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The physiological properties of oak mistletoe slice extracts were investigated. The total polyphenol content of mistletoe extracts was 50.28-109-69 mg%, depending on extraction conditions. The polyphenol content increased as extract concentration rose (25 mL/g>50 mL/g>100 mL/g). The electron-donating ability (EDA) of the 60% (v/v) ethanolic extract was 68.88% at 25 mL/g; this was the highest value of all extracts tested (p<0.05). The SOD-like activities of water, 30%, 60%, and 90% (all v/v) ethanolic extracts were 15.24-30.84% lower than those of 1.0% and 0.1% (both w/v) L-ascorbate solutions. Tyrosinase inhibitory activities of all samples were 3.40-30.92% lower than those of 1.0% and 0.1% (both w/v) L-ascorbate solutions. Nitrite-scavenging abilities measured at pH 1.2 and pH 3.0 were highest when the water, and the 30%, 60% and 90% (all v/v) ethanolic extracts, were tested. The results expand our understanding of the physiological properties of oak mistletoe slice extracts.
We explored the effect of extracts of dried Platycodon grandiflorum on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO). To determine antioxidant activity in the presence of H2O2-induced oxidative stress, DCFH-DA (dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate) assay was employed. Acetone/methylene chloride (A+M) and methanolic (MeOH) extracts of P. grandiflorum reduced intracellular ROS levels. Of the various tested fractions, n-BuOH fraction showed the highest protective effect in terms of lipid peroxide production. Total GSH levels were measured after treatment of HT1080 cells with the A+M and MeOH extracts, and other solvent fractions, at various concentration. The A+M extacts and 85% (v/v) aqueous MeOH fraction significantly increased GSH levels (p<0.05). When lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production was evaluated, all tested crude extracts, and fractions thereof, significantly reduced NO production (p<0.05), and the n-BuOH and 85% (v/v) aqueous MeOH fractions (at 0.05 mg/mL) showed the strongest inhibitory effects. The results showed that the n-BuOH fraction inhibited both cellular oxidation and NO production, and this fraction may thus contain valuable active compounds.
생홍고추 및 생홍피망의 장기저장 방법으로 HDPE 및 LDPE 포장내에 시료와 함계 서로 다른 양의 NaCl을 삽입함으로써 MA저장 효과를 조사하였다. HDPE 및 LDPE 포장내의 NaCl 함량은 0 g, 15 g, 20 g, 25 g이었으며, 대조구로 무포장이 사용되었다. 홍고추 및 홍피망의 각각 50일 및 35일간 MA저장 동안 주기적으로 중량 변화와 곰팡이 발생율을 조사하였고, 저장 초기와 말기에는 색도와 경도를 측정·비교하였다. NaCl을 포함하지 않은 처리구에 있어 HDPE와 LDPE 포장 모두 홍고추 및 홍피망의 중량 감소율은 각각 4∼5% 및 3∼4%의 범위로 매우 낮았다. 그러나, 대조구인 무포장의 경우 중량 감소율이 저장 말기에 홍고추 및 홍피망 각각 45%와 22%로 높게 나타났다. 또한, 포장 내의 NaCl을 포함한 경우 홍고추 및 홍피망의 중량 감소율은 각각 19% 및 6% 이하로 무포장에 비해 매우 낮게 나타났다. 무포장인 홍고추 및 홍피망의 저장에 있어 곰팡이 발생율이 각각 5% 및 12.5%로 매우 낮았으나, NaCl을 포함하지 않는 HDPE 및 LDPE 저장에 있어서는 55∼65%로 매우 높게 나타났다. NaCl 함유량이 15 g, 20 g 25 g 일 때 HDPE 및 LDPE 포장에 저장된 홍고추 및 홍고추의 곰팡이 발생율은 20∼45%의 범위로 나타났다. NaCl을 포함하지 않는 HDPE와 LDPE 포장내에 저장된 홍고추 및 홍피망의 색도차는 각각 0.74와 1.50 이하로 매우 낮았다. 또한, 15∼25 g의 NaCl을 포함하는 MA 저장된 홍고추 및 홍피망의 색도차도 각각 0.85∼0.88 및 1.56∼1.61의 범위에 있었다. 그러나, 저장습도가 낮은 무포장의 경우 홍고추 및 홍피망의 색도차는 각각 1.15 및 1.78로 다른 처리구보다 매우 컸다. 무포장의 경도 감소는 홍고추 및 홍피망이 각각 1.70 ㎏ 및 0.71 ㎏으로 크게 나타났으나, 무포장에 비해 NaCl을 함유한 HDPE 및 LDPE 포장의 경우 홍고추 및 홍피망의 경도 감소는 각각 0.75∼1.02 ㎏ 및 0.15∼0.49 ㎏의 범위로 낮게 나타났다. The effects of modified atmosphere (MA) storage for fresh red pepper and red bell pepper fruits were investigated with storing in high and low density polyethylene films (HDPE, LDPE) with various NaCl contents(0 g, 15 g, 20 g, 25 g). During the storage of pepper fruits, the weight loss, color change, mold emergence, and firmness were evaluated. The weight loss of pepper fruits packaged in HDPE and LDPE without NaCl was 3∼5%, even though it was 6∼19% in pepper fruits packaged with NaCl. The rates of mold emergence of red pepper and red bell pepper fruits were lowered to 20∼45% as stored in HDPE and LDPE with NaCl, but those of fruits stored in films without NaCl were high as 55∼65%. The color and firmness of pepper fruits were not much changed in comparison with those of non-packaged fruits as stored in HDPE and LDPE with or without NaCl.
Activity-guided isolation from an ethylacetate-soluble fraction of a 70% (v/v) ethanolic extract from the roots of Taraxacum ohwianum, using a pancreatic lipase inhibition assay, resulted in isolation and identification of five phenolic metabolites of previously known structure; these were 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, chicoric acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, and luteolin. All structures were confirmed by NMR and MS scpectroscopic data. Of these compounds 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity, with IC50 of 65.1±0.7 mM against pancreatic lipase.
We investigated the quality characteristics of cookies prepared after addition of various concentrations of used coffee grounds (0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%, all w/w) as a substitute for flour. As coffee grounds concentration rose, decrease in the pH of cookie dough was evident. In terms the water-holding capacity of dough, cookies prepared 3% (w/w) coffee grounds yielded the highest value. With an increase in coffee grounds concentration, the color a value rose, but the L and b values fell. The gelatinization temperature became higher, but both peak viscosity and 15 min-height values declined. The spread and loss ratios decreased but the leavening rate rose significantly with elevation of coffee grounds concentration. The hardness of cookies rose but slightly, as coffee grounds concentration rose. Upon sensory evaluation of all of appearance, flavor, and overall preference, cookies prepared with addition of used coffee grounds were superior to those without grounds, whereas those prepared using 1%-3%(w/w) coffee grounds showed the highest overall acceptability. Thus cookies made using coffee grounds can be economically competitive. In addition, the ingredients of coffee powder and used coffee grounds were shown to be very similar, except that coffee grounds contain 15-fold less caffeine than dose coffee powder. As health concerns are popular today, the use of coffee grounds to manufacture processed food may be acceptable.
We added Nuruk at various proportions to brown rice Takju, and investigated the quality characteristics of vinegar produced in agitated culture and static culture. The more Nuruk was added, the higher the alcohol concentration. However, when over 30% (w/w) Nuruk was present, the increment in alcohol content was low (maximum 13.5%, v/v). A comparison of the quality of brown rice vinegar produced in agitated culture with that of vinegar produced in static culture showed that titratable acidity in agitated culture vinegar was highest after fermentation with 30% (w/v) Nuruk, at 5.97%. In static culture, the greater the amount of Nuruk added after 16 days of fermentation, the higher the titratable acidity of vinegar produced; this was true upon addition of either 30% (w/v) or 40% (w/v) Nuruk. Free amino acid levels increased in both agitated and static cultures as the level of added Nuruk rose. Moreover, brown rice vinegar produced in static culture had a higher level (7-30%) of total free amino acids than did vinegar produced in agitated culture. In particular, the level of gamma-amino butyric acid, a functional fortifier, was 3-5-fold higher in vinegar produced in agitated culture. The results thus indicate that both the amount of added Nuruk and the type of fermentation affected the level of free amino acid production. A static culture is expected to undergo changes in aroma and sensory characteristics during fermentation, indicating that further research on vinegars is required.
We explored the quality characteristics of Sulgidduk prepared using different amounts of cheese powder (0%, 6%, 12%, 18%, 24%; all w/w); physico-chemical properties were determined. Proximate composition analysis showed that the moisture content of Sulgidduk decreased with a rise in the level of added cheese powder. Lightness and yellowness values were lowest in control Sulgidduk and highest in Sulgidduk with 24% added cheese powder.Texture profile analysis showed that all of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and brittleness increased with a rise in cheese powder level. Scanning election microscopy indicated that the number of air cells fell as the ratio of cheese powder to rice powder increased. Sensory evaluation tests indicated that color, cheese smell, and greasiness rose as the cheese powder level increased, whereas softness and moistness fell. Consumer acceptance testing showed no significant difference in overall acceptability scores among samples. In conclusion, we suggest that cheese powder may be incorporated into Sulgidduk without affecting sensory qualities.
Three bark extracts of Albizia julibrissin were prepared using water (AW), 70% (v/v) ethanol (AE), and hot water (AHW). Organic solvent fractions were analyzed for total flavonoids and polyphenols, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory activities against xanthine oxidase. Total flavonoid and polyphenol contents of the AHW extract were 8.57 mg/g and 108.67 mg/g, respectively. The SOD-like activities of all extracts, assayed at 1.0 mg/mL, were 10.46-16.73%. The nitrite-scavenging ability of the AHW extract, assayed at pH 1.2, was 60.82%, and the IC50 value was 770.18 μg/mL. The electron-donating ability of the AHW extract, at 0.3 mg/mL, was 92.30%; the IC50 values of the AW and AHW extracts were 31.31 μg/mL and 36.22 μg/mL, respectively; thus higher than that of ascorbic acid (39.06 μg/mL). Xanthine oxidase inhibition by the AHW extract, at 1.0 mg/mL, was 94.05%. These results indicate that the AHW of A. julibrissin has potential as a natural antioxidant, for addition to foods and nutraceuticals.
김아라 ( Ah Ra Kim ),김도균 ( Do Kyun Kim ),변태환 ( Tea Hwan Byun ),조은지 ( Eun Jee Jo ),이은우 ( Eun Woo Lee ),권현주 ( Hyun Ju Kwon ),김병우 ( Byung Woo Kim ),김태훈 ( Tae Hoon Kim ),이경본 ( Kyung Bon Lee ),김영만 ( Young Man 한국식품저장유통학회(구 한국농산물저장유통학회) 2011 한국식품저장유통학회지 Vol.18 No.1
The methanol extracts of 19 commercial herb medicines was analyzed to antibacterial activities against Edwardsiella tarda, causing several fish diseases. Rhus javanica showed most strong antibacterial activity against E. tarda and Escherichia coli. Methanol extract of R. javanica was further extracted using several organic solvents having different polarity. Extract from ethyl acetate fraction showed strong activity against E. tarda as well as E. coli. Minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC of R. javanica extract was measured and resulted showing 64 ㎍/㎖ for E. tarda and 256 ㎍/㎖ for E. coli. It is needed that, from these results, further purification and isolation of reposible compound of these activities and further study on the synergy effect using combination with antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria.