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      • 반추위내(反芻胃內) Cellulolytic bacteria 의 분리 동정(同定) 및 Activity 에 관한 연구 : (2) 반추위내 Cellulolytic bacteria 의 Activity 에 관한 연구 (2) THE ACTIVITY OF CELLULOLYTIC BACTERIA IN THE RUMEN

        맹원재,민병렬,조남기 한국영양사료학회 1991 韓國營養飼料學會誌 Vol.15 No.3

        본 實驗은 반추위내에서 存在하는 主要한 cellulolytic bacteria를 選擇 및 非選擇培地를 사용하여 면양의 rumen내에 존재하는 cellulolytic bacteria를 分離, 同定하였고, 分離된 織維素 分解菌 각자의 纖維素源의 分解度를 測定하였으며, 이중 纖維素 分解力이 좋은 Bacteroides succinogenes에서 분비하는 enzymes의 特性을 糾明하였다. 本 實驗 結果를 요약해 보면 다음과 같다. 1. In vitro상에서 R. flavefaciens, B. succinogenes, Buty. fibrisolvens 및 B. ruminicola subsp. 등이 corn stover, alfalfa, rice straw 및 filterpaper No.1 등의 纖維素源에 대한 total DM 消化率은 각각 6.52, 5.69, 3.08 및 1.24%로서 R. flavefaciens가 DM消化率이 가장 높게 나타났으며, 顯微鏡的 觀察에서도 유사한 경향을 나타내었다(p<0.05). 2. Total microbial dry cell 生成量은 R. flavefaciens, B. succinogenes, Buty. fibrisolvens 및 B. ruminicola subsp이 각각 7.24, 4.93, 3.33 및 4.89㎎/100㎖를 생성하였다(p<0.05). 3. Cellulose 消化率은 B. succinogenes가 9.85%로 가장 높았으나 NDF 및 ADF의 消化率은 R. flavefaciens가 각각 25.80및 14.11%로 유의적으로 높은 結果를 나타내었다(p< 0.05). 4. 炭水化物 利用率은 R. flavefaciens가 mannose, arabinose 및 xylose 등을 가장 잘 이용하였으며 B. ruminicola subsp.은 galactose, mannose, arablnose 및 xylose등을 가장 잘 이용하였다. B. succinogens는 glucose 및 raffinose를 가장 잘 이용하며, R. flavefaciens는 glucose, galactose, arabinose, xylose 및 maltose 등을 가장 잘 이용하는 것으로 나타났다(p<0.05). 5. PYG basal medium에 炭水化物源을 각각 1g씩 첨가한 培養區에서 VFA 生成量은 R. flavefaciens는 주고 acetate, propionate, n-butyrate 및 succinate를 각각 81.65, 26.36, 20.16 및 108.91mM/100㎖를 생산하였으며, B. ruminicola subsp.은 주로 acetate, propionate 및 n-butyrate를 각각 104.72, 31.32 및 26.12mM / 100㎖를 생산하였다. B. succinogenes는 주로 acetate, propionate, n-butyrate 및 succinate를 각각 87.66, 27.70 및 56.07mM/100㎖ 생산하였다. Buty. fibrisolvens는 주로 acetate, propionate 및 n-butyrate를 생산하였다. 6. Gel filtration(G-100)에 의한 B. succinogenes의 CMC_(ase)의 分劃이 fraction number 35(O.D. 280㎚)에서 나타났으며 이때 protain 함량은 0.51㎎/100㎖정도이었고 specific activity는 22.5 units/100㎎으로 나타났다. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis에 의한 CMC_(ase)의 分子量은 43,000±2,000으로 算出되었다. Fiber degradation of corn stover, rice straw, alfalfa or filter paper No. 1 was evaluated using microscopy and in vitro analysis after incubation with pure culture of cellulolytic ruminal bacteria. 1. An average of 6.25% DM of the various substrates was degraded by R. flavefaciens, an average of 4.69% DM by B. succinogenes and an average of 3.08% DM by Buty. fibrisolvens. As for alfalfa DM digestibilities for 29h were 14.0% for R. flavefaciens, 10.3% for B. succinogenes, and 7.7% for Buty. fibrisolvens. Bacteriodes ruminicola subsp. was unable to degrade plant cell wall components, while it degraded non-structural carbohydrates more actively than any other bacteria. 2. Microbial cell DM yield(avg. 9.3㎎/㎗) was shown higest in R. flavefaciens when cultured with alfalfa substrate. 3. Ruminococcus flavefaciens degraded an average of 8.65% of cellulose and 3.35% of lignin in different substrates, and B. succinogenes degraded an average of 9.85% of cellulose and 2.52% of lignin. 4. Ruminococcus flavefaciens produced acetate, succinate and propionate, and B. ruminicola sabsp, produced acetate, propionate and n-butyrate as major VFA. B. succinogenes produced acetate, propionate, n-butyrate and succinate, and Buty. fibrisolvens produced nbutyrate and acetate as major VFA. 5. The molecular weight of extracellular carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) was about 43,000±2,000, which was lower than that of albumin. 6. Fifty to sixty percent of this extracellular CMC_(ase) was contained in sedimentable membrane fragments.

      • KCI등재

        고잔류자화 α-Fe기 Nd-Fe-B 초미세결정립 합금의 자기특성

        조용수(Y. S. Cho),김윤배(Y. B. Kim),박우식(W. S. Park),김창석(C. S. Kim),김택기(T. K. Kim) 한국자기학회 1995 韓國磁氣學會誌 Vol.5 No.1

        α-Fe를 주상으로 하는 새로운 Nd-Fe-B계 합금을 개발하기 위하여 Nd 함유량을 4at.%로 고정시킨 Nd-Fe-B 초미세결정립합금의 제조 및 자기특성이 조사되었다. 급속응고법으로 제조된 Nd₄Fe_(85.5)B_(10.5) 비정질합금은 결정화하여 α-Fe 기지상에 Nd₂Fe₁₄B이 형성되나 자기특성{iHc=95.5㎄/m(1.2kOe), Br=1.2T}은 열화된다. Nb 및 Cu를 첨가한 Nd₄Fe_(82)B_(10)Nd₃Cu₁ 합금은 α-Fe 결정립미세화(<30㎚)로 보자력이 207㎄/m(2.6kOe)로 증가하나 잔류자화는 개선되지 않았다. 이 합금조성에 8at.%Co 첨가는 결정립을 더욱 미세화시키며 자기특성을 개선시킨다. 최적열처리조건에서 Nd₄Fe_(74)Co_8B_(10)Nb₃Cu₁ 합금의 잔류자화, 보자력 및 최대에너지적이 각각 1.34T, 219㎄/m(2.75kOe) 및 95.5kJ/㎥(12MGOe)이다. The effects of Nb and Cu additives as will as substitutional Co into Nd₄Fe_(85.5)B_(10.5) melt-spun alloy were studied aiming for finding a α-Fe based Nd-Fe-B composite alloys with high energy product. The addition of Nb and Cu to Nd₄Fe_(85.5)B_(10.5) decreased the average grain size and increased the coercivity up to 207㎄/m(2.6kOe). Furthermore, the substitution of Co for Fe in Nd₄Fe_(82)B_(10)Nd₃Cu₁ alloy resulted in the decrease of the average grain size (< 2O㎚) and improved the hard magnetic properties. The remanence, coercivity and energy product of optimally annealed Nd₄Fe_(74)Co_8B_(10)Nb₃Cu₁ alloy were 1.345, 219㎄/m(2.75kOe) and 95.5kJ/㎥ (12MGOe), respectively.

      • KCI등재

        안모기형 환자의 악교정술후 연조직 변화에 대한 연구

        조병욱(Cho B W),이용찬(Lee Y C),고백진(Koh B J),최창완(Choi C W) 대한구강악안면외과학회 1991 대한구강악안면외과학회지 Vol.17 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The analysis of soft tissue profile is an important paramenter in the esthetic aspect of facial deformity correction. The authors have studied on the soft tissue changes after the orthognathic surgery. We grouped the 30 patients according to the operation methods ; group 1 S.S.R.O. only, group 2 S.S.R.O.+Genioplasly, group 3 LeFortⅠ+S.S.R.O. The results were obtained as follows ; 1. In Group 1, the ratio of horizontal changes of hard tissue to soft tissue at 1 to Stmi, B to Si, Pog/SPog is 1.09, 0.96, 1.12 with postop. immediately, 0.98, 0.89, 0.98 with postop. 6 months. 2. In Group 2, the ratio of horizontal changes of hard tissue to soft tissue at 1/t Stmi, B/Si, Pog/SPog is 1.09, 1.11, 1.12 with postop. immediately, 0.92, 0.88, 0.99 with postop. 6 months. 3. In Group 3, the ratio of horizontal changes of hard tissue to soft tissue at A to Sn, 1 to Stms, B to Si, Pog to SPog is 1.15, 1.09, 1.15, 0.89, 1.05 with postop. immediately, 0.98, 0.94, 0.99, 0.90, 0.93 with pstop. 6 months.

      • <i>CYP2A6</i> and <i>ERCC1</i> polymorphisms correlate with efficacy of S-1 plus cisplatin in metastatic gastric cancer patients

        Park, S R,Kong, S-Y,Nam, B-H,Choi, I J,Kim, C G,Lee, J Y,Cho, S J,Kim, Y W,Ryu, K W,Lee, J H,Rhee, J,Park, Y-I,Kim, N K Nature Publishing Group 2011 The British journal of cancer Vol.104 No.7

        <P><B>Background:</B></P><P>We evaluated the association between polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2A6 (<I>CYP2A6</I>)/excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (<I>ERCC1</I>)/X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1(<I>XRCC1</I>) and treatment outcomes of metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) patients treated with S-1/cisplatin.</P><P><B>Methods:</B></P><P>Among MGC patients (<I>n</I>=108), who received S-1 (40 mg m<SUP>−2</SUP> b.i.d., days 1–14) and cisplatin (60 mg m<SUP>−2</SUP>, day 1) every 3 weeks, we analysed the wild-type allele (<I>W</I>) and variants (<I>V</I>) of <I>CYP2A6</I> (<I>*4</I>, <I>*7, *9, *10</I>), and the polymorphisms of <I>ERCC1</I> (rs11615, rs3212986) and <I>XRCC1</I> (rs25487).</P><P><B>Results:</B></P><P>Patients having fewer <I>CYP2A6</I> variants had better response rates (<I>W</I>/<I>W vs W</I>/<I>V</I> other than <I>*1/*4 vs V</I>/<I>V</I> or <I>*1/*4</I>=66.7 <I>vs</I> 58.3 <I>vs</I> 32.3% <I>P</I>=0.008), time to progression (TTP) (7.2 <I>vs</I> 6.1 <I>vs</I> 3.5 months, <I>P</I>=0.021), and overall survival (23.2 <I>vs</I> 15.4 <I>vs</I> 12.0 months, <I>P</I>=0.004). <I>ERCC1 19442C</I>><I>A</I> (rs3212986) was also associated with response rate (<I>C/C</I>, 46.7% <I>vs C/A</I>, 55.3% <I>vs A/A</I>, 87.5%) (<I>P</I>=0.048) and TTP (4.4 <I>vs</I> 7.6 <I>vs</I> 7.9 months) (<I>P</I>=0.012). Patients carrying both risk genotypes of <I>CYP2A6</I> (<I>V</I>/<I>V</I> or <I>1/*4</I>) and <I>ERCC1 19442C</I>><I>A</I> (<I>C/C</I>) <I>vs</I> those carrying none showed an adjusted odds ratio of 0.113 (<I>P</I>=0.004) for response, and adjusted hazard ratios of 3.748 (<I>P</I>=0.0001) for TTP and 2.961 (<I>P</I>=0.006) for death.</P><P><B>Conclusion:</B></P><P>Polymorphisms of <I>CYP2A6</I> and <I>ERCC1 19442C</I>><I>A</I> correlated with the efficacy of S-1/cisplatin.</P>

      • KCI등재

        Ndx(Fe0.9Co0.1)90-xB6Nb₃Cu₁(x=3, 4, 5) 초미세결정립합금의 자기특성

        조용수(Y. S. Cho),김만중(M. J. Kim),천정남(Z. N. Qian),김택기(T. K. Kim),박우식(W. S. Park),김윤배(Y. B. Kim) 한국자기학회 1995 韓國磁氣學會誌 Vol.5 No.5

        B의 함유량을 6 at% 고정하고 Nd함유량을 3~5at%로 변화시킨 α-Fe기 Nd-Fe-B 합금의 자기특성이 조사되었다. 급속응고법으로 제조된 Nd_x(Fe_(0.9)Co_(0.1))_(90-x)B_6Nb₃Cu₁(x=3, 4, 5) 비정질합금은 열처리에 의하여 초미세 결정립으로 결정화하며, Nd의 함유량에 따라 잔류자화 및 보자력이 변한다. x=3의 경우 최적열처리조건에서 α-Fe(Co) 부피분율의 증가로 잔류자화는 증가하나, 보자력은 감소한다. 그러나 Nd 함유량의 증가는 Nd₂(Fe, Co)₁₄B 부피분율의 증가로 인하여 잔류자화는 감소하나 보자력은 향상된다. 640 ℃, 10 min 열처리조건에서 Nd_5(Fe_(0.9)Co_(0.1))_(85)B_6Nb₃Cu₁의 결정립크기는 약 20 ㎚이며, 잔류자화, 보자력 및 최대에너지적은 각각 1.35 T, 219 ㎄/m (2.75kOe) 및 129 kJ/㎥ (16.2MGOe)으로 가장 우수하다. Magnetic properties of Nd_x(Fe_(0.9)Co_(0.1))_(90-x)B_6Nb₃Cu₁(X = 3, 4, 5) melt-spun alloys with 6 at% B content were studied aiming for finding out a new α-Fe based Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline alloy with good hard magnetic properties. Nd_x(Fe_(0.9)Co_(0.1))_(90-x)B_6Nb₃Cu₁ melt-spun alloys prepared by RSP crystallized to nanocrystalline phase. An optimally annealed Nd₃(Fe_(0.9)Co_(0.1))_(87)B_6Nb₃Cu₁ melt-spun alloys had larger volume ratio of α-Fe (Co) than that of higher Nd content alloy and showed high remanence of about 1.6 T. On the contrary, the increase of Nd content in Nd_x(Fe_(0.9)Co_(0.1))_(90-x)B_6Nb₃Cu₁ alloys gave rise to gradual increase of an amount of Nd₂(Fe, Co)₁₄B phase and improved coercivity. An optimally annealed Nd_5(Fe_(0.9)Co_(0.1))_(85)B_6Nb₃Cu₁ alloy showed the most improved hard magnetic properties. The remanence, coercivity and energy product of the alloy were 1.35 T, 219 ㎄/m (2.75 kOe), and 129 kJ/㎥ (16.2 MGOe), respectively.

      • KCI등재

        INFLUENCE OF B AND Nd CONTENT ON THE MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF α-Fe BASED NdFeB MAGNETS WITH ULTRAFINE GRAINS

        Y.S. Cho,Y.B. Kim,W.S. Park,C.S. Kim,T.K. Kim 한국자기학회 1995 韓國磁氣學會誌 Vol.5 No.5

        The influence of Nd and B contents on the magnetic properties and structures of α-Fe based Nd-(Fe, Co)B-Mo-Cu alloys was investigated. Nd₄(Fe_(0.9)Co_(0.1))_(92-x)BxMo₃Cu₁ and Nd_x(Fe_(0.9)Co_(0.1))_(86-x)B_(10)Mo₃Cu₁ amorphous alloys prepared by rapid solidification process were crystallized to form nanocrystalline structure. The increase of B content in Nd₄(Fe_(0.9)Co_(0.1))_(92-x)BxMo₃Cu₁ nanocrystalline resulted in the change of structure of soft phase in the sequence of α-Fe → α-Fe+Fe₃B → Fe₃B. The coercivitis of the alloys were increased with increasing B content and was 263 kA/m at x=18. On the contrary, the remanence has shown an opposite trends. The increase of Nd content in Nd_x(Fe_(0.9)Co_(0.1))_(86-x)B_(10)Mo₃Cu₁ nanocrystalline containing α-Fe as main phase had no effect on the structure and improved coercivity up to 256 kA/m. However, the remanence was decreased from 1.4 T to 1.15 T according to the increase of Nd content.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Crystallization Characteristics of CaO-Al2O3-Based Mold Flux and Their Effects on In-Mold Performance during High-Aluminum TRIP Steels Continuous Casting

        Shi, C. B.,Seo, M. D.,Cho, J. W.,Kim, S. H. Springer Verlag 2014 Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, Proce Vol.45 No.3

        Crystallization behaviors of the newly developed lime-alumina-based mold fluxes for high-aluminum transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels casting were experimentally studied, and compared with those of lime-silica-based mold fluxes. The effects of mold flux crystallization characteristics on heat transfer and lubrication performance in casting high-Al TRIP steels were also evaluated. The results show that the crystallization temperatures of lime-alumina-based mold fluxes are much lower than those of lime-silica-based mold fluxes. Increasing B2O3 addition suppresses the crystallization of lime-alumina-based mold fluxes, while Na2O exhibits an opposite effect. In continuous cooling of lime-alumina-based mold fluxes with high B2O3 contents and a CaO/Al2O3 ratio of 3.3, faceted cuspidine precipitates first, followed by needle-like CaO center dot B2O3 or 9CaO center dot 3B(2)O(3)center dot CaF2. In lime-alumina-based mold flux with low B2O3 content (5.4 mass pct) and a CaO/Al2O3 ratio of 1.2, the formation of fine CaF2 takes place first, followed by blocky interconnected CaO center dot 2Al(2)O(3) as the dominant crystalline phase, and rod-like 2CaO center dot B2O3 precipitates at lower temperature during continuous cooling of the mold flux. In B2O3-free mold flux, blocky interconnected 3CaO center dot Al2O3 precipitates after CaF2 and 3CaO center dot 2SiO(2) formation, and takes up almost the whole crystalline fraction. The casting trials show that the mold heat transfer rate significantly decreases near the meniscus during the continuous casting using lime-alumina-mold fluxes with higher crystallinity, which brings a great reduction of surface depressions on cast slabs. However, excessive crystallinity of mold flux causes poor lubrication between mold and solidifying steel shell, which induces various defects such as drag marks on cast slab. Among the studied mold fluxes, lime-alumina-based mold fluxes with higher B2O3 contents and a CaO/Al2O3 ratio of 3.3 show comparatively improved performance.

      • KCI등재

        Chip inductor용 Co₂Z type Ba - ferrite의 저온소결에 관한 연구

        조균우(K. W. Cho),한영호(Y. H. Han),문병철(B. C. Moon) 한국자기학회 2002 韓國磁氣學會誌 Vol.12 No.5

        각종 산화물을 첨가하여 Co₂Z type Ba ferrite의 저온소결에 관하여 연구하였다. Co₂Z type Ba-ferrite 상은 2회 하소과정을 통하여 얻을 수 있었으며, 생성된 상의 XRD peaks는 일부 minor peaks를 제외하고는 standard peaks와 거의 일치하였다. 제조된 분말은 저온소결을 위하여 ZnO-B₂O₃ glass의 단독 첨가 및 CuO 또는 Bi₂O₃와 복합 첨가하였으며, 또한 ZnO-Bi₂O₃ glass를 단독 첨가하였다. 소결은 900~1000℃에서 수행하였다. ZnO-B₂O₃ glass의 단독 첨가시, 첨가량이 7.5wt%일 때 가장 높은 수축거동을 나타내었다. ZnO-B₂O₃ glass와 CuO 또는 Bi₂O₃를 복합 첨가하였을 때, glass를 단독 첨가하였을 경우보다 수축률이 급격히 증가되었다. 또한 ZnO-Bi₂O₃ glass를 단독 첨가한 시편의 수축률과 초기 투자율은 ZnO-B₂O₃ glass를 단독 첨가한 시편보다 높은 값을 나타내었다. Low temperature sintering of Co₂Z type Ba ferrites with various oxide additives has been studied. Co₂Z phase was obtained by 2 step calcination and XRD peaks showed a good agreement with the peaks of the standard Co₂Z phase, except for some minor extra peaks. ZnO-B₂O₃ glass, ZnO-B₂O₃ and CuO, ZnO-B₂O₃ and Bi₂O₃, and ZnO-Bi₂O₃ glass were added to lower sintering temperatures. Specimens were sintered at the temperature range between 900℃ and 1000℃. In the single addition of ZnO-B₂O₃ glass, the specimen with 7.5 wt% showed the highest shrinkage. Specimens with complex addition of ZnO-B₂O₃ glass with CuO or Bi₂O₃ showed higher shrinkages and initial permeabilities than single addition of ZnO-B₂O₃ glass. Shrinkages and initial permeabilities of the specimens with ZnO-Bi₂O₃ glass were higher than those of ZnO-B₂O₃ glass addition.

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