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The stabilized Gauge-Uzawa method (SGUM), which is a second order projection type algorithm to solve the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations, has been newly constructed in 2013 Pyo's paper. The accuracy of SGUM has been proved only for time discrete scheme in the same paper, but it is crucial to study for fully discrete scheme, because the numerical errors depend on discretizations for both space and time, and because discrete spaces between velocity and pressure can not be chosen arbitrary. In this paper, we find out properties of the fully discrete SGUM and estimate its errors and stability to solve the evolution Navier-Stokes equations. The main difficulty in this estimation arises from losing some cancellation laws due to failing divergence free condition of the discrete velocity function. This result will be extended to Boussinesq equations in the continuous research (part II) and is essential in the study of part II.
이 연구는 국가직무능력표준(National Competency Standards:NCS) 기반의 교육과정이 도입됨에 따라 새롭게 요구되는 교과과정을 반영한 학습과정(회계원리 수준)을 운영하면서, 그 교과내용의 교육 효과성과 효율성을 높이는 학습프로그램을 개발하고자 하는데 있다. NCS 능력단위가운데 전표관리와 결산관리를 중심으로 살펴보고, EXCEL에서 그 교과내용을 학습프로그램으로 구현해 보고 또 그 활용방안을 제시하였다. 그 주요 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 전체구조는 거래의 분석과 거래의 기록이라는 틀 안에서 기존연구를 보완해주는 성과를 가져왔다. 둘째, 거래의 분석 및 시산표 계정과목 선택과 같은 작업의 결과를 시각적으로 확인할 수 있도록 도형의 출현방식으로 자기주도 학습의 이해도를 높이게 하였다. 셋째, 거래의 분석에 손익결산거래를 포함시켜 회계의 전체 순환과정을 살펴볼 수 있게 하여 프로그램의 완성도를 높였다. 넷째, 회계의 주요 장부인 분개장과 총계정원장 모두를 열람할 수 있게 하였고, 재무제표의 양식을 나타내는 합계잔액시산표를 작성할 수 있게 하였다. 본 연구는 국가역량체계((National Qualification Frame-work, NQF)와 연계된 NCS 교과과정의 교육을 기존의 양식을 통한 설명중심에서 학습자 중심의 분석을 통한 기록의 이해를 가능하게 하여 회계기초교육의 효과성과 효율성을 확보하는 성과를 도출하고, 교육의 수월성을 가져오는데 기여할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다. The purpose of this study is to develop an education program that reflects the newly required curriculum as the National Competency Standards (NCS) based curriculum is introduced. In the NCS competence unit, we focused on the management of slip and closing journalizing, and developed by EXCEL as a learning program, and suggested ways to use it. For this purpose, I described prior literature review and I developed educational program file provided open post by EXCEL macro and Visual Basic Applications. By case study included in program file is provided for educators and learners. First, the whole structure has complemented existing research within the framework of transaction analysis and records. Secondly, the self-directed learning was enhanced by the appearance of the graphic form so that the result of the work such as the analysis of the transaction and the calculation of the account of the balance sheet can be visually confirmed. Third, the analysis of the transaction includes the profit and loss settlement transaction, so that the whole cycle of accounting can be examined. Fourth, we have made it possible to view both the main books of accounting and the general ledger, and to prepare the total balance of the financial statements. The learner-centered analysis of the explanation form through EXCEL program file can contribute to the achievement of effectiveness and efficiency, and the excellence of education.
퇴계 이황은 16세기의 대표적인 관념론철학자이다. 이황의 철학사상은 총체적으로 존재론과 의식론, 윤리설로 이루어져 있다. 우선 그의 존재론에서는 이를 운동능력을 가지고 스스로 운동하며 우주만물을 낳는 '능발능생'의 존재로 규정하면서, 그 위치를 상제의 높이에까지 끌어올려 '극존무대'의 절대적 존재로 정립하였다. 또한 이것에 기초하여 이일원론적 경향을 뚜렷이 하였는데, 이것은 그의 인식론에서도 명백히 나타나고 있다. 그는 인식주체와 인식대상의 원칙적이며 본질적인 구분을 부정하였는데, 이것은 인간의 인식과정은 본질에 있어서 자기의 본성 속에 이미 선천적으로 갖추어져 있는 이를 사물현상을 통하여 확인해보는 과정에 불과하다는 것이다. 더 나아가 사물현상에 대한 인식과정이 이 스스로의 자기 발현에 의한 자기 인식과정임을 명시하는 '이자도'설을 주장하였다. 이황은 윤리설 또한 이일원론에 기초하여 전개하였는데, 대표적인 것은 '주경(主敬)'론이다. '경'에는 두 개의 단계가 있는데, 첫 단계는 개개의 사물을 각각 전일하는 단계이고, 두 번째 단계는 하나에서 완전한 조화를 이루는 단계 즉. '물아통일'의 경지이다. 이처럼 '물아통일'을 '경'의 최고 이상경계로 세운 것은 '천리'에 부합되는 인간의 도덕적 완성의 필연성을 확증하자는데 있었다. Yi Hwang in the pen name Toe'gye, is the representative philosopher of idealism in the 16th century. His philosophy mainly consists of ontology, study of consciousness, and ethics. Considering reason (li) and energy (ki) as a unified unit, Yi Hwang denies the distinction between the subject of thinking and the object. According to his theory, a man cognizes phenomenon, availing his inborn ability to reason, which is called as the theory of Lijado.
The purpose of this study is to find to relationship among the children's peer status, friendship quality, and conflict resolution strategie in children's friendship. The object of this study were 417 children in 5th grade of elementary school in Seoul. The measuring instruments used for study were peer nomination developed by Coie and Dodge(1983), Friendship Quality Scale developed by Lee and Koh(1999) and a Scale on Friendship Conflict Resolution Strategies (Rhee, Koh & Oh, 2000). The Collected data was analyzed by SPSSWIN statistical program. The frequency and percentage were calculated to investigate the general characteristics of the subjects. One-Way analysis was performed to find relationship among the children's peer status, friendship quality Mutiple Regression was performend to find relationship among the children's peer status, friendship quality, and conflict resolution strategie in children's friendship. The major results of this study are as follows, First, concerning about peer status and friendship quality, pouplar group have a positive friendship but, rejected group have a conflictive friendship. Second, while popular group used various strategy in conflict resolution, neglected group used evasive strategy. Third, concerning about relation between quality of friendship and frienship conflict resolution strategy, while the group which has high degree of emotional stability, intimacy and human desire used negotiation, cooperation and concession strategy, the group with has low degree of cooperation and pleasure of friendship used evasion and away strategy. Fourth, concerning the effect of friendship quality according to peer status which influence conflict resolution strategy between friendship, each popular, average, rejected and neglected group gas different quality of friendship and according the lower factor of friendship quality, each group has different conflict resolution strategy. Therefore I suggest that according to the peer status, arbitration program should be selected with propriety.
This study analyzes the relations between the effects that a commercial image of a professional athlete has on a company, the professionalism of the commercial, and the efficiency of the commercial on companies. This research was done in April 2003 with a population of adults living in the five biggest cities in South Korea. 372 adults answered this survey. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the results. The conclusions are as follows; First, in a comparison of the commercial image by sports players and the professionalism of the commercial and a comparison between the commercial professionalism and the efficiency of the commercial, the highest significance was found in the first comparison. If the professionalism of the commercial by the athletes is higher, the publics viewpoint is more positive for the commercia image. Second, a comparison is made between the commercial image by professional athletes and the efficiency of the commercial on the companies. A second comparison is between the commercial professionalism and the efficiency of the commercial on the companies. A higher significance was found in the first comparison. In conclusion, a better image for the commercial than the professionalism of the commercial has more positive effects on the company sales.
The purpose of this study was to examine if previous studies on socio- active adaptation of androgynous identity types is useful in an andocentric ROTC group environment specifically from the perspective of gender integration. For this purpose, participants were classified in four categories according to type of gender role identity of men and women, perception level of Physical Self-Efficacy Scales (PSES) by type and the differences in Physical Training Test Scores (PTTS) were analyzed. Participants in the current study include 172 volunteer undergraduate students (84 males and 86 females) participating as cadets in the Texas A&M University Corps of Cadets. The study found males PSES perceptions, masculinity and androgyny identity had higher perception levels than other types. Therefore, the first hypothesis, that the perception level on the PSES of the androgynous type is higher or the same that of the masculine type was supported for the male students. In the case of female students, it was shown that the perception level of the androgyny type was higher than that of other types. Therefore, the first hypothesis was also supported for female students. The difference of the males PTTS by the type of gender role identity was analyzed. The study found that masculine identity type scored higher than other types. Therefore, the second hypothesis, that the androgyny type will lead to better PTTS scores, was not supported for male students. In case of female students, differences were observed among the masculinity, femininity and unclassified types. The androgyny type was different from the femininity and unclassified type. However, the mean difference between the masculinity types was not observed. The second hypothesis was accepted for female students. An interesting similarity between the two types was considered to be the homogeneous group attributes between the two types. As a result, the researcher contends that both masculinity identity and androgyny identity will be useful psychological health index in an ROTC environment.
본 연구는 구역이기주의에 입각한 개별적 사업추진을 지양하고 자치단체간 긴밀한 협력관계에 기초한 공동사업추진을 촉진하기 위하여 정책방안을 강구하고자 시도되었다. 자치단체간 협력사업을 먼저 유형화하고 각 유형별로 협력의 성공·실패요인을 추출한 다음 추진방안을 모색하기 위해 광역행정관련 담당공무원의 평가의견을 조사하였다. 실증분석에서 「보조금 지원 및 재정적 이익」, 「문제해결 및 서비스향상」, 「관리자의 협력에 대한 긍정적 가치관」 및 「내부역량의 보완」 등이 협력사업의 주요 성공요인으로 작용하는 반면 「과다비용 및 재정손실」과 「관리자의 협력에 대한 부정적 가치관」이 협력이 실패하는 중요한 요인으로 밝혀졌다. 협력사업유형별로도 성공·실패요인은 대체적으로 이와 일치하고 있으나, 헙력대상간 이해관계가 첨예한 사업분야에서는 「협력으로 인한 분열과 불편 초래」가 그리고 친선교류나 행사개최 등 단순협력사업은 「관리자의 부정적 입장」이 결정적 악영향을 미치고 있음이 밝혀졌다. 분석결과를 토대로 자치단체간 협력사업의 활성화를 위한 전반적인 여건조성 및 인프라구축은 물론 사업유형별 특성과 협력유발요인에 입각하여 협력추진방식과 실현방안을 제시하였다. This study is designed to identify a variety of policy alternatives that are most suitable for intergovernmental cooperative projects, which have been classified on a "category" basis. Intergovernmental cooperative projects are initially classified into nine categories based upon their respective characteristics and features. An empirical analysis based on surveys of 244 local officials in charge of intergovernmental relationships is then performed to determine the factors affecting the "success" or "failure" of cooperative projects in the course of their implementation. It is found that financial factors are the most crucial elements in determining the success of intergovernmental cooperative projects while the attitude of local CEOs toward cooperation is next in importance. This suggests that intergovernmental cooperative projects, including those involving physical facilities and infrastructure construction, would be actively pursued when provided with financial resources through the establishment of local government unions or agreements. With respect to projects associated with software development of events, the attitudes and values of CEOs', along with information and knowledge exchange programs, were found to shape their success. In cooperative projects there conflicting interests exist among stakeholders, ample financial resources should be provided, and the intervention of a higher jurisdictional authority may be needed.
Hu˘ngcho˘n-Sa temple was one of the characteristic temples of Early Choso˘n Period in Seoul Province. This temple was established in the sixth year of king Taejo(1398 A.D.) in memory of his dead queen. Wooden Building as a Relic container and Stone Pagoda in Hu˘ngcho˘n-Sa temple were completed in the first year of king Chungjong(1399 A.D.). they were made unusual from the traditional point of view. They are no longer existent but we can imagine their shape according to the literature(especially Sil-rok) on this subject and Buddhist fine arts. The former was supposed to be three-storied octagonal shape including the latter. The stone pagoda which was placed inside the building was so constructed as for those concerned to climb up and to open the door to see the sacred relics of Buddha. And those relics were sometimes moved to another place. As a conclusion, those facts implied very important meaning. Above a mentioned wooden edifice which was relic container octagonal multi-storied shape connected octagonal thirteen-storied Pohyo˘n-sa stone pagoda(普賢寺八角十三層石塔) built in the end of the Ko˘ryo˘ dynasty to multi-angled, multi-storied pagoda style of the early Choso˘n periond. In addition, other Buddhist fine arts spansored by king Taejo Lee Sung-gye- a relic container in 1390-1391 A.D. and monk pagoda of Muhag(無學) in 1397 A.D.- implied serious meaning. We are able to infer from those historical facts the style of Hu˘ngcho˘n-Sa temple edifece and the stone pagoda in it. Relic container excavated at Mt. Ku˘mgang(金剛山) is twofold. Outer one was the shape of octagonal wooden edifice and inner one was a Lamsism style pagoda. Also monk pagoda of Muhag is similar to Tibetan pagoda or to relic container in later Ko˘ryo˘ dynasty. During the later period, Ko˘ryo˘ dynasty came to maintain a close relationship with Yu¨an(元) China. So Buddhist arts of that period have the influences of Nepalese and Tibetan style. This same tendency is commonly found in Buddhist pagoda, in monk pagoda and in relic container. We can be sure that they effected each other in their style and shape. It is concluded that the stone pagoda of Hu˘ngcho˘n-Sa temple must be similar is those Nepalese and Tibetan style of monk pagoda of Muhag and relic container supported by king Taejo Lee Sung-gye. Monk pagoda of Muhag was another characteristic element. It was a surrounding balcony. The stone pagoda of Hu˘ngcho˘n-Sa temple is supposed to have the same surrounding balcony for those concerned to go up and down the pagoda. An important example of Nepalese and Tibetan style pagoda in early Choso˘n period is a relic stone pagoda in the east end of Ho˘eam-sa(檜巖寺) temple site. We do not know exactly who sponsored, when it was made, and what was its use yet. Also that temple was deeply concerned with monk Muhag and king Taejo Lee Sung-gye. When we think of the engraving and another art elements we can conclude the age and character of Hu˘ngcho˘n-Sa temple stone pagoda. The shape of stone Buddhist pagoda of Bongin-Sa(奉印寺) temple in 1619 A.D. is similar to that of monk pagoda of Muhag. So we can presume that relic stone pagoda of Ho?eam-sa temple site is bukkhist pagoda constructed in king Sejo. During the choso˘n Dynasty, Buddhism was oppressed based on Neo-Confucian norm. Moreover at the beginning of the Choso˘n Dynasty Buddhism was subject to ruling power. A great number of temples were merged. However, in reality Buddhism was not be completely suppressed. Afterwards the new mode of End-Ko˘ryo˘ and Early Choso˘n Buddhist pagoda has been succeeded and spread by Buddhist line linked with monk Naong(懶翁), monk Muhag(無學), and monk Hamho˘(涵虛).
An appropriate understanding of Korean masqus within the domain of fol Klore requires dual aspects in their evaluation: in terms of a folk art, and as means to appreciate the consciousness of masses, historical background, and the social structure in relevant ages. This paper was intended to classify and characterize the male entry in Korean masques. The numbers of male participants are: 17 men in Yang-chu pyolsandae Nori, 22 in song-`pa sandae Nori, 24 in pong-san Mask Dance. 16 in Kang-nyong Mask Dance, 17 in T`ong-yong O-kwangdae, 15 in Ko-song O-kwangdae, 24 in Kasan O-kwangdae, 9 in Su-yong Yaryu, 17 in Tong-nae Yaryu, and 6 in Hahoe pyolshin Marsk play. The social strata of all the male characters can be divided into the ruling class, the ruled class, and a group of people who are in neither. Typologically they can be classified as: a Budhist monk, a yangban, a patriarch, a Malttugi (usually taking pleasure in revealing the absurdity of yangbans), a Ch`wjbari (usually teasing the sinful monks), a p`odo-Taechang or a policenchief (representing the middle class and criticizing yangbans), and a Tokki or an axe (notorious for disobedience to its parents).
Ernest Hemingway is one of the representative writers of Lost Generation American Literary Field ever had in the 20th century. Among his great works, the Sun Also Rises prefaces vividly its generation. He became a nuclus of the writers who took an active part in their new productions. The material civilization after the World War I brought about spiritual poverty to man degrading his value. He gives a scathing satire on the world he belongs to with nihility anti disillusion in the sun Also Rises. The discussion of the Sun Also Rises concludes several ambiguous questions concerning the Hemingway's code and suggests that the code is somewhat more allusive than it at first to be. According to his literary principle, he was able to apply his knowledge in a practical manner to the way he lived his life, and he produced a truer account anything factual can be. Just a word in conclusion, the Sun Also Rises is composed of an artistic excellence on a high level and sincerity.