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How to take advantage of a Machine Knowledge Management Software to enlarge the simulation tool spectrum from the dynamics performances of individual components up to a complete mechatronic systems analysis & monitoring
It is well known that the current economic and market trends are pushing Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and system integrators to design high-performance systems with tighter development time requirements. Naturally these developers are resorting to simulations to avoid the time and cost of early prototyping. Without losing security and environmental sights, they also wish to reuse their simulation models for different needs and purposes. Automation Studio™ software establishes a new “language” of virtual machines and components that manufacturers of hydraulic, electrohydraulic and control component need to market and promote their products. This paper presents and innovative approach to aid design and analysis from simulation of dynamic component behaviours to complete mechatronic systems and machines. The proposed methodology allows the decision maker to select the appropriate simulation setting in order to meet the needs of multiple simulation scopes for every step in the project's lifecycle. This approach used to be called Machine Knowledge Management Software.
A new generation of hydraulic components with their integrated control capability, provides more precision and flexibility, but brings implementation challenges. To cope with this changing reality, the fluid power industry needs to redefine work processes surrounding mechatronic machine development, including the creation of training programs. Although a new generation of students accustomed with numerical simulation technologies is starting to emerge, their applied knowledge is often very limited. In addition, experienced specialists who possess this expertise are also getting scarce and harder to replace. To facilitate this technological transition, simulation and numerical analysis tools seem promising. However, to truly be effective, these tools must enable a collaborative work environment that will leverage the machine knowledge of everyone involved in the development process. The goal of this paper is to provide hydraulic engineers with an optimized and integrated approach, in-line with the working process evolution. This approach is demonstrated by two case studies of electrohydraulic independent-metering valves systems. The first one is the development of a hydraulic and control simulation environment of a CMA Eaton valve. The second one studies the interactions of a virtual Sun Hydraulic valve system that regulates the actuator movement under different loads, co-simulated with a PLC.
Current economic and environmental constraints are pushing OEMs and system integrators to design high performance systems with tighter development time requirements. They naturally resort to simulations to avoid the time and cost of early prototyping. This establishes a new “language” of virtual machines and components that hydraulic, electrohydraulic and control component manufacturers also need to acquire to be able to market their products. This paper presents an innovative hybrid modeling methodology to aid the design and analysis through simulation of complete electrohydraulic and mechatronic systems and machines. This methodology combines modeling using physical parameters and equations, and modeling using multidimensional high-level performance curves. All of the above embedded into compatible and interchangeable gray boxes that can be used and customized according to the machine performance simulation needs.
The fluid power industry has seen significant changes in the last decade, following the electrification of hydraulic technologies. By adding intelligence to hydraulic and pneumatic manufacturers' components, designing and testing new fluid power applications require the additional expertise of control specialists. Since fluid power and control specialists use different CAE tools to create and virtually test their respective design, there is a need to create an integrated test environment to better communicate, understand and specify requirements of electro-hydraulic systems. In this paper, we will demonstrate how virtual components up to a complete machine developed on simulation software can be controlled by physical control devices (joystick, controllers…) using CAN bus communication. Examples of this will be illustrated for virtual systems built according to manufacturers' specifications in Automation Studio™ and communicating with the physical controllers: a hydraulic simulation model (ex.: Eaton CMA valves) communicating with a programmable controller and multiple devices as well as Eaton HFX Controller, Danfoss PLUS+1<SUP>®</SUP> microcontroller or HydraForce CoreTek controller.
Purpose: Virtual worlds are emerging in health care as an innovative way of helping clients take responsibility for and promote their own care. Yet, the concept of health promotion education in this environment has not been elucidated. Therefore, we undertook a concept analysis to discover the underlying attributes and contextual basis to generate a conceptual understanding of virtual worlds in the context of health promotion education. Methods: Using Rodgers' evolutionary view of concept development, we analyzed literature on virtual worlds that describe their use to discover critical attributes, antecedents, and consequences of this phenomenon. Eleven studies matching inclusion criteria were reviewed. Results: Analysis of the literature highlighted three areas of important domains: user, simulated environment, and education. This concept analysis extends our understanding of a virtual world for health promotion education. Conclusion: This study may help anticipate future trends in the use of virtual worlds in the context of health promotion education, serving as a stepping-stone for further research on this aspect of the study. The next step should focus on the development of an evaluation tool that can measure the factors identified in this analysis to determine their effects on outcomes and environmental interactions.
영어논문 The calcium-induced structural changes in the skeletal muscle regulatory protein troponin C (NTnC) involve a transition from a ‘closed' to an ‘open' structure with the concomitant exposure of a large hydrophobic interaction site for target proteins. Structural studies have served to define this conformational change and elucidate the mechanism of the linkage between calcium binding and the induced structural changes. There are now several structures of NTnC available from both NMR and X-ray crystallography. Comparison of the calcium bound structures reveals differences in the level of opening. We have considered the concept of a flexible open state of NTnC as a possible explanation for this apparent discrepancy. We also present simulations of the closed-to-open transition which are in agreement with the flexibility concept and with experimental energetics data.
Learner participation and engagement has proven effective and essential across educational settings. Clickers, also known as classroom response systems(CRS), are widely used across disciplines, and their effectiveness has been demonstrated in higher education. However, few studies have been conducted on clicker use in nursing education. The purpose of this article is to examine the literature on how clickers can best be used to promote learner engagement amang undergraduate nursing students and to better classroom education. This literature review addresses three key characteristics of clicker use in nursing, medical, pharmacy, and paramedic education found in fifteen empirical studies: interactivity and participation; satisfaction and learning outcomes; and formative assessment and contingent teaching. Nurse educators must take advantage of the latest technology such as clickers to provide more effective and efficient education.
The calcium-induced structural changes in the skeletal muscle regulatory protein troponin C (NTnC) involve a transition from a ‘closed'to an ‘open'structure with the concomitant exposure of a large hydrophobic interaction site for target proteins. Structural studies have served to define this conformational change and elucidate the mechanism of the linkage between calcium binding and the induced structural changes. There are now several structures of NTnC available from both NMR and X-ray crystallography. Comparison of the calcium bound structures reveals differences in the level of opening. We have considered the concept of a flexible open state of NTnC as a possible explanation for this apparent discrepancy. We also present simulations of the closed-to-open transition which are in agreement with the flexibility concept and with experimental energetics data.
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the workshop on the nurses' knowledge about urinary incontinence (UI) self-management, attitudes toward UI, and self-efficacy to plan and implement a UI self-help group program for their clients. Methods: A one-group pretest and posttest design was used to examine changes in knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy following a one-day training workshop. Twenty-seven community health nurses completed a questionnaire before and after the workshop. Before participating in the workshop, the participants were required to take a UI online continuing education program developed by the researchers. During the workshop, the participants took four sessions which consisted of an introduction of a self-help group program, demonstration of a 5-week UI self-management program contents, pelvic floor muscle training and biofeedback practice, and group discussions to plan the implementation in their workplaces. Results: A significant improvement in knowledge of and attitudes toward UI were found (t=3.53, p=.002; t=2.83, p=.009, respectively) after the workshop. Participants also demonstrated improvement in their self-efficacy to plan and operate a UI self-help group program (Z=-2.64, p=.008). Conclusion: The one-day workshop for community health nurses is a feasible strategy to increase their abilities and confidence in operating a UI self-help group program.
This article aims to describe how schools should structure the development of academic talent at all levels of the K-12 educational system. Adopting as its theoretical framework the Differentiating Model of Giftedness and Talent, the author proposes (a) a formal definition of academic talent development (ATD) inspired by the principles and practices adopted in education, music, and sports and (b) seven constitutive characteristics of exemplary talent development programs. He develops his proposal around an enriched K-12 curriculum as its keystone component. Other characteristics recommend that school administrators make this curriculum available on a daily basis, as early as the kindergarten level, to selected high-achieving students; they would belong to full-time high-ability groups. The author argues that most current socalled gifted programs, mainly exemplified by pullout classes and regular classroom enrichment, have little to do with ‘proper' academic talent development. The article ends with a brief survey of existing ATD programs and a look at future implementation problems.