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This paper is a replication study of previous research, with a different student population, which uses several concepts from Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to examine the classroom motivational orientation of Korean high school EFL students. A total of 60 participants from a high school in Incheon took part in this study. These students completed the Self-Regulation Questionnaire-Academic (SRQ-A) and an SDT self-report survey consisting of 32 items, designed to measure four levels of a student``s educational motivation. This paper addresses the following research questions: 1) From the standpoint of the SDT extrinsic-intrinsic continuum, what is the motivational pattern of these Korean high school students, as measured by the SRQ-A? 2) How do the results from research question 1 compare to similar studies done in Korea? 3) How do results from research question 1 compare to similar studies done in other countries? Survey results indicate that the majority of these Korean high school students were externally or extrinsically motivated to learn, with most of the participants indicating they were motivated at the identified level of external regulation. This result is not entirely consistent with other studies done in Korea, but is consistent with studies done in other countries, including Japan and the U.S. This paper concludes with a discussion of some study limitations and suggests some pedagogical implications.
In this paper, I examine the phenomenon of English depictive and resultative predications with specific attention given to the relation between accentual focus structure and argument structure. The goal is pursued primarily through a production experiment and analyses to establish the interconnection between focus and argument structure. The central claim is that the resultative predicate forms a complex predicate with a main verb, whereas the depictive predicate behaves as an adjunct in English secondary constructions. The result shows that the relationship between focus and accent depends at least in part on their argument structure, confirming that current focus theories about argument-head and adjunct-head structures in primary predication constructions can be extended to secondary predication constructions.
The digital multi-sided platform has led the growth of industries. Accelerating this growth, generativity allowed innovation based on boundary-less modularity. Online games are a rich source of research but most of the research is dedicated in examining only the online game itself. However, there is a growing need to understand online games in an ecosystem level for a new phase of evolution is starting based on generativity. With generativity, online game users now make new graphics and quest that can be added and shared to the already existing game environment. The ecosystem is moving towards finding an amicable multi-sided distribution platform for these user generated game contents. Preliminary data suggest the possibility of actual connection between generativity and users’ game engagement. Interviews and surveys will be prepared to find out the details of the possible relationship and how the ecosystem will shape accordingly.
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Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent, primarily due to limited sun exposure, which may be observed in urban areas, or as a result of modern lifestyles. Common myths about vitamin D persist, including that it is mostly obtained from the diet and is only essential for bone and mineral homeostasis. Nonetheless, advances in biomedical science suggest that vitamin D is a hormone that is integral to numerous physiologic functions in most cells and tissues. Therefore, abnormal vitamin D levels may contribute to health disturbances. A number of recent reports on potential associations between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease have highlighted its role in this system. A focus over the previous decade has been to better understand the mechanisms behind vitamin D regulation and the pathophysiology associated with suboptimal vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency is highly associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, even when considering other well-known risk factors. In this process, the renin-angiotensin system is disrupted, and hypertension and endothelial dys-function contribute to the risk of cardiovascular disease. Likewise, clinical outcomes upon the normalization of vitamin D levels have been investigated in different patient populations. It makes sense that vitamin D supplementation to improve vitamin D status among vitamin D-deficient indi-viduals could be useful without requiring a sudden lifestyle change. This manuscript provides a brief overview of vitamin D metabolism and the vitamin D receptor. It also summarizes the current clinical research relating to vitamin D supplementation and its effects on hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular medicine.
Autonomous motivation and its influence on classroom achievement has been the subject of much research within both educational psychology and second language learning. This study used the principles of self-determination theory (SDT), and the basic concepts of intrinsic-extrinsic motivation, to examine the motivational patterns of 167 middle school students studying English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Seoul, Korea. The following research questions were addressed: (1) What are the motivational patterns of these students from an SDT perspective, and how do they compare with similar populations in other countries? (2) What is the correlation between these motivational patterns and these students" classroom achievement in studying English? The Self-Regulation Questionnaire- Academic (SRQ-A), was administered to these participants, and results were correlated with their record of classroom achievement in EFL. Data were subjected to quantitative analysis, and findings indicated that the highest level of motivation for these students was at the extrinsic level of identified regulation, but that the highest level of classroom achievement was attained by those students who were motivated intrinsically. Data from studies done in other countries reflected similar motivational profiles. The study concluded with a discussion of limitations and classroom implications.
This study investigates the classroom motivation of adult Korean EFL students from the perspective of concepts contained in self-determination theory (SDT), namely autonomous regulation and controlled regulation and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Two SDT self-report questionnaires, the Self-Regulation Learning Questionnaire and the Perceived Competence Scale, were administered to 37 adult Korean EFL students. Two research questions were addressed to determine the motivational stance of these students from an autonomous or controlled perspective. Overall results indicated that these students appeared to be motivated autonomously, but further analysis revealed this apparent autonomy was not true intrinsic self-regulation, but was from autonomous elements found in extrinsic controlled regulation. Therefore, these students could be found to function primarily under an extrinsic controlled form of motivation even though they exhibited some degree of autonomy. Discussion considered implications of these results for the classroom and suggested study limitations.