from lymphoma, and compare it with that of a commonly used hot-spot region-of-interest (ROI)-based ADC measurement. Materials and Methods: Diffusion weighted imaging data of 15 patients with thymic carcinoma and 13 patients with lymphoma were retrospectively collected and processed with a mono-exponential model. ADC measurements were performed by using a histogram-based and hot-spot-ROI-based approach. In the histogram-based approach, the following parameters were generated: mean ADC (ADCmean), median ADC (ADCmedian), 10th and 90th percentile of ADC (ADC10 and ADC90), kurtosis, and skewness. The difference in ADCs between thymic carcinoma and lymphoma was compared using a t test. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted to determine and compare the differentiating performance of ADCs. Results: Lymphoma demonstrated significantly lower ADCmean, ADCmedian, ADC10, ADC90, and hot-spot-ROI-based mean ADC than those found in thymic carcinoma (all p values < 0.05). There were no differences found in the kurtosis (p = 0.412) and skewness (p = 0.273). The ADC10 demonstrated optimal differentiating performance (cut-off value, 0.403 x 10-3 mm2/s; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.977; sensitivity, 92.3%; specificity, 93.3%), followed by the ADCmean, ADCmedian, ADC90, and hot-spot-ROI-based mean ADC. The AUC of ADC10 was significantly higher than that of the hot spot ROI based ADC (0.977 vs. 0.797, p = 0.036). Conclusion: Compared with the commonly used hot spot ROI based ADC measurement, a histogram analysis of ADC maps can improve the differentiating performance between thymic carcinoma and lymphoma.
( Hong Chen Zheng ),( Ming Zhe Sun ),( Ling Cai Meng ),( Hai Sheng Pei ),( Xiu Qing Zhang ),( Zheng Yan ),( Wen Hui Zeng ),( Jing Sheng Zhang ),( Jin Rong Hu ),( Fu Ping Lu ),( Jun She Sun ) 한국미생물 · 생명공학회 2014 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.24 No.4
High levels of extracellular xylanase activity (211.79 IU/mg) produced by Paenibacillus sp. NF1 were detected when it was submerged-cultured. After three consecutive purification steps using Octyl-Sepharose, Sephadex G75, and Q-Sepharose columns, a thermostable xylanase (XynNF) was purified to homogeneity and showed a molecular mass of 37 kDa according to SDS-PAGE. The specific activity of the purified XynNF was up to 3,081.05 IU/mg with a 14.55-fold purification. The activity of XynNF was stimulated by Ca2+, Ba2+, DTT, and β-mercaptoethanol, but was inhibited by Fe3+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, SDS, and EDTA. The purified XynNF displayed a greater affinity for oat spelt xylan with the maximal enzymatic activity at 60°C and pH 6.0. XynNF, which was shown to be cellulose-free, with high stability at high temperature (70°C-80°C) and low pH range (pH 4.0-7.0), is potentially valuable for various industrial applications. The enzyme hydrolyzed oat spelt xylan to yield mainly xylooligosaccharides (95.8%) of 2-4 degree of polymerization (DP2-4). Moreover, the majority of the xylooligosacharides (DP2- 4) products was xylobiose (61.5%). The thermostable xylanase (XynNF) thus seems potentially usefull in the production of xylooligosaccharides.
Wind loading is one of important loadings that should be considered in the design of large hyperbolic natural-draught cooling towers. Both external and internal surfaces of cooling tower are under the action of wind loading for cooling circulating water. In the previous studies, the wind loads on the external surface attracted concernedly attention, while the study on the internal surface was relatively ware. In the present study, the wind pressure on the internal surface of a 220 m high cooling tower is measured through wind tunnel testing, and the effect of ventilation rate of the packing layer on internal pressure is a major concern. The characteristics of internal wind pressure distribution and its effect on wind-induced responses calculated by finite element method are investigated. The results indicate that the wind loading on internal surface of the cooling tower behaves remarkable three-dimensional effect, and the pressure coefficient varies along both of height and circumferential directions. The non-uniformity is particularly strong during the construction stage. Analysis results of the effect of internal pressure on wind-induced responses show that the size and distribution characteristics of internal pressure will have some influence on wind-induced response, however, the outer pressure plays a dominant role in the wind-induced response of cooling tower, and the contribution of internal pressure to the response is small.
Md. Rashedul Islam,M. Madhaiyan,Hari P. Deka Boruah,Woo Jong Yim,Gill Seung Lee,V. S. Saravanan,Qing Ling Fu,Hong Qing Hu,Tong Min Sa 한국미생물 · 생명공학회 2009 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.19 No.10