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The purpose of this study was to analyze effects of a community-based case management program for clients with hypertension living in the community. Methods: The research design was a one group pre and post-test design with 30 participants with hypertension who agreed to participate in the 8-12 week case management program provided by case managers from the National Health Insurance Corporation in 2002. Data were collected three times, before and after the case management services, and 6 months later. Outcomes included changes in blood pressure, knowledge of hypertension and daily life practices, including alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise, and medication adherence. Results: Repeatedmeasures ANOVA and post-hoc tests of means revealed significant differences before and after service for systolic blood pressure, daily life practices (monitoring body weight and BP, low salt and cholesterol and high vegetable diet, and stressrelief practices), and exercise. The goal for medication adherence was attained after service. Significant improvements from baseline to 6 months after service were observed in measures of salt and vegetables in diet. There were no significant differences on hypertension knowledge, alcohol consumption or smoking behavior between before service and after, and at 6 months. Conclusion: The findings provide preliminary evidence that case management intervention can have positive outcomes on BP control, daily life practices, exercise, and medication adherence for clients with hypertension. However, additional interventions are needed to sustain long-term effects.
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the workshop on the nurses' knowledge about urinary incontinence (UI) self-management, attitudes toward UI, and self-efficacy to plan and implement a UI self-help group program for their clients. Methods: A one-group pretest and posttest design was used to examine changes in knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy following a one-day training workshop. Twenty-seven community health nurses completed a questionnaire before and after the workshop. Before participating in the workshop, the participants were required to take a UI online continuing education program developed by the researchers. During the workshop, the participants took four sessions which consisted of an introduction of a self-help group program, demonstration of a 5-week UI self-management program contents, pelvic floor muscle training and biofeedback practice, and group discussions to plan the implementation in their workplaces. Results: A significant improvement in knowledge of and attitudes toward UI were found (t=3.53, p=.002; t=2.83, p=.009, respectively) after the workshop. Participants also demonstrated improvement in their self-efficacy to plan and operate a UI self-help group program (Z=-2.64, p=.008). Conclusion: The one-day workshop for community health nurses is a feasible strategy to increase their abilities and confidence in operating a UI self-help group program.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Toileting Behavior Scale (KTBS) to assess women’s toileting behavior related to urinary elimination. Methods: The original English version, the Toileting Behavior: Women’s Elimination Behaviors scale, was translated into Korean with forward and backward translation. Examinations of internal consistency reliability, construct validity using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, item convergent validity, and discriminant validity were conducted with SPSS/WIN 23.0 and AMOS/WIN 23.0 software. Concurrent validity was examined with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form. Results: Cronbach α for the overall scale was 0.78, and the 5 subscales ranged from 0.79 to 0.94. The exploratory factor analysis revealed 5 factors for the 17-item scale. Confirmatory factor analysis supported good convergent and discriminant values (λ=0.49–0.96, critical ratio=4.51–15.68>1.97, P<0.05, construct reliability=0.72–0.97). The concurrent validity was supported by correlation with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (r=0.146, P=0.011). Conclusions: The KTBS (17 items) is an appropriate tool to measure older Korean women’s toileting behavior with good validity and reliability.