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The recent trend of bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) has pressured the governments of many countries to make such arrangements with their trade partners. Since its foundation in 1998, the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) has advocated free trade policies, partly because the party was an urban-based party. Thus, many expected that, when the DPJ assumed power in 2009, it would implement free trade policies as it had promised in the past. However, the DPJ government failed to deliver on its promise after spending three and a half years in office. It contrasts sharply with the Korean government under the leadership of Lee Myung-bak, which managed to conclude FTAs with its major trade partners, including the United States and the European Union. Both governments' free trade policies faced strong opposition from the agricultural industry, as farmers in Japan and Korea lacked international competitiveness. What explains the reasons why the Japanese government has been struggling to implement its free trade policies, while its Korean counterpart succeeded in signing a number of FTAs? Focusing primarily on the case of Japan and using the Korean case as reference, this study tries to provide an explanation for this puzzle by analyzing the impact of rural votes in the policy-making process.
In cardiopulmonary support systems with a membrane oxygenation such as a percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) or an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), blood pumps need to generate the pressure rise of approximately 200mmHg or higher, due to the high hydraulic resistances of the membrane oxygenation and of the cannula tubing. In order to realize the blood pump with higher pressure rise, higher anti-hemolysis and thrombosis performances, the development of novel centrifugal blood pump composed of two-stage has been conducted by the authors. In the present paper, effective attempts to decrease the wall shear stress and to suppress the stagnation are introduced for the prevention of hemolysis and thrombosis in blood pumps. The hemolysis test was also carried out and it was clarified that the decrease of wall shear stress is effective as a guideline of design of blood pumps for improving the anti-hemolysis performance.
In the cardiopulmonary support system with an ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), ahigher pump head is demanded for a blood pump. In order to realize a blood pump with higher pump head, higher anti-hemolysis and thrombosis performances, astudy on the development of unprecedented multistage blood pump was conducted. In consideration of the applicationof the blood pump for pediatric patients, a miniature two-stage centrifugal blood pump with the impeller’s diameter of40mm was designed and the performance was examined in experiments and computations. Some useful knowledge for a design of the blood pump with higher anti-hemolysis and thrombosis performances was obtained.
Obesity gives vent to many diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, being considered as the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome can well be understood by studying the molecular mechanisms that control the development and function of adipose tissue. In human body, exist two types of adipose tissue, the white and the brown one, which are reported to play various roles in energy homeostasis. The major and most efficient storage of energy occurs in the form of triglycerides in white adipose tissue while brown adipose tissue actively participates in both basal and inducible energy consumption in the form of thermogenesis. Recent years have observed a rapid and greater interest towards developmental plasticity and therapeutic potential of stromal cells those isolated from adipose tissue. The adipocyte differentiation involves a couple of regulators in the white or brown adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ actively participates in regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and also acts as main regulator of both white and brown adipogenesis. This review based on our recent research, seeks to highlight the adipocyte differentiation.
29Si-NMR Study of antiferromagnet CeRh2Si2 with a tetragonal ThCr2Si2-type structure hasbeen performed using single crystals. The Knight shifts along the a and the c axes have beenmeasured as a function of temperatures in the paramagnetic state. At ambient pressure, the Knightshifts show the Ising-type anisotropy along the c axis, which is similar to the magnetic susceptibility. The hyperfine coupling constants for 29Si along the a and the c axes have been determined fromKnight shift versus static susceptibility plots.
Although party polarization is one of the most significant focal points in the study of contemporary US politics, a limited number of studies have examined its theoretical implications for other countries. In addition, a great deal of effort has been made in the study of the changes in voting bases (i.e., constituencies or interest groups). However, little attention has been given to the features of party organization. In this study we look at the process of polarization between two major parties in Japan in recent years and analyze the way Japanese parties took an alternative path to polarization. We argue that party polarization can be caused by the strategic position-taking of the party executive in addition to the centralization of the party organization.