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          북서태평양 해저산의 망간각에 기록된 인산염화 작용

          형기성(Kiseong Hyeong),김종욱(Jonguk Kim),유찬민(Chan Min Yoo),문재운(Jae-Woon Moon),김기현(Ki-Hyune Kim) 대한지질학회 2008 지질학회지 Vol.44 No.4

          신생대동안 발생한 인산염화 작용의 시기와 그 기작을 규명하기 위하여 북서태평양의 해저산에 분포하는 인산염암의 연령을 스트론튬 동위원소값을 이용하여 결정하였다. 또한 문헌에 보고된 해저산 인산염암의 연령을 가장 최근에 보고된 단일 ??Sr/??Sr-age 곡선을 이용하여 재산정하였다. 새로 산정한 연령은 기존 자료에 비해 최대 5 Myr까지 작은 연령을 보여주었다. 기존 연구와 이번 연구를 종합한 결과, 태평양 해저산 지역에서 34-33 Ma (n=18)와 24-21 Ma (n=14) 시기에 전지구적 규모의 인산염화 작용이 발생했으며, 19-16 Ma (n=6) 기간에는 소규모의 인산염화 작용이 발생했던 것으로 밝혀졌다. 세 번의 인산염화 작용 시기는 공통적으로 해수면이 상대적으로 높고 탄소동위원소값의 급격한 증가가 발생했던 시기이다. 또한 위도간의 온도구배 증가로 저층수가 강화되었던 시기이기도 하다. 이는 이 시기들 동안 대륙주변부와 적도부근에서 저층수의 용승이 강화되어 해양의 표층생산성을 증가시켰으며, 인산염화 작용에 필요한 인산염을 공급했음을 지시한다. 해저산과 같이 저층수의 흐름에 방해가 되는 지형은 저층수의 용승작용을 유발시키는 구조물의 역할을 하기 때문에 저층수의 강화는 해저산 주변에서의 직접적인 용승의 증가로 이어졌을 가능성이 크다. 결론적으로, 대양의 해저산에서 발생한 대규모의 집중적인 인산염화 작용은 전지구적 규모의 해양/기후시스템의 변화에 기인한 저층수의 강화와 그에 따른 수층 내 인산염의 공급 증가가 원인인 것으로 해석된다. 연구 대상 해저산은 그 위도별 위치에 따라 인산염화작용의 시기가 차이가 없었으며, 이는 인산염화작용을 유발한 인산염의 공급이 적도 고생산대의 위치와 무관하게 발생했음을 지시한다. To investigate the Cenozoic episodes of phosphogenesis and its possible triggering mechanism, seamount phosphorites in the northwest Pacific were dated using Sr isotope ratios. Sr isotope data of Pacific seamount phosphorite were also compiled and new ages were re-assigned on the basis of a newly published ??Sr/??Sr-age curve to minimize biases due to inconsistent application of different seawater Sr-age curve model to different data set. Newly assigned ages were as much as 5 million years younger than the published values. This study identified two major episodes of phosphatization at 34-33 Ma (n=18) and 24-21 Ma (n=14) with an additional minor event at 19-16 Ma (n=6) during the Cenozoic. These three phosphatization episodes had common characteristics of high sea level, drastic increases in carbon isotope ratios and intensified bottom water current. This indicates that the increased upwelling at the continental margins and along the equator in the Pacific caused the high biological productivity and carbon isotope ratio shifts during these episodes. It is known that topographic barriers to flows such as seamounts act as sites for upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water. Thus, intensified bottome current also likely caused increased upwelling around the seamounts. In conclusion, the phosphatization in the Pacific seamounts was triggered by intensified bottom current due to the changes in global ocean/climate system and resulting high ocean productivity and increassed suppy of dissolved phosphorous ion. The studied seamounts show no systematic changes in phosphatization ages depending on latitudinal locations, implying that equatorial high productivity zone is not responsible for the supply of phosphorous.

        • KCI등재

          제주/쓰시마 조초성 산호의 수온 기록자로서의 가능성 평가

          형기성(Kiseong Hyeong),Michiyo Shimamura,Tsuyoshi Watanabe,Hiroya Yamano,Kaoru Sugihara,김종욱(Jonguk Kim) 한국해양연구원 2008 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.30 No.3

          In an effort to develop high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) proxies for mid-latitude regions, two massive reef-building coral species, Alveopora and Favia, were collected from Jeju and Tsushima Islands, respectively. Their skeletons were subsequently analyzed for annual growth banding, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios. Hermatypic corals are thinly distributed in the waters of Jeju Island, where Alveopora japonica was the only dominant coral species. A higher diversity of hermatypic corals were observed in the waters of Tsushima Island, where Favia sp. was the most common coral species and even forming an about 6-m-high reef structure. Both Alveopora and Favia showed annual growth layers consisting of couplets of high- and low-density bands. Sr/Ca ratio of both species and Mg/Ca ratio of Alveopora also showed seasonal variation, likely reflecting SST variation. These results suggest the possibility that Alveopora and Favia species can be used as potential SST proxies. However, this study also highlights the potential growth disturbance of middle latitude corals due to high rainfall during monsoon and low SST during winter. This possibility should be taken into account in the investigation of Sr/Ca(Mg/Ca)-SST relationships.

        • KCI등재
        • KCI등재

          서태평양 해저산 고코발트 망간각 자원평가를 위한 광역 탐사 방안

          김종욱,고영탁,형기성,문재운,Kim, Jonguk,Ko, Young-Tak,Hyeong, Kiseong,Moon, Jai-Woon 대한자원환경지질학회 2013 자원환경지질 Vol.46 No.6

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          서태평양 해저산 사면에 부존하는 고코발트 망간각은 코발트, 니켈, 백금, 희유금속 등을 다량 함유하고 있으며, 최근 국제해저기구에서 공해상 탐사규칙이 제정됨에 따라 개발 대상으로 더욱 주목받고 있다. 해저산에 분포하는 망간각의 개발을 위해서는 경사가 낮고 지형기복이 완만하여 채광에 유리한 지형조건을 갖추면서 망간각이 두껍게 분포하는 유망지역을 선별하여야 한다. 따라서 광역단계의 망간각 탐사는 음향 수심탐사를 통한 지형 및 경사도의 확인, 음향산란 자료의 획득을 통한 기저면 표층 매질 분포 파악, 그리고 해저면 영상 관찰과 시료채취를 통한 망간각의 분포 두께 파악이 필요하다. 또한 음향산란 자료를 이용하여 망간각 분포 지역을 확인하기 위해서는 영상관찰 및 시료 채취를 통한 망간각 음향매질 특성분석이 필요하다. 기존의 탐사를 통해 수행된 망간각 기초탐사 자료를 분석한 결과 해저산 지형 해석과 망간각 광역분포와 같은 망간각 유망지역 선별을 위한 일부 자료를 확인할 수 있었다. 하지만, 음향산란 자료를 확보하지 못하여 넓은 탐사지역을 대상으로 망간각 부존 유망지역을 선별하는 데 필요한 망간각 분포 변화는 파악하지 못하였다. 따라서 향후 탐사는 망간각 탐사후보 지역을 대상으로 음향산란 자료의 확보가 선행되어야 하며, 해저면 관찰 및 시료채취를 병행하여 해저면 음향매질 특성과 망간각 분포의 상관성을 파악하기 위한 탐사가 수행되어야 한다. Co-rich ferromanganese crusts (Fe-Mn crusts) distributed on the seamounts in the western Pacific are potential economic resources for cobalt, nickel, platinum, and other rare metals in the future. Regulations for prospecting and exploration of Fe-Mn crusts in the Area, which enables the process to obtain an exclusive exploration right for blocks of the fixed size, were enacted recently by the International Seabed Authority, which led to public attention on its potential for commercial development. Evaluation and selection of a mining site can be established based on abundance and grade of Fe-Mn crusts in the site as well as topography that should be smooth enough for mining efficiency. Therefore, acquisition of shipboard echo-sounding and acoustic backscatter data are prerequisite to select potential mine sites in addition to visual and sampling operations. Acoustic backscatter data can be used to locate crust-covered areas in a regional scale with the understanding of acoustic properties of crust through its correlation with visual and sampling data. KIOST had collected the topographic and geologic data to assess the resources potential for Fe-Mn crusts in the west Pacific region from 1994 to 2001. However, they could not obtain acoustic backscatter data that is crucial for the selection of prospective mining sites. Therefore, additional exploration surveys are required to carry out side scan sonar mapping combined with seafloor observation and sampling to decide the blocks for application of an exclusive exploration right.

        • KCI등재

          지자기 방향변화 및 베릴륨 동위원소비를 이용한 북동 적도 태평양 주상시료의 층서확립

          김원년(Wonnyon Kim),형기성(Kiseong Hyeong),공기수(Gee Soo Kong) 한국해양연구원 2014 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.36 No.4

          A 570 cm-long sediment core was retrieved at 9°57"N and 131°42"W in 5,080 m water depth from the northeast equatorial Pacific and its stratigraphy was established with <SUP>10</SUP>Be/<SUP>9</SUP>Be and paleomagnetic measurements. Successive AF demagnetization reveals eight geomagnetic field reversals. In the reference geologic time scale, the eight reversal events correspond to an age of about 4.5 Ma. However, <SUP>10</SUP>Be/<SUP>9</SUP>Bebased age yields 9.5 Ma at a depth of 372 cm. Such a large discrepancy in determined ages is attributed to an extremely low sedimentation rate, 0.4 mm/kyr on average, of the study core and resultant loss or smoothing of geomagnetic fields. The composite age model reveals a wide range in the sedimentation rate - varying from 0.1 to 2.4 mm/kyr. However, the sedimentation rate shows systematic variation depending on sedimentary facies (Unit II and III), which suggests that each lithologic unit has a unique provenance and transport mechanism. At depths of 110-80 cm with a sedimentation rate of about 0.1 mm/kyr, ancient geomagnetic field reversal events of at least a 1.8 Myr time span have not been recorded, which indicates the probable existence of a hiatus in the interval. Such a sedimentary hiatus is observed widely in the deepsea sediments of the NE equatorial Pacific.

        • KCI등재

          심해 저층환경충격 시험지역의 퇴적물 지화학적 특성

          공기수(Gee Soo Kong),형기성(Kiseong Hyeong),최헌수(Hun-Soo Choi),지상범(Sang-Bum Chi) 한국해양연구원 2014 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.36 No.4

          The benthic environmental impact experiment addresses environmental impacts at a specific site related to deep-sea mineral resource development. We have acquired several tens of multi- or box core samples at 31 sites within the Benthic environmental Impact Site (BIS) since 2010, aiming to examine the basic properties of surficial deep-sea sediment as a potential source for deep-water plumes. In this study, we present the geochemical properties such as major elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and heavy metal contents at the BIS. Such proxies vary distinctly according to the Facies association. The lithology of all core sediments in the BIS corresponds to both Association Ib and Association IIIb. The vertical profiles of some major elements (SiO₂, Fe₂O₃, CaO, P₂O₅, MgO, MnO) show noticeable differences between Association Ib and IIIb, while others (Al₂O₃, TiO₂, Na₂O, and K₂O) do not vary between Association Ib and IIIb. REEs are also distinctly different for Associations Ib and IIIb; in Association Ib, REY and HREE/LREE are uniform through the sediment section, while they increase downward in Association IIIb like the major elements; below a depth of 8 cm, REY is over 500 ppm. The metal enrichment factor (EF) evaluates the anthropogenic influences of some metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in marine sediments. In both Associations, the EF for Cu is over 1.5, the EF for Ni and Pb ranges from 0.5 to 1.5, and the EF for Zn and Cd are less than 0.5, indicating Cu is enriched but Zn and Cd are relatively depleted in the BIS. The vertical variations of geochemical properties between Association Ib and IIIb are shown to be clearly different, which seems to be related to the global climate changes such as the shift of Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ).

        • KCI등재

          남서태평양 라우분지 푸누아레이 열곡확장대 인근 퇴적물의 기원과 열수 분출의 증거

          김문기(Mun Gi Kim),형기성(Kiseong Hyeong),서인아(Inah Seo),유찬민(Chan Min Yoo) 한국해양과학기술원 2020 Ocean and Polar Research Vol.42 No.1

          The bulk and partition geochemistry was studied in two sediment cores collected from the axial valley of the north-central Fonualei Rift and Spreading Center (FRSC), Lau back-arc Basin, southwest Pacific. The sediments consist of mostly volcanic ash, although minor amounts of biogenic and other components were present in some intervals. The major element composition of bulk sediments recalculated to a carbonate-free basis was in good agreement with the magma compositions of the adjacent Tofua Arc and the FRSC, with only significant difference in Mn content. The enrichment of Mn and other associated elements (e.g. Cu, Co, Ni, and P) is attributed to hydrothermal input to the sediments, as evidenced by their significant partitioning in the non-detrital phases according to the partition geochemistry. Hydrogenetic and diagenetic inputs were assessed to be relatively insignificant. Estimated hydrothermal Mn fluxes during the Holocene ranged between 5.0 and 37.1 ㎎ ㎝<SUP>-2</SUP> kyr<SUP>-1</SUP>, with the higher values in younger sediments, suggesting enhanced hydrothermal activity. The hydrothermal Mn fluxes comparable to or higher than those reported from other spreading centers with strong hydrothermal activities may indicate the presence of unknown hydrothermal vent sites and/or topographic restriction on the dispersal of hydrothermal plumes in the northern part of the FRSC.

        • KCI등재
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