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The stabilized Gauge-Uzawa method (SGUM), which is a second order projection type algorithm to solve the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations, has been newly constructed in 2013 Pyo's paper. The accuracy of SGUM has been proved only for time discrete scheme in the same paper, but it is crucial to study for fully discrete scheme, because the numerical errors depend on discretizations for both space and time, and because discrete spaces between velocity and pressure can not be chosen arbitrary. In this paper, we find out properties of the fully discrete SGUM and estimate its errors and stability to solve the evolution Navier-Stokes equations. The main difficulty in this estimation arises from losing some cancellation laws due to failing divergence free condition of the discrete velocity function. This result will be extended to Boussinesq equations in the continuous research (part II) and is essential in the study of part II.
이 연구는 국가직무능력표준(National Competency Standards:NCS) 기반의 교육과정이 도입됨에 따라 새롭게 요구되는 교과과정을 반영한 학습과정(회계원리 수준)을 운영하면서, 그 교과내용의 교육 효과성과 효율성을 높이는 학습프로그램을 개발하고자 하는데 있다. NCS 능력단위가운데 전표관리와 결산관리를 중심으로 살펴보고, EXCEL에서 그 교과내용을 학습프로그램으로 구현해 보고 또 그 활용방안을 제시하였다. 그 주요 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 전체구조는 거래의 분석과 거래의 기록이라는 틀 안에서 기존연구를 보완해주는 성과를 가져왔다. 둘째, 거래의 분석 및 시산표 계정과목 선택과 같은 작업의 결과를 시각적으로 확인할 수 있도록 도형의 출현방식으로 자기주도 학습의 이해도를 높이게 하였다. 셋째, 거래의 분석에 손익결산거래를 포함시켜 회계의 전체 순환과정을 살펴볼 수 있게 하여 프로그램의 완성도를 높였다. 넷째, 회계의 주요 장부인 분개장과 총계정원장 모두를 열람할 수 있게 하였고, 재무제표의 양식을 나타내는 합계잔액시산표를 작성할 수 있게 하였다. 본 연구는 국가역량체계((National Qualification Frame-work, NQF)와 연계된 NCS 교과과정의 교육을 기존의 양식을 통한 설명중심에서 학습자 중심의 분석을 통한 기록의 이해를 가능하게 하여 회계기초교육의 효과성과 효율성을 확보하는 성과를 도출하고, 교육의 수월성을 가져오는데 기여할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다. The purpose of this study is to develop an education program that reflects the newly required curriculum as the National Competency Standards (NCS) based curriculum is introduced. In the NCS competence unit, we focused on the management of slip and closing journalizing, and developed by EXCEL as a learning program, and suggested ways to use it. For this purpose, I described prior literature review and I developed educational program file provided open post by EXCEL macro and Visual Basic Applications. By case study included in program file is provided for educators and learners. First, the whole structure has complemented existing research within the framework of transaction analysis and records. Secondly, the self-directed learning was enhanced by the appearance of the graphic form so that the result of the work such as the analysis of the transaction and the calculation of the account of the balance sheet can be visually confirmed. Third, the analysis of the transaction includes the profit and loss settlement transaction, so that the whole cycle of accounting can be examined. Fourth, we have made it possible to view both the main books of accounting and the general ledger, and to prepare the total balance of the financial statements. The learner-centered analysis of the explanation form through EXCEL program file can contribute to the achievement of effectiveness and efficiency, and the excellence of education.
퇴계 이황은 16세기의 대표적인 관념론철학자이다. 이황의 철학사상은 총체적으로 존재론과 의식론, 윤리설로 이루어져 있다. 우선 그의 존재론에서는 이를 운동능력을 가지고 스스로 운동하며 우주만물을 낳는 '능발능생'의 존재로 규정하면서, 그 위치를 상제의 높이에까지 끌어올려 '극존무대'의 절대적 존재로 정립하였다. 또한 이것에 기초하여 이일원론적 경향을 뚜렷이 하였는데, 이것은 그의 인식론에서도 명백히 나타나고 있다. 그는 인식주체와 인식대상의 원칙적이며 본질적인 구분을 부정하였는데, 이것은 인간의 인식과정은 본질에 있어서 자기의 본성 속에 이미 선천적으로 갖추어져 있는 이를 사물현상을 통하여 확인해보는 과정에 불과하다는 것이다. 더 나아가 사물현상에 대한 인식과정이 이 스스로의 자기 발현에 의한 자기 인식과정임을 명시하는 '이자도'설을 주장하였다. 이황은 윤리설 또한 이일원론에 기초하여 전개하였는데, 대표적인 것은 '주경(主敬)'론이다. '경'에는 두 개의 단계가 있는데, 첫 단계는 개개의 사물을 각각 전일하는 단계이고, 두 번째 단계는 하나에서 완전한 조화를 이루는 단계 즉. '물아통일'의 경지이다. 이처럼 '물아통일'을 '경'의 최고 이상경계로 세운 것은 '천리'에 부합되는 인간의 도덕적 완성의 필연성을 확증하자는데 있었다. Yi Hwang in the pen name Toe'gye, is the representative philosopher of idealism in the 16th century. His philosophy mainly consists of ontology, study of consciousness, and ethics. Considering reason (li) and energy (ki) as a unified unit, Yi Hwang denies the distinction between the subject of thinking and the object. According to his theory, a man cognizes phenomenon, availing his inborn ability to reason, which is called as the theory of Lijado.
The purpose of this study is to find to relationship among the children's peer status, friendship quality, and conflict resolution strategie in children's friendship. The object of this study were 417 children in 5th grade of elementary school in Seoul. The measuring instruments used for study were peer nomination developed by Coie and Dodge(1983), Friendship Quality Scale developed by Lee and Koh(1999) and a Scale on Friendship Conflict Resolution Strategies (Rhee, Koh & Oh, 2000). The Collected data was analyzed by SPSSWIN statistical program. The frequency and percentage were calculated to investigate the general characteristics of the subjects. One-Way analysis was performed to find relationship among the children's peer status, friendship quality Mutiple Regression was performend to find relationship among the children's peer status, friendship quality, and conflict resolution strategie in children's friendship. The major results of this study are as follows, First, concerning about peer status and friendship quality, pouplar group have a positive friendship but, rejected group have a conflictive friendship. Second, while popular group used various strategy in conflict resolution, neglected group used evasive strategy. Third, concerning about relation between quality of friendship and frienship conflict resolution strategy, while the group which has high degree of emotional stability, intimacy and human desire used negotiation, cooperation and concession strategy, the group with has low degree of cooperation and pleasure of friendship used evasion and away strategy. Fourth, concerning the effect of friendship quality according to peer status which influence conflict resolution strategy between friendship, each popular, average, rejected and neglected group gas different quality of friendship and according the lower factor of friendship quality, each group has different conflict resolution strategy. Therefore I suggest that according to the peer status, arbitration program should be selected with propriety.
The purpose of this study is to define a traditional meaning of Pung sok To(風俗圖), East-Asia genre painting in the East-Asian sense, and put the study of genre painting of Choson dynasty in new perspective. This study attempts to 1) investigate the change in the meaning of Pung(風) which is the first and the important letter of Pung Sok To, and 2) review the meaning of Pung Sok To in the East-Asian sense. In the earlier time, Pung which means sind symbolized the gods ruing four directions, Pung was not only a natural phenomena, but also spiritual existence. Then Pung indicated the life of the ruled or local customs, it came to take on political meaning. The meaning is related to the hierarchy of feudalism. Pung Sok To first appeared in records of North-South dynasty of China. Since then the meanings of Pung Sok To are used as follows; ①A genre painting of he minority races in China ②A foreign genre painting ③A genre painting of the ruled. Traditionally in Korean and Japan the meaning was used in a similar way that was used in China, And This is different from the meaning of European Genre painting.
본 연구는 구역이기주의에 입각한 개별적 사업추진을 지양하고 자치단체간 긴밀한 협력관계에 기초한 공동사업추진을 촉진하기 위하여 정책방안을 강구하고자 시도되었다. 자치단체간 협력사업을 먼저 유형화하고 각 유형별로 협력의 성공·실패요인을 추출한 다음 추진방안을 모색하기 위해 광역행정관련 담당공무원의 평가의견을 조사하였다. 실증분석에서 「보조금 지원 및 재정적 이익」, 「문제해결 및 서비스향상」, 「관리자의 협력에 대한 긍정적 가치관」 및 「내부역량의 보완」 등이 협력사업의 주요 성공요인으로 작용하는 반면 「과다비용 및 재정손실」과 「관리자의 협력에 대한 부정적 가치관」이 협력이 실패하는 중요한 요인으로 밝혀졌다. 협력사업유형별로도 성공·실패요인은 대체적으로 이와 일치하고 있으나, 헙력대상간 이해관계가 첨예한 사업분야에서는 「협력으로 인한 분열과 불편 초래」가 그리고 친선교류나 행사개최 등 단순협력사업은 「관리자의 부정적 입장」이 결정적 악영향을 미치고 있음이 밝혀졌다. 분석결과를 토대로 자치단체간 협력사업의 활성화를 위한 전반적인 여건조성 및 인프라구축은 물론 사업유형별 특성과 협력유발요인에 입각하여 협력추진방식과 실현방안을 제시하였다. This study is designed to identify a variety of policy alternatives that are most suitable for intergovernmental cooperative projects, which have been classified on a "category" basis. Intergovernmental cooperative projects are initially classified into nine categories based upon their respective characteristics and features. An empirical analysis based on surveys of 244 local officials in charge of intergovernmental relationships is then performed to determine the factors affecting the "success" or "failure" of cooperative projects in the course of their implementation. It is found that financial factors are the most crucial elements in determining the success of intergovernmental cooperative projects while the attitude of local CEOs toward cooperation is next in importance. This suggests that intergovernmental cooperative projects, including those involving physical facilities and infrastructure construction, would be actively pursued when provided with financial resources through the establishment of local government unions or agreements. With respect to projects associated with software development of events, the attitudes and values of CEOs', along with information and knowledge exchange programs, were found to shape their success. In cooperative projects there conflicting interests exist among stakeholders, ample financial resources should be provided, and the intervention of a higher jurisdictional authority may be needed.
Hu˘ngcho˘n-Sa temple was one of the characteristic temples of Early Choso˘n Period in Seoul Province. This temple was established in the sixth year of king Taejo(1398 A.D.) in memory of his dead queen. Wooden Building as a Relic container and Stone Pagoda in Hu˘ngcho˘n-Sa temple were completed in the first year of king Chungjong(1399 A.D.). they were made unusual from the traditional point of view. They are no longer existent but we can imagine their shape according to the literature(especially Sil-rok) on this subject and Buddhist fine arts. The former was supposed to be three-storied octagonal shape including the latter. The stone pagoda which was placed inside the building was so constructed as for those concerned to climb up and to open the door to see the sacred relics of Buddha. And those relics were sometimes moved to another place. As a conclusion, those facts implied very important meaning. Above a mentioned wooden edifice which was relic container octagonal multi-storied shape connected octagonal thirteen-storied Pohyo˘n-sa stone pagoda(普賢寺八角十三層石塔) built in the end of the Ko˘ryo˘ dynasty to multi-angled, multi-storied pagoda style of the early Choso˘n periond. In addition, other Buddhist fine arts spansored by king Taejo Lee Sung-gye- a relic container in 1390-1391 A.D. and monk pagoda of Muhag(無學) in 1397 A.D.- implied serious meaning. We are able to infer from those historical facts the style of Hu˘ngcho˘n-Sa temple edifece and the stone pagoda in it. Relic container excavated at Mt. Ku˘mgang(金剛山) is twofold. Outer one was the shape of octagonal wooden edifice and inner one was a Lamsism style pagoda. Also monk pagoda of Muhag is similar to Tibetan pagoda or to relic container in later Ko˘ryo˘ dynasty. During the later period, Ko˘ryo˘ dynasty came to maintain a close relationship with Yu¨an(元) China. So Buddhist arts of that period have the influences of Nepalese and Tibetan style. This same tendency is commonly found in Buddhist pagoda, in monk pagoda and in relic container. We can be sure that they effected each other in their style and shape. It is concluded that the stone pagoda of Hu˘ngcho˘n-Sa temple must be similar is those Nepalese and Tibetan style of monk pagoda of Muhag and relic container supported by king Taejo Lee Sung-gye. Monk pagoda of Muhag was another characteristic element. It was a surrounding balcony. The stone pagoda of Hu˘ngcho˘n-Sa temple is supposed to have the same surrounding balcony for those concerned to go up and down the pagoda. An important example of Nepalese and Tibetan style pagoda in early Choso˘n period is a relic stone pagoda in the east end of Ho˘eam-sa(檜巖寺) temple site. We do not know exactly who sponsored, when it was made, and what was its use yet. Also that temple was deeply concerned with monk Muhag and king Taejo Lee Sung-gye. When we think of the engraving and another art elements we can conclude the age and character of Hu˘ngcho˘n-Sa temple stone pagoda. The shape of stone Buddhist pagoda of Bongin-Sa(奉印寺) temple in 1619 A.D. is similar to that of monk pagoda of Muhag. So we can presume that relic stone pagoda of Ho?eam-sa temple site is bukkhist pagoda constructed in king Sejo. During the choso˘n Dynasty, Buddhism was oppressed based on Neo-Confucian norm. Moreover at the beginning of the Choso˘n Dynasty Buddhism was subject to ruling power. A great number of temples were merged. However, in reality Buddhism was not be completely suppressed. Afterwards the new mode of End-Ko˘ryo˘ and Early Choso˘n Buddhist pagoda has been succeeded and spread by Buddhist line linked with monk Naong(懶翁), monk Muhag(無學), and monk Hamho˘(涵虛).
본 연구는 학교 체육과 생활 체육의 상호보완적 연계를 통해 중학교 체육과 교육과정의 효율적 운영 방안들을 탐색하는 데 초점을 맞추어 관련 선행연구와 보고자료 및 참고문헌을 토대로 다음과 같은 방안을 모색하였다. 첫째, 학교 체육과 생활 체육 두 영역간의 양태에 따른 연계 방식에서 차별적, 통합적, 보완적 연계 방식 중, 현실적인 상황에서 보완적 연계 방식이 가장 바람직한 방안으로 생각된다. 둘째, 학교 체육은 '학교'와 '수업'의 테두리 내에서 교육적 이상의 한 부분에 '생활'과 '실용 중심적인 것'을 포용하는 방식의 변용이 필요하고, 생활 체육은 학교 밖의 울타리를 벗어나 '생활적인 점'을 부각하고 '외재적이고 실용적인 특징'에서 인성함양, 안목개발, 자아실현 등 학교체육의 내재적 가치를 달성하기 위해 사회교육의 성격을 가미한 변용이 필요하다. 셋째, 인접지 지역 생활 체육시설 이용에서 나타나는 문제점인 '이동상의 비용이성' 그리고 '비근접성' 같은 문제점을 해결하기 위해서 지역 생활 체육시설뿐만 아니라 학사일정과 교과내용에 따라 대학 내의 체육시설 그리고 타 학교 체윽시설 활용 방안을 고려할 필요가 있다. 또한 이동수업시 예상되는 안전사고에 대한 문제는 현재 운영중인 학교 안전공제회의 법적 적용 범위가 확대되어 안전사고의 책임으로부터 보호받을 수 있도록 하여 창의적이고 의욕적인 교육활동이 위축되지 않도록 제도적 장치가 우선되어야 할 것으로 생각된다. 넷째, 인접지 지역 생활 체육 자원을 적극 활용하기 위해서는 대안적 체육과 교육과정 운영에 따른 체육수업시간의 통합적 운영이 절대적으로 필요하다. 다섯째, 체육수업의 질적 향상을 제고하기 위해서는 연간프로그램의 계획과 실행에서 생활체육지도자와 공동 참여를 통해 수업시간의 협동적 운영, 학습자 관리, 지도내용과 교수 학습방법의 부문에서 유기적인 정보공유와 교류를 필요로 하며, 이와 같은 인적 자원 활용은 중학교 체육과 교육과정의 효율적 운영에 긍정적 영향을 미칠 것이라 기대된다. This study focuses on making an efficient Programs for middle school physical education's curriculum through complementary connection of school physical education and life sports. With reference to related advance research, report and reference, this study designs the following plans in terms of conceptive plan for connection of school physical education to life sports and complement-enabled area in detail, based on curricular physical education class. First, among differential, integrated and complementary connection methods in accordance with pattern between school physical education and life sports, it is expected that complementary connection will be realistically desirable. Second, school physical education is required to include 'life' and 'practicality' in light of idealistic education within the scope of 'school' and 'class'. On the contrary, life sports need to add social education so as to place stress on 'life activity' out of school and search for internal values of school physical education, i.e., personality cultivation, insight development, self-realization out of `external and practical characteristics'. Third, in order to solve problems such as 'uneasy movement' and 'inaccessibility' that may occur when using athletic facilities in neighboring cities, campus athletic facilities as well as local athletic facilities should be available according to education schedule and it may be required to utilize athletic facilities at other universities. For problems about accidents that may occur during mobile class, it is necessary to extend legal scope of application of School Safety Fraternal Association currently in operation so as to protect from accidents and also required to create institutional frameworks to prevent creative and motivated education activities from being shrunk. Fourth, in order to make the best use of local athletic facilities in neighboring areas, it is required to manage physical education class according to alternative education and curriculum operation. Fifth, so as to increase the quality of physical education class, it is required to cooperatively operate class, manage learners, share and exchange information in the area of guidance, teaching method through joint participation of life sports leaders in annual programs. Such utilization of human resources in neighboring area is considered as important factor that may have positive effects upon the efficient operation of middle school physical education's curriculum.
Mctastatic brain tumor in a case of choriocarcinoma with negative Friedman reaction has been experienced. There have been a few reports on such negative Friedman reaction in cases of choriocarcinoma. A review from some literatures concerning the matastatic choriocarcinoma in relation to Friedman reaction is discussed.