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The gene encoding F protein of CBP-1 strain, a heat-stable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from the diseased pheasants in Korea, was characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Virus RNA was prepared from the chorioallatoic fluid infected with NDV CBP-1 virus and cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and sequenced to analyze. The PCR was sensitive as to detect the virus titer above $2^5$ hemagglutination unit. 1.7kb (1,707bp) size of the cDNA was amplified and cloned into BamHI site of pVL1393 Baculo transfer vector. The nucleotide sequences for F protein were determined by dye terminator cyclic sequencing using four pairs of primers, and 553 amino acid sequences were predicted. In comparison of the nucleotide sequence of F gene of CBP-1 with those of other NDV strains, the homology revealed 88.8%, 98.5% and 98.7% with Kyojungwon (KJW), Texas GB and Beaudette C strains, respectively. As the deduced 553 amino acid sequences of F protein of CBP-1 were compared with those of other NDV strains, the homology appeared 89.9%, 98.7% and 98.9% with KJW, Texas GB and Beaudette C strains, respectively. The putative protease cleavage site (112-116) was R-R-Q-K-R, indicating that CBP-1 strain is velogenic type. The amino acid sequences include 6 sites of N-asparagine-linked glycosylation and 13 cysteine residues. These data indicate that the genotype of CBP-1 strain is more closely associated with the strains of Texas GB and Beaudette C than KJW strain.
In this study, the fluidity and strength characteristics of NSC mortar according to the type and rate ofaddition of superplasticizer were analyzed to secure the fluidity of NSC composed of only slag and ash. Through the flow test, it was found that the fluidity of NSC was related to the basicity according to thebinder condition, and the lower the reactivity, the higher the fluidity. When polycarboxylate is added,NSC mortar is considered to be more advantageous than plain mortar in terms of securing fluidity. Asa result of the strength tests of NSC mortar containing Lignin or Polycarboxylate superplasticizer, itwas found that the strength tends to increase as the basicity increases. In addition, when polycarboxylateis added, it is judged that the NSC mortar can secure adequate fluidity and strength at the same time. Through this experiment, an appropriate binder condition that satisfies the flowability while securingthe strength was derived. 본 연구에서는 순환자원으로 구성된 비소성 시멘트의 유동성 확보를 위해 감수제의 종류 및 첨가율에 따른 비소성 시멘트 모르타르의 유동성과 강도 특성을 분석하였다. 감수제 첨가에 따른 비소성 시멘트의 유동성은 감수제 첨가비율이 높고플라이애시 치환 비율이 높을수록 유동성은 향상되는 것으로 나타났다. 특히 폴리카르본산계 감수제 첨가 시 소성 시멘트모르타르보다 유동성 확보에 유리하며, 비소성 시멘트 모르타르의 적정 유동성 확보와 동시에 강도 확보가 가능한 것으로판단된다. 또한 감수제 첨가에 따른 비소성 시멘트 모르타르는 고칼슘 애시의 치환 비율이 높고 염기도가 높을수록 반응성이 촉진되는 경향이 있는데 급격한 반응 촉진은 오히려 강도저하를 유발할 수 있으므로 목표한 유동성을 만족하는 범위 내에서 적정 배합조건을 도출하였다.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze theoretically the weakness of corporate governance of cooperatives and to propose strategies for strengthening governance. The objective of cooperatives cited in agricultural cooperative law could motivate the inefficiency of cooperative management. Some characteristics of cooperatives such as one member-one vote rule and owner = customer relationship may become sources of the weakness of corporate governance. The multi-business system with non-profit principle produces the agency problem of managers of non-financial business divisions. Strategies for improving corporate governance should be based on the objective redefined as the maximization of membership value. Including non-member stakeholders in the governance of cooperatives improves internal governance because of their higher incentive to monitor management. For preventing the agency problem of managers in non-financial business divisions, the evaluation and disclosure of performance compared with competing firms within their industries should be required. Risk-based rules for deposit insurance and capital adequacy enhance soundness of cooperative management. And the national federation`s role as external governance is crucial to make up for the lack of market discipline.
The introduction of computer-based machines, e.g., PLC, NC. Robot. etc., on the shop floor has increased the productivity. Most of these machines. however. work as stand-alone machines. Recently there has been much interest in interconnecting them. MMS is designed as a communication standard for messaging and providing common environment between heterogeneous machines. application programs of different vendors on the networks. This paper implements MMS services on TCP/IP and user application programs using JNI(Java Native Interface) with web browser
To evaluate the specificity of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion (F) protein gene for various NDV strains. F protein genes of NDV CBP-1 isolate, LaSota, B1 and Kyojungwon (KJW) were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RFLP were examined. In RT-PCR using F primer sets for 1.7 kb F gene, the amplified products were observed in CBP-1, LaSota and B1 except KJW. However, F2 primer set for 521 bp yielded the amplified bands with all strains. The amplified F genes (1.7 kbp) were treatd with 15 different restriction enzymes to analyze RFLP and the cleavage patterns. CBP-1 showed various cleavage patterns with 8 enzymes, LaSota, with 11 enzymes and B1, with 11 enzymes. According to the cleavage patterns, the physical maps were constructed, and it was found that CBP-1, LaSota and B1 strains had specific cleavage sites with HinfI, XbaI and XhoI. These findings suggest that RFLP are worth applying in the diagnosis and molecular epidemiological studies of Newcastle disease.
The introduction of computer-based machines, e.g. Robot, PLC, NC etc., on the shop floor has increased the productivity. Most of these machines, however, work as stand-alone machines. Recently there has been much interest in interconncting them. MMS (Manufacturing Message Specification) is designed as a communication standard for messaging between heterogeneous machines of different vendors. The primary goal of this paper is to provide a design of the Virtual Manufacturing Device (VMD) on MMS protocol for message commnunications of networked programmable unit controllers, Robot, PLC, NC etc., which emphasize on applying MMS protocols to real devices.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpretation attributes and visitor satisfaction and to examine the difference degree of interpretation attributes and visitor satisfaction according to visitor’s demographic characteristic. To achieve the goal of this study, a total of 940 surveys collected from cultural heritage or cultural tourist resource in Gangwondo were utilized for analyzing. Frequency, reliability, factor analysis, multiple regression analysis, t-test and ANOVA were conducted using SPSS 22.0. Main findings were as follows; First, the specialized knowledge, kindness and interest had a positive effect on the visitor satisfaction. Second, the visitor’s evaluation on interpretation attributes(specialized knowledge, kindness and interest) was different according to gender. The male’s score was higher than female’s score. Third, the visitor satisfaction was different according to gender. On the other hands, there were not differences on visitor satisfaction to accord age, education and residence.
This study was designed to find service quality of cultural site as tourist destination and that effects to the visitor's satisfaction and revisit intention. The data(N=329) were collected Bulgug-sa temples that is the largest buddhist temple in Korea. LISREL 8.50 was used to analysis data. The results of analysis is that service quality was affected visitor's satisfaction and revisit intention and visitor's satisfaction to affect revisit intention.