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      • KCI등재

        Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, S-100 Protein and Synaptophysin Expression in Biliary Atresia Gallbladder Tissue

        Semra Gürünlüoğlu,Canan Ceran,Kubilay Gürünlüoğlu,Alper Koçbiyik,Mehmet Gül,Turan Yıldız,Harika Gözükara Bağ,Semir Gül,Aytaç Taşçi,Ercan Bayrakçi,Necmettin Akpinar,Ecem Serbest Çin,Hasan Ateş,Mehmet D 대한소아소화기영양학회 2021 Pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology & nutrition Vol.24 No.2

        Purpose: Biliary atresia (BA) is a disease that manifests as jaundice after birth and leads to progressive destruction of the ductal system in the liver. The aim of this study was to investigate histopathological changes and immunohistochemically examine the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), synaptophysin, and S-100 protein in the gallbladder of BA patients. Methods: The study included a BA group of 29 patients and a control group of 41 children with cholecystectomy. Gallbladder tissue removed during surgery was obtained and examined immunohistochemically and histopathologically. Tissue samples of both groups were immunohistochemically assessed in terms of GDNF, S-100 protein, and synaptophysin expression. Expression was classified as present or absent. Inflammatory activity assessment with hematoxylin and eosin staining and fibrosis assessment with Masson's trichrome staining were performed for tissue sample sections of both groups. Results: Ganglion cells were not present in gallbladder tissue samples of the BA group. Immunohistochemically, GDNF, synaptophysin, and S-100 expression was not detected in the BA group. Histopathological examination revealed more frequent fibrosis and slightly higher inflammatory activity in the BA than in the control group. Conclusion: We speculate that GDNF expression will no longer continue in this region, when the damage caused by inflammation of the extrahepatic bile ducts reaches a critical threshold. The study's findings may represent a missing link in the chain of events forming the etiology of BA and may be helpful in its diagnosis.

      • KCI등재

        Beyond Afghanistan NATO's partnership with Central Asia and South Caucasus: A tangled partnership?

        Arif Bağbaşlıoğlu 한양대학교 아태지역연구센터 2014 Journal of Eurasian Studies Vol.5 No.1

        This article examines how the Alliance's partnership policy has changed in Central Asia and South Caucasus since the 1990s and aims to clarify to what extent NATO's new partnership policy can affect its relations with these countries. NATO–Russian relations and the Afghanistan operation are evaluated as the main drivers of this process. The target date of the withdrawal of the ISAF combat mission in December 2014, set at the Lisbon Summit 2010, as well as the shifting of the focus of long-term US foreign policy to the Asia-Pacific region and the US aim of balancing China's influence in this region increase the necessity for the Alliance to redefine its future policy towards Central Asia and South Caucasus. The article claims these developments have caused the need to treat Russia more as a partner than a potential competitor in constituting the policy towards Central Asia and South Caucasus. Furthermore the article claims there is no possibility for new Alliance expansion in this part of the world in the short to medium term.

      • KCI등재

        Physicochemical and Microbiological Characterization of Protected Designation of Origin Ezine Cheese: Assessment of Non-starter Lactic Acid Bacterial Diversity with Antimicrobial Activity

        Baş,ar Uymaz,Nefise Akç,elik,Zerrin Yü,ksel 한국축산식품학회 2019 한국축산식품학회지 Vol.39 No.5

        Ezine cheese is a non-starter and long-ripened cheese produced in the Mount of Ida region of Çanakkale, Turkey, with a protected designation of origin status. Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) have a substantial effect on the quality and final sensorial characteristics of long-ripened cheeses. The dominance of NSLAB can be attributed to their high tolerance to the hostile environment in cheese during ripening relative to many other microbial groups and to its ability to inhibit undesired microorganisms. These qualities promote the microbiological stability of long-ripened cheeses. In this study, 144 samples were collected from three dairies during the ripening period of Ezine cheese. Physicochemical composition and NSLAB identification analyses were performed using both conventional and molecular methods. According to the results of a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 13 different species belonging to seven genera were identified. Enterococcus faecium (38.42%) and E. faecalis (18.94%) were dominant species during the cheese manufacturing process, surviving 12 months of ripening together with Lactobacillus paracasei (13.68%) and Lb. plantarum (11.05%). The results indicate that NSLAB contributes to the microbiological stability of Ezine cheese over 12 months of ripening. The isolation of NSLAB with antimicrobial activity, potential bacteriocin producers, yielded defined collections of natural NSLAB isolates from Ezine cheese that can be used to generate specific starter cultures for the production of Ezine cheese (PDO).

      • KCI등재

        Molecular evidence for adaptive evolution of olfactory-related genes in cervids

        Hengxing Ba,Tao Qin,Zexi Cai,Wenyuan Liu,Chunyi Li 한국유전학회 2020 Genes & Genomics Vol.42 No.4

        Background Cervids have evolved very successful means for survival and thriving to adapt to various climates and environments. One of these successful means might be the effective and efficient way of communication. To support this notion, cervids are well equipped with a variety of skin glands that distribute in different body regions. However, studies relevant to adaptive evolution in cervids, particularly on olfactory reception at the molecular level, have thus far not been reported. Objective To provide valuable insights into molecular evidence for the adaptive evolution of olfactory-related gene in cervids. Methods Based on recently sequenced genomes of cervids and closely-related-species, we performed comparative genomic analysis at genome level using bioinformatics tools. Results Tree topology strongly supported that Bovidae was the sister group of Moschidae and both formed a branch that was then clustered with Cervidae. Expansion of heavy chain genes of the dynein family and 51 rapidly evolving genes could be associated with adaptation of cilia that serve as sensory organelles and act as cellular antennae. Based on the branchsite model test along the deer branch spanning 7–21 mammalian species, 14 deer olfactory receptor genes were found to be undergoing positive selection pressure and 89 positive selection sites (probability > 60%) had amino acid substitutions unique to deer. Conclusion This study, for the first time, provides significant molecular evidence for adaption of olfactory-related genes of cervids according to their olfactory behavior.

      • KCI등재

        Optimization of β-Galactosidase Production in Stirred Tank Bioreactor Using Kluyveromyces lactis NRRL Y-8279

        Seval Da?ba?lı,Yekta Goksungur 한국식품과학회 2009 Food Science and Biotechnology Vol.18 No.6

        This paper investigates the production and optimization of β-galactosidase enzyme using synthetic medium by Kluyveromyces lactis NRRL Y-8279 in stirred tank bioreactor. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of fermentation parameters on β-galactosidase enzyme production. Maximum specific enzyme activity of 4,622.7 U/g was obtained at the optimum levels of process variables (aeration rate 2.21 vvm, agitation speed 173.4 rpm, initial sugar concentration 33.8 g/ℓ, incubation time 24.0 hr). The optimum temperature and pH of the β-galactosidase enzyme produced under optimized conditions were 37℃ and pH 7.0, respectively. The enzyme was stable over a pH range of 6.0-7.5 and a temperature range of 25-37℃. The Km and Vmax values for O-nitrophenol-β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) were 1.20 mM and 1,000 μ㏖/minㆍ㎎ protein, respectively. The response surface methodology was found to be useful in optimizing and determining the interactions among process variables in β-galactosidase enzyme production. Hence, this study fulfills the lack of using mathematical and statistical techniques in optimizing the β-galactosidase enzyme production in stirred tank bioreactor.

      • Automatic detection of icing wind turbine using deep learning method

        Hasan Basri Başağa,Hasan Basri Başağa,Selen Ayas,Mohammad Tordi Karimi 한국풍공학회 2022 Wind and Structures, An International Journal (WAS Vol.34 No.6

        Detecting the icing on wind turbine blades built-in cold regions with conventional methods is always a very laborious, expensive and very difficult task. Regarding this issue, the use of smart systems has recently come to the agenda. It is quite possible to eliminate this issue by using the deep learning method, which is one of these methods. In this study, an application has been implemented that can detect icing on wind turbine blades images with visualization techniques based on deep learning using images. Pre-trained models of Resnet-50, VGG-16, VGG-19 and Inception-V3, which are well-known deep learning approaches, are used to classify objects automatically. Grad-CAM, Grad-CAM++, and Score-CAM visualization techniques were considered depending on the deep learning methods used to predict the location of icing regions on the wind turbine blades accurately. It was clearly shown that the best visualization technique for localization is Score-CAM. Finally, visualization performance analyses in various cases which are close-up and remote photos of a wind turbine, density of icing and light were carried out using Score-CAM for Resnet-50. As a result, it is understood that these methods can detect icing occurring on the wind turbine with acceptable high accuracy

      • KCI등재

        전통정치배양에 의한 농가형 현미식초의 품질특성

        백창호 ( Chang Ho Ba다 ),정다희 ( Da Hee Jeong ),백성열 ( Seong Yeol Ba다 ),최지호 ( Ji Ho Choi ),박혜영 ( Hye Young Park ),최한석 ( Han Seok Choi ),정석태 ( Seok Tae Jeong ),김재현 ( Jae Hyun Kim ),정용진 ( Yong Jin Jeong ),권중호 한국식품저장유통학회(구 한국농산물저장유통학회) 2013 한국식품저장유통학회지 Vol.20 No.4

        본 연구에서는 전통 항아리를 이용하여 발효온도 및 여과 방법을 달리한 현미식초를 제조하여 이들의 품질특성을 조사하였다. 초산발효에 사용하는 발효제와 온도에 따라 적정산도는 발효 4~5주에 가장 높았으며, 강제여과가 전총여과방식보다 산도가 더 높게 나타났다. pH는 모든 구간에서 발효가 진행됨에 따라감소하였고, 당도는 각각의 발효액 모두 초산 생성이 원활할 때는 발효초기와 비슷하게 유지되었지만, 발효액이 과산화 되었을 때는 당도가 낮아졌다. 유기산 함량은 발효온도와 여과방식에는 큰 차이는 없지만 다양한 발효제에 따라 발효 초기에 8종(oxalic, citric, malic, tartaric, succinic, lactic, acctic 및 formic acid 등)이 검출되었고, 발효가 진행되면서 acetic acid가 많이 생성되었다. 총 유리아미노산 함량은 초산 함량이 증가할수록 유지되거나 감소의 폭이 적었으며, 초산함량이 감소하는 발효 6주에 총 아미노산 함량도 급격히 가소하는 것으로 나타났다. 항아리에서 초산발효가 진행됨에 다라 초산함량이 증가할 때 우리 아니노산 함량은 감소하였다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 발효온도 및 여과방식을 달리함에 따라 유기산 및 유리 아니노산 함량의 차이가 큰 것으로 판단되며, 초산발효액의 경우, 향후 숙성과정에서 유기산 및 유리 아니노산의 변화가 있을 것으로 예상되므로 장기 숙성에 따른 초산 발효액의 품질변화에 대한 연구가 요구된다. We investigated the quality characteristics of brewing brown rice vinegar through a traditional static fermentation process. Accordingly, we decided to compare the physicochemical characteristics of brewing vinegar at different temperatures and filtration methods. In four to five weeks` time, the acetic acid fermentation exhibited the highest titratable acidity and then it eventually decreased The titratable acidity was affected by the filtration method It was revealed that the titratable acidity was higher in the forced filtration than the traditional filtration method. Various organic acids were detected in order to initiaLize the fermentation stage and as the fermentation progressed, only the acetic acid could be detected. The total free amino acid content was higher at a temperaiure of 30℃ than at 20℃ Moreover, the free amino acid content was depencenr on the acetate content during the acetic fermentation Process. The main bioactive substance of the γ-aminobutyric acid content was more man twice at a fermentation temperature of 30t: compared to die fermentation temperature of 20t:. Furthermore, the total amino acid and essential amino acid content at a temperature of 30 t was excellent. The quality of the brown rice vinegar via forced filtration method at a temperature of 30 t was the most excellent. Based on these results, the fermentation temperature and the use of nuruks (fermenting agent) affected the quality of the brown rice vinegar, and an appropriate method to consider its purpose is required.

      • KCI등재

        Small Size Autograft versus Large Size Allograft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

        Alper Kurtoğlu,Betül Başar,Gökhan Başar,Ömer Gezginaslan,Hakan Başar 대한정형외과학회 2021 Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery Vol.13 No.1

        Background: A small autograft diameter negatively affects functional outcomes, knee stability, and the risk of rerupture after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, whereas the strength of allograft decreases over time. Therefore, it is not clear whether the use of smaller autografts or the use of larger allografts in ACL yields better results. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of smaller autografts and larger allografts for ACL reconstruction. Methods: Fifty-one patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autografts (size ≤ 8 mm) and 21 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with allografts (size ≥ 10 mm) were included in our study. All patients underwent the same aggressive early postoperative rehabilitation program. There were no significant differences between the autograft and allograft groups regarding the preoperative patient age, sex, time from injury to surgery, and average follow-up time. Results: The mean diameter of the 4-stranded hamstring tendon grafts used as autografts was 7.48 ± 0.33 mm and the mean diameter of the allografts was 10.76 ± 0.67 mm. According to specific tests for the ACL (anterior drawer, Lachman, and pivot shift) and clinical evaluation tests (Lysholm knee scoring scale and International Knee Documentation Committee questionnaire), the final follow-up results were significantly better than the preoperative status in both autograft and allograft ACL reconstruction groups. Therefore, there were no significant differences between the autograft and allograft groups preoperatively and at the final follow-up. Conclusions: The large size of the graft in ACL reconstruction has been reported to affect results positively. However, in our study, we could not find any significant differences between the smaller size autografts and larger size allografts in terms of inadequacy, rerupture, and final follow-up functional results. Although allografts were significantly larger than autografts, we did not have the positive effect of larger size grafts. Smaller size autografts were as effective as the larger size allografts.

      • KCI등재

        The effect of mortar type and joint thickness on mechanical properties of conventional masonry walls

        Başak Zengin,Burak Toydemir,Serhan Ulukaya,Didem Oktay,Nabi Yüzer,Ali Kocak 국제구조공학회 2018 Structural Engineering and Mechanics, An Int'l Jou Vol.67 No.6

        Masonry walls are of a complex (anisotropic) structure in terms of their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the walls are affected by the properties of the materials used in wall construction, joint thickness and the type of masonry bond. The carried-out studies, particularly in the seismic zones, have revealed that the most of the conventional masonry walls were constructed without considering any engineering approach. Along with that, large-scale damages were detected on such structural elements after major earthquake(s), and such damages were commonly occurred at the brick-joint interfaces. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of joint thickness and also type of mortar on the mechanical behavior of the masonry walls. For this aim, the brick masonry walls were constructed through examination of both the literature and the conventional masonry walls. In the construction process, a single-type of brick was combined with two different types of mortar: cement mortar and hydraulic lime mortar. Three different joint thicknesses were used for each mortar type; thus, a total of six masonry walls were constructed in the laboratory. The mechanical properties of brick and mortars, and also of the constructed walls were determined. As a conclusion, it can be stated that the failure mechanism of the brick masonry walls differed due to the mechanical properties of the mortars. The use of bed joint thickness not less than 20 mm is recommended in construction of conventional masonry walls in order to maintain the act of brick in conjunction with mortar under load.

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