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This paper seeks to present the results of a critical analysis of major issues surrounding the ongoing debate on reform of post-employment restrictions in South Korea. After a brief review of the theory of post-employment restrictions and current practice, a set of important issues was reviewed and analyzed through a comparative perspective. The review issues ranged from the expected roles and limitations of the restrictions for governmental officials to proposed reform suggestions. The restrictions on post-employment activities of government employees in the Korean government were compared with those of the United States, Japan, Germany, France, and Britain. Then the directions for reform were suggested within the context of achieving realistic objectives of the restrictions. Specific policy recommendations were made for improving the current laws and regulations relevant to post-employment restrictions. The study will help identify detailed approaches about how to enhance post-employment ethics for governmental officials.
PCR 방법을 이용하여 K11 RNA 중합효소를 coding하는 Klebsiella phage gene 1을 cloning 하였고 lac 전사촉진제 조절 하에 발현시켰다. K11 RNA 중합효소는 DAEA-sephacel과 Affigel blue column chromatographies를 사용하는 상용 방법으로 분리하였다. DAEA-sephacel의 0.2-0.3 M $NH_4Cl$ 분획에서 K11 RNA 중합효소의 활성을 보였고, 다음 단계의 Affigel blue column에서 SDS-polyacryl amide gel 상의 단일 band로 분리되었다. K11 RNA 중합효소는 T7 그룹 phage RNA 중합효소로 다른 T7 그룹phage RNA 중합효소와 많은 상동성을 보인다. (대장균 phage T7, T3과 Salmonella tyhimurium phage SP6 RNA 중합효소). 이미 우리는 T7과 SP6 전사촉진제 변이체를 제조한 바 있고 T7과 SP6 RNA 중합효소의 전사촉진제 특이성을 연구한 바 있다 (이상수와 강창원, 1993). K11 RNA 중합효소의 전사촉진제 특이성을 알아보기 위해 SP6 전사촉진제 변이체를 사용하여 in vitro K11 RNA 중합효소의 활성을 측정하였다. 이 변이체 중 K11 전사촉진제와 가장 유사한 것이 가장 높은 K11 RNA 중합효소 활성을 보였다. Using the PCR(polymerase chain reaction method), gone 1 of phage K11 coding for K11 phage RNA polymerase has been cloned and expressed under the control of lac promoter. K11 phage RNA polymerase was conventionally purified through the DEAE-sephacel and Affigel blue column chromatographies. The 0.2-0.3 M $NH_4Cl$ fractions of DAEA-sephacel column chromatography showed K11 phage RNA polymerase activity and further purification with Affigel blue column chromatography showed nearly single protein band on SDS-polyacryl amide gel. K11 phage RNA polymerase, which is one of the T7 group phage RNA polymerase (E. coil phage T7, T3 and Salmonella tyhimurium phage SP6 RNA polymerase), shares high degrees of homology with the other T7 group phage RNA polymerase. Previously we constructed T7 and SP6 promoter variants and revealed promoter specificity of T7 and SP6 RNA polymerase (Lee and Kang, 1993). To investigate the promoter specificity of K11 RNA polymerase in vitro K11 promoter activity was measured with SP6 promoter variants. The SP6 promoter variant share highest degrees of sequence homology with K11 promoter sequence show strongest promoter activity.
The Korea Cement Association reports that domestic cement consumption has 47.29 million tons in 2013. The cement industry is one of the primary producers of carbon dioxide. There has been a lot of research in order to protect the global environment and to reduce the consumption of cement. This experimental study is purposed to analyze the effect of red mud and alkali activator on engineering properties of non portland cement matrix using blast furnace slag. Various specimens were prepared with non portland cement matrix and the addition ratios of red mud and alkali activators. The physical properties of these specimens were then investigated by flow test, setting time test, compressive strength test, flexural strength test, EDS and observation of SEM. Results showed that Na2SO4 is the most suitable alkali activator for non portland cement matrix using red mud and blast furnace slag. It was judged that results of engineering properties on the alkali activated inorganic binder with kind of alkali activators and red mud were useful to basic data for mixtures design and evaluation properties of non portland cement matrix.
Most of the dredged sand generated from the sewage pipe maintenance project and the government's four-river project are disposed depending on abandonment and filling-up. This is caused by the lack of related recycling technology using dredged sand appropriately and high absorption rate and micro-particles of dredged sand producted from existing sand production system. Thus, this study carried out a quality evaluation for the dredged sand produced through the optimum washing and sorting system supplementing problems of existing dredged sand production system as a part of research to examine performance of removing micro-particles and foreign substances. As a result of the study, the dredged sand produced through the washing and sorting system showed a wide quality improvement effect in absorption rate, 0.08㎜ sieve pass amount, clay lump volume and organic impurity content, and it turned out to satisfy both the quality standards of this study, KS F 2573(recycled aggregate for concrete) and KS F 2526(aggregate for concrete) so it could be confirmed that it would be able to be used as an aggregate for concrete in the future. Also, the flow and compressive strength of the mortar test result, DS-Ⅱ(washing and sorting after) was shown to be very superior to the natural sand.
Studies on cultural omnivores have focused on consumption activities, largely overlooking cultural production activities. However, consumption and production activities are both essential fields of cultural participation. Through the use of comprehensive data about cultural consumption and production activities, this study attempts to explore patterns of cultural participation in Korea. It also investigates the determinants of these different patterns. Four major findings resulted from the study. First, four different types of cultural participation were derived: omnivorous prosumers, omnivorous consumers, omnivorous producers, and univores. Second, members of the new middle class, with higher educational levels and higher household incomes, are more likely to be omnivorous consumers or omnivorous prosumers. Third, demographic factors such as gender and age also have effects on the patterns of cultural participation in Korea. Lastly, it was revealed that the larger an individual's social network, the greater the probability of being a cultural omnivore of any type. This study contributes to the expansion of the boundaries of prior discussions on cultural omnivores.