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Seasonal variability of δ<sup>18</sup>O and δ<sup>13</sup>C of planktic foraminifera in the Bering Sea and central subarctic Pacific during 1990-2000 : SEASONAL FORAMINIFERAL δ<sup>18</sup>O AND δ<sup>13</sup>C
Objectives: Height loss is associated with vertebral fracture risk and osteoporosis. We assumed that height loss may indicate the risk of falls because the presence of osteoporosis is significantly associated with sarcopenia development. We studied the association of height loss with falls and sarcopenia. Methods: This study included 610 community-dwelling women. We measured the height, weight, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), grip strength, and gait speed. Additionally, we recorded the individual’s tallest height, and the presence or absence of single or multiple falls during the preceding 12 months. The participants were classified into nonheight loss, 2- to 3-cm height loss, 3- to 4-cm height loss, and over 4-cm height loss groups. The association of height loss with falls and sarcopenia were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: We found that 3- to 4-cm height loss and over 4-cm height loss were significantly associated with falls (odds ratio [OR], 1.637; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.023-2.619; P ¼ 0.04), (OR, 1.742, 95% CI, 1.054-2.877; P ¼ 0.03), respectively. Additionally, over 4-cm height loss was significantly associated with sarcopenia for ASMI calculated by participant’s tallest recalled height squared (OR, 2.676; 95% CI, 1.122-6.284; P = 0.026). Conclusions: We found that the risk of falls was advanced at 3- to 4-cm height loss and over 4-cm height loss, and sarcopenia started at over 4-cm height loss. Height loss may be a useful indicator of the risk of falls and sarcopenia.
A time-series sediment trap was operated at a water depth of 4950 m from July 2003 to May 2004 at KOMO station (10°30"N, 131°20"W) in the northeastern equatorial Pacific, with the aim of understanding the temporal variation of planktonic foraminifera assemblages in response to the seasonal shift of Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A total of 22130 planktonic foraminifera specimens belonging to 30 species and 11 genera were identified, which shows a distinct seasonal variation with high values (125~288 specimens m<SUP>?2</SUP> day<SUP>?1</SUP>) in the winter to spring (December-May) and low values (16~23 specimens m<SUP>?2</SUP> day<SUP>?1</SUP>) in the fall (September-November). In addition, seasonal ecological differences of foraminifera assemblages are distinctly recognizable: omnivorous foraminifera occurred predominantly during the summer season, whereas herbivorous ones were dominant during the winter season. Such seasonal variations correspond to the seasonal shift of the ITCZ. Enhanced occurrence of herbivorous species during the winter-spring season seems a result of surface water mixing generated by the southward shift of the ITCZ. The increase in omnivorous species during the summer season may be due to the northward movement of the ITCZ caused by weakened wind speed, resulting in the intensification of water column stratification and nutrient-poor environment. A significant reduction of planktonic foraminifera specimens during the fall is attributed to heavy precipitation and reduction in light intensity.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>We evaluated the response of Quaternary abyssal benthic foraminifera in cores PC5101 (2º00.86′N, 131º34.32′W) and PC5103 (6º00.10′N, 131º28.57′W) of the Central Equatorial Pacific Ocean to the environmental changes over the past ∼520 kyrs, focusing on the mid-Brunhes dissolution interval (∼533–191 ka). We used multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) to derive MDS axis 1, reflecting food supply from low (negative scores) to high (positive scores) amounts, and MDS axis 2, reflecting variability in the food supply. From ∼120 ka on, <I>Epistominella exigua</I>, an indicator of variable food supply, was more abundant in core PC5103 (∼6<SUP>o</SUP>N) than in core PC5101 (∼2<SUP>o</SUP>N), but this was reversed from ∼300 to 250 ka.</P> <P>In core PC5101, MDS axis 1 scores are negatively correlated to the biogenic opal mass accumulation rates (MAR) after 249.6 ka, i.e., lower food supply at higher opal-MAR. In contrast, MDS axis 1 scores are positively correlated to the CaCO<SUB>3</SUB>-MAR from 520.8 to 331.2 ka. Both carbonate and opal skeletons might ballast particulate organic matter (POM) to enhance food supply to the benthos, but our data indicate that carbonate is more efficient and that changes in dominant ballasting of POM by different biominerals thus may have significantly affected the biological pump. During the transitional period (∼327.5–257.1 ka), ballasting of POM changed from control by calcareous plankton to control by siliceous plankton, with a transient period during which the latitudinal pattern of the Intertropical Convergence Zone was opposite to its modern pattern, with the more variable food supply at ∼ 6<SUP>o</SUP>N.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Quaternary abyssal benthic foraminifera were compared in terms of multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) in the Central Equatorial Pacific Ocean. </LI> <LI> In core PC5101, located closer to the equator, MDS axis 1 scores are negatively correlated to the biogenic opal mass accumulation rates (MAR) after 249.6 ka. </LI> <LI> In contrast, core PC5101 shows that MDS axis 1 scores are positively correlated to the CaCO<SUB>3</SUB>-MAR from 520.8 to 331.2 ka. </LI> <LI> Ballasting of particulate organic matter changed from control by calcareous plankton to control by siliceous plankton during ∼327.5–257.1 ka. </LI> <LI> During a transient period, the latitudinal pattern of the Intertropical Convergence Zone was opposite to its modern pattern, with the more variable food supply at ∼6°N. </LI> </UL> </P>
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>This study reconstructs a record of typhoon frequency over the Korean Peninsula during the mid-Holocene using mineral components and diatom assemblages in deposits of Lagoon Hyangho, located on the east coast of the peninsula. The lagoon deposits confirm the occurrence of cyclical, multi-centennial scale episodes of low salinization induced by typhoon-derived heavy rain. Although shifts in typhoon frequency broadly follow El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions during the Holocene, evidence from the typhoon-induced deposits in Hyangho Lagoon suggests that the path of the polar westerly jet controls the effect of ENSO on multi-centennial-scale typhoon patterns across the mid-latitude region of East Asia. The influence of ENSO is limited when the westerly jet passes through low latitudes. Fluctuations in solar activity play a key role in regulating movement of the westerly jet. Multi-centennial scale changes in typhoon frequency in mid-latitude East Asia are, therefore, influenced by changes in solar activity and ENSO conditions.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Typhoon records for the mid-Holocene are reconstructed using lagoon sediments. </LI> <LI> Typhoon frequency in East Asia is synchronous with changes in solar irradiance. </LI> <LI> The effect of ENSO on typhoon paths is regulated by westerly jet stream conditions. </LI> </UL> </P>
<P>Detailed diatom records within surface and core sediments from the Southern Bering Continental Shelf (SBCS) reveal that the Holocene evolution of sea-ice distribution is associated with low pressure patterns. Holocene sea-ice distribution over the SBCS was mainly controlled by the location of the Aleutian Low. The corresponding paleoceanographic and paleoclimate conditions can be divided into three stages: (1) the early Holocene (before 7000 cal. yr BP) was characterized by extensive sea-ice distribution under two low-pressure cells, which covered the western Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska, respectively. (2) Between 3000 and 7000 cal. yr BP, the low-pressure system over the Gulf of Alaska became weak, causing total sea-ice mass over the SBCS to retreat. (3) In the past 3000 years, prevailing southwesterly winds over the SBCS due to the developing Aleutian Low have reduced further sea-ice cover on the SBCS. These paleoclimatic changes were probably a response to ENSO variation. The timings of water mass exchanges on the SBCS coincided with sea-level change along the Alaskan Peninsula. As a result, subsequent morphologic alterations have also influenced the paleoceanographic condition of the SBCS. The effect of the surface coastal water and bottom marine water on the SBCS intensified about 6000 cal. yr BP when sea level increased.</P>