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This study examines how the Korean satellite development program was established in Korean society and expanded its boundaries through tracking the history of KAIST Satellite Technology Research Center (SaTReC) from 1989 to 2013. Based on documentary analysis, I argue that the Korean satellite development program was started by an autonomous research group, SaTReC, and evolved into a government-led program. This process is divided into four periods based on the boundaries of the Korean satellite development program: 1989-1993, 1994-1999, 2000-2005, and 2006-2013. Although the role of SaTReC was reduced in the Korean satellite development program, the Korean satellite development program expanded its boundaries from SaTReC to the Government and Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), to industry, and finally to other countries and the public. New actors of the Korean satellite development program raised according to the expansion of boundaries. This study shows that the Korean satellite program continuously has expanded its boundaries to find its position in society under environmental change and provides insights for the future of the Korean satellite development program in the new era.
Based on the high biocompatibility and a remarkable long-term reach, In-Ceram^(R) crowns(Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Sa¨ckingen, Germany) are being used more frequently as on of excellent restoration. Because of the favorable mechanical values, the In-Ceram^(R) technique is interesting for the use in practics. All-ceramic restoration improve the mechanical shaping of an industrially prefabricated ceramic material. The Celay^(R) system (Mikrona AG, Spreitenbach, Switzerland) is based on this principle. This technology allows the production of accurately fitting substructures for crowns and anterior bridges by a manually guided copy-milling process. The mechanism uses no electronic assistance, it is only a mechanical device based on micropalpation of an intermediar unit fabricated directly by patients or indirectly in the laboratory. Copy-milled, Celay^(R) In-Ceram crowns were produced in an clinical setting. The advantages of this new technique are shortening of processing time and reduction in defects during processing through the use of an processing time and reduction in defects during processing through the use of an industrially prefabricated material. And this system can create all surfaces of inlay, veneer, onlay, crown and anterior bridge restorations. This paper reports a case of copy-milled Celay^(R) In-Ceram crowns and reviews the practical procedure and main advantages of Celay^(R) system.
This study focused on immobilization of Saccharomyces coreanus to support materials and ethanol fermentation bythe immobilized yeast. Three porous media as support material were surveyed; synthetic zeolite, aluminum silicate andgranular activated carbon. Amount of yeast (determined by organic matter content) immobilized into/on support materialswas lowest in fermentation using aluminum silicate as supports. Glucose as substrate of ethanol fermentation was easilysorbed more than ethanol into/on 3 types of support materials. Of these, absorbed amount of glucose and ethanol into/on activated carbon was highest. The ethanol was actively produced for 16 hours in fermentation processes by yeastimmobilized into/on aluminum silicate and activated carbon, produced after 16 hours by yeast immobilized into/on zeolite.The produced ethanol concentration after 24h was as follows; 24.2g/L by using aluminum silicate, 19.3g/L by activatedcarbon and 16.1g/L by zeolite.
증류수 또는 염산 촉매 수열처리에 의한 단독 가수분해, 또는 수열처리 - 효소에 의한 순차적 가수분해 공정에 의해 갈조류 일종인 다시마와 미역을 가수분해하여 생성되는 환원당과 글루코오스 함량을 조사하였다. 또, 가수분해 산물을 대상으로알루미늄 실리케이트에 고정된 효모를 이용하여 바이오에탄올 생산성에 대하여 검토하였다. 그 결과, 다시마와 미역에서 증류수 수열처리로부터 생성되는 환원당 농도는 각각 66.7과 80.7 mg/g-dry biomass이었으나, 염산 수열처리 한 경우는 각각112.1과 140.0 mg/g-dry biomass로, 1.7배 증가한 결과를 보였다. 또 증류수나 염산 촉매 수열처리 경우, 생성되는 글루코오스 양은 아주 미미하였다. 증류수나 염산 촉매 수열처리 후 효소가수를 실시한 순차적 가수분해의 경우 생성되는 환원당 농도는 증가하였다. 그 결과, 다시마는 증류수 수열처리 - 효소 가수분해한 경우 112.9 mg/g-dry biomass, 염산 수열처리 - 효소가수분해한 경우 142.8 mg/g-dry biomass이었으며, 미역은 증류수 수열처리 - 효소 가수분해한 경우 117.1 mg/g-dry biomass, 염산 수열처리 - 효소 가수분해한 경우 161.7 mg/g-dry biomass이었다. 그러나 비록 염산 촉매 수열처리 결과에서 환원당 농도는 높았다 하더라도, 바이오에탄올로의 전화율은 낮았다. Bioethanol was produced from the Laminaria japonica and the Undaria pinnatifida hydrolysates by sequential hydrothermal (with distilled water or hydrochloric acid) and enzymatic hydrolysis (Celluclast® 1.5 L) using immobilized Saccharomyces coreanus into/on aluminum silicate. The concentration of the reducing sugar in the hydrothermal treatment with distilled water from the L. japonica and the U. pinnatifida were 66.7 and 80.7 mg/g-dry biomass, respectively, while the result with hydrochloric acid were 112.1 and 140.0 mg/g-dry biomass, increasing as much as 1.7 factors, respectively. Glucose in the reducing sugar was very low, for distilled water or hydrochloric acid. The hydrolysis rate of reducing sugar was improved by the sequential enzymatic hydrolysis after hydrothermal treatment with distilled water or hydrochloric acid, reducing sugar were 112.9 and 142.8 mg/g-dry biomass for L. japonica, and 117.1 and 161.7 mg/g-dry biomass for U. pinnatifida. Above all, glucose was produced to 49.8-59.4 mg/g-dry biomass for both algae. Although the acid hydrolysates with hydrochloric acid were shown a remarkable increased hydrolysis yield of sugar for both algae, it was not linked to higher ethanol production.