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Novel BiOCl/g-C3N4 thin film photocatalysts were synthesized via a simple two-step spin coating method. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the thin films for the degradation of rhodamine B under visible light (λ ≥ 400 nm) was investigated. The results showed that the BiOCl/g-C3N4 thin film photocatalysts exhibited significantly improved visible light absorption compared to the pure BiOCl thin film. The BiOCl/g-C3N4 film showed a rhodamine B degradation efficiency of 81.0% under visible light, which is 23.8 times higher than that of the pure BiOCl thin film. This excellent photocatalytic activity of the BiOCl/g-C3N4 film can be attributed to its efficient electron–hole separation due to the presence of g-C3N4.
Ti–36Nb–2Ta–3Zr–0.35O (TNTZO) alloy is an excellent candidate for biomedical applications. In this study, a new methodcombining cold-swaging and cold-drawing was used to fabricate the TNTZO alloy wires with 0.3 mm diameter for orthodonticapplications. The microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-drawn and annealed TNTZO wires (referred toas TNTZO0.3and TNTZO0.3(HT), respectively) were investigated. The results show that the microstructure of cold drawnTNTZO0.3consists of main-sized elongated grains with 70 nm width. After annealing at 700 °C for 5 min, the microstructureof TNTZO0.3(HT) wires becomes equiaxial with a grain size of ~ 5 μm. The cold drawn TNTZO0.3wires exhibit improvedmechanical properties, higher tensile strength (about 1000 MPa) and similar elastic modulus (69 GPa), compared to annealedTNTZO0.3(HT) wires. Besides, TNTZO0.3has higher creep resistance and lower stress exponent (around 2), compared to Tiwires and TC4 wires with the same diameter. These results prove that TNTZO0.3wires have most of the ideal characteristicsof orthodontic wires.
This study deals with interactions of economic growth and environmental change with heterogeneous households. The analytical framework is built by integrating the three important theories in economics - the Walrasian general equilibrium theory, the neoclassical growth theory, and the neoclassical growth model with endogenous environment. The three theories are integrated by applying Zhang’s approach to household behavior. The economic system consists of one capital goods sector, one consumer goods sector, one environmental sector, and any number (of types) of households. The motion is described by a set of differential equations. For illustration, we simulated the motion of the economic system with three groups. The comparative analyses provide some insights into the complexity of economic growth with environment. For instance, the study by Grossman and Krueger (1995, p. 353) identifies no evidence that “environmental quality deteriorates steadily with economic growth.” Our simulation indicates that although the conclusion made by Crossman and Krueger holds for the national economy, but is invalid for a certain group.
During drilling activities, geological parameters of a well to be drilled (target well) can be predicted within a limited interval based on multi-well data fusion which aims at ensuring a drilling safety, enhancement of drilling efficiency, reduction of drilling cost as well as acquiring accurate measurements in respect to Oil and Gas protection layers. This work presents a method of uncertainty analysis prediction of pressures using fusion data (formation pressures) from adjacent multi-well. The Eaton method, effective stress theory, and mathematical confidence interval were the various methods used to establish the formation pressure matrix of the target well. The results revealed that due to the complexity and variability of the formations, data interpretation errors of the geological parameters were inevitable. Therefore, the probability density distribution function was established through stratigraphy, probability statistics, and information diffusion. Moreover, the real value of the wells’ formation pressure (target well) was within the distribution interval of multi-well data fusion. Hence, the developed method cannot only effectively reduce the interval of geological parameter of the target well but also enhance the accuracy of parameters prediction.
In this paper, an analytical framework is proposed forthe optimization of network performance through jointcongestion control, channel allocation, rate allocation,power control, scheduling, and routing with theconsideration of fairness in multi-channel wireless multihopnetworks. More specifically, the framework modelsthe network by a generalized network utilitymaximization (NUM) problem under an elastic link datarate and power constraints. Using the dual decompositiontechnique, the NUM problem is decomposed into foursubproblems — flow control; next-hop routing; rateallocation and scheduling; power control; and channelallocation — and finally solved by a low-complexitydistributed method. Simulation results show that theproposed distributed algorithm significantly improves thenetwork throughput and energy efficiency compared withprevious algorithms.
A new ent-kaurane type diterpenoid glycoside, 17-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (1), together with 17-hydroxy-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (2), 16α,17-dihydroxyl-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (3), and 16α-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent- kauran-19-oic acid (4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Inula japonica Thunb. The structure of 1 was determined mainly by use of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques including HSQC, 1H-1H COSY, HMBC, and NOESY. In addition, 4 exhibited significant inhibitory activity on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with IC50 value of 14.3 μg/mL. A new ent-kaurane type diterpenoid glycoside, 17-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (1), together with 17-hydroxy-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (2), 16α,17-dihydroxyl-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (3), and 16α-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent- kauran-19-oic acid (4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Inula japonica Thunb. The structure of 1 was determined mainly by use of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques including HSQC, 1H-1H COSY, HMBC, and NOESY. In addition, 4 exhibited significant inhibitory activity on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with IC50 value of 14.3 μg/mL.
Wei Lu,Wen-Tao Jiang,Jia-Yu Lv,Ning-Ning Zhang,Ya-Wei Du,Ying Wu,Tian-Qiang Song,Ya-Min Zhang,Yan Qu,Yu-Xin Liu,Jie Gu,Ze-Yu Wang,Yi-Bo Qiu,Bing Yang,Da-Zhi Tian,Qing-Jun Guo,Li Zhang,Ji-San Sun,Yan X 연세대학교의과대학 2021 Yonsei medical journal Vol.62 No.1
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of liver transplantation (LT) and liver resection (LR) for hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) and to investigate risk factors affecting prognosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 94 HCC patients with PVTT type I (segmental PVTT) and PVTT type II (lobar PVTT) were involvedand divided into LR (n=47) and LT groups (n=47). Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were comparedbefore and after inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Prognostic factors for RFS and OS were explored. Results: Two treatment groups were well-balanced using IPTW. In the entire cohort, LT provided a better prognosis than LR. Among patients with PVTT type I, RFS was better with LT (p=0.039); OS was not different significantly between LT and LR(p=0.093). In subgroup analysis of PVTT type I patients with α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels >200 ng/mL, LT elicited significantly longermedian RFS (18.0 months vs. 2.1 months, p=0.022) and relatively longer median OS time (23.6 months vs. 9.8 months, p=0.065). Among patients with PVTT type II, no significant differences in RFS and OS were found between LT and LR (p=0.115 and 0.335,respectively). Multivariate analyses showed treatment allocation (LR), tumor size (>5 cm), AFP and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) levels to be risk factors of RFS and treatment allocation (LR), AFP and AST as risk factors for OS. Conclusion: LT appeared to afford a better prognosis for HCC with PVTT type I than LR, especially in patients with AFP levels>200 ng/mL.
Zhang, Yi,Zhang, Wei-Ling,Huang, Dong-Sheng,Hong, Liang,Wang, Yi-Zhuo,Zhu, Xia,Hu, Hui-Min,Zhang, Pin-Wei,Yi, You,Han, Tao Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2013 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.14 No.8
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of multimodality treatment of advanced paediatric hepatoblastoma (HB) and the factors affecting prognosis. Methods: A total of 35 children underwent multimodality treatments consisting of chemotherapy, surgery, interventional therapy, and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. The patients were followed up every month. Results: Serum AFP levels in 33 out of 35 patients in this study were significantly increased (P = 0.0002). According to the statistical scatter plot, the values of serum AFP on the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentages were 1,210, 1,210 and 28,318 ng/dl, respectively. Of the 35 cases, 21 were stage IV. 18 cases were treated with systemic chemotherapy before surgery, and 3 cases with locally interventional chemotherapy before surgery. Statistical analysis showed that the preferred interventional treatment affected prognosis, and that there was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.024). Some 33 patients completed the follow-up, of which 17 were in complete remission (CR), 5 were in partial remission (PR), 1 became disease progressive (DP), and 10 died. The remission and overall survival rates were 66.7% (22/33) and 69.7% (23/33), respectively. Patients with the mixed HB phenotypes had worse prognoses than the epithelial phenotype (P < 0.001), and patients in stage IV had a lower survival rate than those in stage III (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Multimodality treatment can effectively improve remission rate and prolong the survival of children with advanced HB. In addition, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a tumor marker of liver malignant tumors, HB pathological classification, and staging are highly useful in predicting prognosis.
High salinity is the one of important factors limiting plant growth and crop production. Many NHX-type antiporters have been reported to catalyze K+/H+ exchange to mediate salt stress. This study shows that an NHX gene from Arachis hypogaea L. has an important role in K+ uptake and transport, which affects K+ accumulation and plant salt tolerance. When overexpressing AhNHX1, the growth of tobacco seedlings is improved with longer roots and a higher fresh weight than the wild type (WT) under NaCl treatment. Meanwhile, when exposed to NaCl stress, the transgenic seedlings had higher K+/H+ antiporter activity and their roots got more K+ uptake. NaCl stress could induce higher K+ accumulation in the roots, stems, and leaves of transgenic tobacco seedlings but not Na+ accumulation, thus, leading to a higher K+/Na+ ratio in the transgenic seedlings. Additionally, the AKT1, HAK1, SKOR, and KEA genes, which are involved in K+ uptake or transport, were induced by NaCl stress and kept higher expression levels in transgenic seedlings than in WT seedlings. The H+-ATPase and H+-PPase activities were also higher in transgenic seedlings than in the WT seedlings under NaCl stress. Simultaneously, overexpression of AhNHX1 increased the relative distribution of K+ in the aerial parts of the seedlings under NaCl stress. These results showed that AhNHX1 catalyzed the K+/H+ antiporter and enhanced tobacco tolerance to salt stress by increasing K+ uptake and transport.
In this paper, considering the main factor in the high-speed processing, including the mass of the spindle, the offset of the centroid, bearing span, bearing stiffness and spindle speed , a dynamic model of the spindle-bearing system is established. After carrying out a simulation by Matlab, vibration curve of the spindle-bearing system is obtained, and influence on the vibration characteristics of the spindle bearing system by the centroid offset is analyzed. These works provide the basis for further studies on the vibration mechanism of the high-speed motorized spindle.