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Toothbrushing has increased, as the concern about oral health has been on the growth in people. As an adverse effect of tooth brushing, prevalance of cervical abrasion has been increased. In this connection, it will be increased in the next century, The need for setting up the strategy on the prevention of cervical abrasion is comming up rapidly. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the prevalence, distribution and severity of cervical abrasion by teeth and age as one of the base-line data. 1,416 persons aged 15 and more selected by multi-stage clustering were surveyed dental examintion with Paik's criteria on cervical abrasion in 1995 in Korea. The results obtained are as follows : 1. Cervical abrasion is the most prevalent in 1st premolar, and the prevalence of cervical abrasion has been decreased in the order of 2nd premolar, canine and 1st molar. 2. The severity of cervical abrasion has been increased, as the age increased. 3. Cervical abrasion could be already detected in the age of 15. 4. School-based toothbrushing drill program should be developed in primary and secondary school for preventing cervical abrasion in permanant teeth. 5. For preventing cervical abrasion in permanant teeth, undergraduate dental students and family dentists should be trained in the education on the individual-based tooth brushing in the clinical training course in dental college and in the continuous education course for dentist.
본 연구의 목적은 보강재의 트리핑의 특성을 수치적으로 조사하고 보강재웨브의 국부좌굴강도를 예측하기 위한 설계식의 정도를 검증하는데 있다. 또한 비선형 유한요소법을 이용하여 보강재의 트리핑과 보강재간 패널의 국부좌굴의 상관효과 및 판과 보강재의 접합선에서 탄소성 회전구속의 영향등을 조사하는 것이다. 기존의 유한요소법은 구조물의 비선형해석을 수행함에 있어서 상당한 컴퓨터계산을 요하지만, 본 연구에서는 보강판의 비선형거동을 보다 효율적으로 계산하기 위하여 간이화된 비선형유한요소법을 적용하였다. 압축력을 받는 flat-bar형 보강재가 붙은 보강판에 대하여 탄소성대변형 유한요소해석을 판과 보강재웨브의 치수를 변화시켜 가면서 시리즈해석을 수행하여, 그 결과를 바탕으로 flat-bar형 보강재의 트리핑에 대한 기본적인 조사를 수행하였다. 또한, 본 연구에서는 보강재웨브의 임계 좌굴강도를 예측하기 위한 2개의 설계식 즉, IACS설계식과 Paik등이 개발한 간이식을 이용한 이론해와 유한요소해석 결과를 비교함으로써 그 정도를 검증하였다. The twin aims of the present study are to numerically investigate the characteristics of tripping failure of flat-bar stiffened panels subject to uniaxial compressive loads and also to study the accuracy of two available design formulations. A special purpose nonlinear finite element method capable of efficiently analyzing the elasto-plastic large deformation behavior of stiffened panels is developed and used in the study. A benefit of the application of the nonlinear finite element method is that it makes possible a rigorous accounting of the interacting effects of stiffener tripping and plating collapse and also the inclusion of the influence of elasto-plastic rotational restraints at the plate-stiffener intersection prior to and during failure. A parametric series of elasto-plastic large deformation analyses for stiffened panels with flat-bar type of stiffeners under uniaxial compressive loads are carried out varying member proportions and structural parameters. Based on the computed results, a basic investigation of tripping behavior of flat-bars is made, and the accuracy of design formulations is studied.
본 연구의 목적은 주니어 국가대표급 쇼트트랙 스피드 스케이팅 선수 5명을 대상으로 Creatine(Cr)을 구강 투여하여, 투여된 Cr이 최대 운동 부하 수행력에 미치는 영향과 혈중 젖산, 무기인산, 암모니아, pH등과 같은 생리학적 피로 요소의 변화를 고찰하여, Cr 투여가 운동수행에 미치는 영향뿐만 아니라, 피로 요소들의 변화에 미치는 영향을 연구하는데 있으며, 특히, 중추신경계의 피로물질로 알려진 serotonin(5-HT)의 변화를 고찰함으로써 Cr의 피로 유발 지연 효과를 규명하는데 그 목적이 있다. 운동 부하 테스트는 정규 국제규격인 쇼트트랙 전용 경기장에서 Cr을 투여하기 전 500m와 3,000m를 충분한 휴식을 두고 자신의 최대역량으로 주파하게 하는 형태를 취하였으며, Cr의 투여는 하루에 20g씩 5일간 투여하였고,6일째 되는 날 같은 조건으로 재측정 하였다. 운동 수행력의 변화는 각각의 실험 조건에서 Cr을 투여한 실험 조건과 투여하지 않은 실험 조건을 비교해서 유의한 향상이 나타나지 않았으나(p>.05), 쇼트트랙 경기의 특성을 고려할 때, Cr의 투여로 순위를 결정지을 수 있는 기록이 단축 되는 것으로 나타났다. 혈중 젖산의 변화는 운동 종료시 Cr을 투여한 실험조건에서 투여하지 않은 실험조건에서 보다 더 낮은 혈중 젖산 농도를 보였으며, 통계적으로도 유의한 차이가 나타났다(p<.05). 혈중 암모니아와 무기인산의 변화 역시, 혈중 젖산 농도 변화와 마찬가지로 운동시 모든 경우에 증가하는 현상을 보였으며, 운동 종료시 Cr을 투여한 실험조건에서 투여하지 않은 실험조건에서 보다 낮은 혈중 젖산 농도를 보였고 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타났다(p<.05). 혈중 pH의 변화는 운동 종료시 Cr을 투여한 실험조건에서 투여하지 않은 실험조건에서 보다 높은 혈중 pH를 보였으나, 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 나타나지 않았다(p>.05). 혈중 5-HT의 농도 변화는 두 그룹 모두에서 Cr을 투여한 실험 조건에서 더 높은 5-HT의 농도를 보였고, 통계적으로도 유의한 차이가 나타났다(p<.05). 전체적으로 운동이 반복되면서 5-HT의 농도는 일정한 형태로 증가하다가 회복시에 감소하는 양상을 보였지만, 피로유발 요인이라고 단정하기엔 무리가 있다고 본다. 따라서, 쇼트트랙과 같은 단시간의 고강도 운동 형태의 경기 종목 선수에게 있어서, Cr의 효율적인 공급은 운동 수행시 에너지 보충제로서의 역할을 충분히 수행할 수 있는 잠재적 역량을 가지고 있을 뿐만 아니라, 피로 유발 물질의 감소와 그로 인한 운동 수행력의 향상에 많은 도움을 줄 수 있을 것으로 본다. 또한, 대사적 생성기전과 피로인식 기전의 개념으로 5-HT에 대한 연구가 추가적으로 수행되어, 피로유발 요인으로서 5-HT에 대한 과학적인 증거의 제시가 이루어져야 할 것으로 본다. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of oral creatine supplementation on exercise performance, and to follow the changes of blood fatigue elements, such as lactate, ammonia, inorganic phosphate, pH & 5-HT. All of the tests were performed on a international standard arena ice rink. The subject of present study was divided into two groups; 500m skaters(500-AT), and 3,000m skaters (3,000-AT). Each skaters participated in their own skating distances(500 and 3,000m). After the preliminary test, all subjects were given a 5-day supplementation of Creatine monohydrate at a rate of 20g·d<sup>-1</sup>.When the study was performed, we could not find a significant difference in developing a record by Cr supplementation(p>.05). However, as the rank of skating is determined by hundreds of second, we could find a result, which can change the rank of the skating competition by the Cr supplementation. There were significant differences in mean blood lactate between Cr supplementation and Cr non-supplementation for the 500-AT and the 3,000-AT groups(p< .05). Also, there were big significant differences in mean blood inorganic phosphate and ammonia concentrations between Cr supplementation and Cr non-supplementation for the 500-AT and the 3,000-AT groups(p < .05). The mean blood pH in Cr supplementation experimental condition was higher than Cr non-supplementation experimental condition, but we could not find a significant differences in mean blood pH between Cr supplementation and Cr non-supplementation for the 500-AT and the 3,000-AT groups(p >.05).Blood 5-HT concentrations in Cr supplementation experimental condition was higher than non supplementation experimental condition, and there were significant differences between Cr supplementation and Cr non-supplementation for the 500-AT and the 3,000-AT groups.(p<.05). However, it was difficult to explain that 5-HT occurs fatigue unless the physiological mechanism of 5-HT was provided.Therefore, this study concluded that Cr supplementation had a ergogenic effect on energy metabolism. Especially, in a high intensive exercise as short-track skating, Cr supplementation will help for fatigue elements reduction and exercise performance improvement. Also, we believe the additional research of 5-HT must be accomplished so that we can provide the scientific evidence of fatigue, which was cause by 5-HT.
Aims: Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection increases the risk for progressive liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma and negatively impacts the patient’s quality of life. HCV treatment is evolving with direct acting antivirals but IFN based therapy has been the standard of care for many years and remains available in some countries. The MOSAIC study aims to characterize patients with chronic HCV infection and assess the impact of IFN-containing treatment on health-related quality of life, work related productivity and health care utilization. Methods: MOSAIC is an international prospective multicenter observational study that has been conducted in 20 countries. Consecutive patients with chronic HCV infection were enrolled and those who initiated an IFN based regimen were prospectively followed for 48 weeks. We report results from the Korean cohort Results: 100 patients were enrolled: 86 were treatment naïve and 14 were treatment experienced. 33 patients initiated an IFN based regimen: 6 patients started IFN + RBV, 26 patients started Peg-IFN + RBV, none started Peg-IFN + RBV + DAA and 1 patient received other treatment. Among the treated cohort, demographic and disease characteristics were the following: the mean age was 54.5 years; 14 patients were male. 14 had minimal or no fibrosis, 2 portal fibrosis, 3 bridging fibrosis and 6 patients suffered from cirrhosis. HCV Genotype distribution was as follows: genotype 1: 11; genotype 2: 19 and genotype 3: 3. Table 1 describes the results at baseline and changes over 4, 12 and 48 weeks and end-of-treatment (EOT) for the quality of life and work productivity outcome measures (EQ-5D-5L, HCV-PRO and WPAI). Conclusions: Results from the Korean cohort of the MOSAIC study show a moderate trend for deterioration of health-related quality of life and work productivity associated with IFN based treatment for patients with chronic HCV infection during treatment period. Acknowledgements: The design, study conduct, analysis, and financial support of MOSAIC study were provided by AbbVie. AbbVie participated in the interpretation of data, review, and approval of the content of the abstract. All authors had access to all relevant data and participated in writing, review, and approval of this abstract. Medical writing support was provided by Olivier Van de Steen of Medeor-consulting, funded by AbbVie. Disclosures: Sang Hoon Ahn: served as an advisor and lecturer for Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, F.Hoffmann-La Roche, Merck, AbbVie, and has received unrestricted grants from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, and F. Hoffmann-La Roche for investigator- initiated trials Won Hyeok Choe: Nothing to disclosure Yoon Jun Kim: Nothing to disclosure Jeong Heo: received a grant from GSK; Research support from BMS, and Roche; Advisor for Abbvie, BMS, Gilead Sciences, Pharma Essentia, SillaJen, and Johnson & Johnson. Dorota Latarska-Smuga, Jiho Kang: are employees of AbbVie, Inc. and may hold stock or stock options. Seung Woon Paik: received grant and research support from AbbVie, BMS, Gilead, GSK, Merck, Novartis, and Roche
전자내국신용장 이용과정에 대한 적정 모델과 보완해야할 과제를 고찰하였다. 요약하여 무역금융 취급세칙의 개정이 필요하다. 내국신용장거래는 사실상 무역금융 취급세칙이 사실상 신용장통일규칙을 상당부분 대체하고 있으므로 무역금융취급세칙은 eUCP의 주요 내용을 반영하여 개정하는 것이 바람직할 것이다. 다음으로 내국신용장거래의 형식을 양도가능, 선급내국신용장의 형태로 다양화하여 내국신용장의 효용을 제고시키는 것이 바람직하며, 전자내국신용장 유통시스템개발과정에서 이러한 점을 반영하여야할 것이다. 그리고 전체 거래과정을 완전 전자화하기 위해서 일치성 검토를 위한 엔진을 장착할 필요가 있으며 또한 중소기업의 이용을 촉진시키기 위해서 저비용으로 참여할 수 있는 전자내국신용장 유통시스템을 개발하고 교육지원과 같은 체계적인 프로그램이 필요하다고 하겠다.
This thesis, centering on Japanese IEMOTO and IEMOTO SYSTEM, is dealing with what kind of mental continuity and spirit of art created modern traditional art, with making a balance between the preservation and creation of one artistic connection. For the purpose of this study, 1 tried to observe the way of accomplishing art and trace the foundation which have supported the spirit of art. And also I tried to reveal the logical foundation, which has been called the ideal form of the spirit of art, emphasizing the matrix of motion and at the same time developing beyond that matrix of motion. Finally, I made a general survey of the function and system of IEMOTO and IEMOTO SYSTEM which have contributed to the preservation and development of the traditional art in spite of the recent mammonistic trend of art and also tried to induce from this survey the various methods of the establishment and development of Korean traditional art. I proposed following contents to deal with above mentioned study. ● Preface ● The main subject. 1. Way of accomplishment to art and IEMOTO SYSTEM 2. Manner of accomplishment to art and it’s value. 3. The reality and falsity of IEMOTO SYSTEM. 4. The exact position of the idea of Matrix of Motion. ● Conclusion.
Approximately 4% of cerebral aneurysms are of mycotic origin. The desination of "mycotic" for arterial lesions of infectious origin was provided by Osier in 1885, and. The relationship of mycotic aneurysms in any location to bacterial endocarditis was made clear by the review of Stengel and Wolferth in 1923. Mycotic aneurysms are abnormalities of the vessel wall resulting from infacted emboli, most commonly arising from the heart as a part of the spectrum of bacterial endocarditis. The middle cerebral artery is most commonly involved, including its proximal division which is a common site for congenital aneurysms also. Recently we experienced a case of middle cerebral mycotic anenrysm ruptured into the lateral ventricle and sucessful removal of the hematoma after clipping of the aneurysm. The patient was discharged uneventhly in mild left hemiplegias we discussed with a brief review of the literature.
A study on lead concentration in air of industrial establishments in Korea. Kwang Mook Lee, Nam Won Palk (Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Catholic Medical College) <Profewor Kyu Sang Cho) Lead is a substance among the earliest metals used by men. It, having low melting point, can be refined easily and it is so soft that it can be easily rolled into sheet and foil and extruded cold rods, pipes and tube containers. Alloyed with tin, antimony and other metals, lead proved the most satisfactory substance for using in industry. The importance of lead and its compounds in industry, taken in relation to its physiological effects, is such that the degree of industrial exposure is of great hygienic significance. By our previous report, it was assumed that six percent of the industrial workers as a whole were exposed to lead fume and dust in their work places in Korea. In this survey, we measured lead concentration in air of work places sampled from eight different industries: storage battery manufacturing, printing, earthenware manufacturing, lead refining, electrical machinery, automobile manufacturing, petroleum refining and lead mining industry. The resultsare as follows: 1) The average concentrations of lead in air of lead refining industry show 0.64C.81 mg/m3, 0.31~0.66mg/m3 in storage battery industry, 0.21mg/m3 in cable covering process in electrical machinery industry. The concentrations are higher than the threshold limit value. Those of automobile manufacturing, printing and earthenware manufacturing industries are below the threshold limit value. 2) In petroleum refining industry where organic lead is used, the concentration of lead in air at the process to add tetraethyl lead to petroleum shows 0.065mg/m3. But there is a risk that cause lead poisoning in that process though the concentration is below the threshold limit value, for the organic lead can be absorbed through the intact skin. 3) None of the satisfactory control measures to prevent lead exposure has been found, such as local ventilation, automation, and protection of workers with personal protective devices, even in the industries which show higher concentration of lead in their work places. It seems that the ignorance of both employers and employees concerning the health hazards of lead workers and their control measures causes the defenceless against the lead exposure.