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The radiological measurement of the pituitary fossa provides an important clinical value in evaluation of the borderline cases of the intracranial disease, particularly in sellar and parasellar tumors. Normal volume of the pituitary fossa is measured from antero-posterior and lateral projections of the skulls with focus-film distance of 30 inches. Following formula was used for calculation of the volume of the pituitary fossa. V=0.36$\times$L$\times$H$\times$W L: length of the pituitary fossa H: height of the pituitary fossa W: width of the pituitary fossa In 200 Korean adults, 103 males and 97 females, the mean volume of the pituitary fossa is 601m㎥ and the range of the volume of the pituitary fossa is 310m㎥ to 1236m㎥. The mean volume of the pituitary fossa is larger in females (mean: 582m㎥) than in males (mean: 622m㎥).
This paper is results of experimental and nunerical works on the behavior of the cut-and-cover tunnel. Centrifuge model tests were performed to simulate the behavior of the cut-and-cover tunnels having cross sections of national road and subway tunnels. Model experiments were carried out with changing the cut slope and the slope of filling ground surface. Displacements of tunnel lining resulted from artificially accelerated gravitational force up to 40g of covered material used in model tests, were measured during centrifuge model tests. In model tests, Jumunjin Standard Sand with the relative density of 80% and the zinc plates were used for the covered material and the flexible tunnel lining, respectively. Basic soil property tests were performed to obtain it's the property of Jumumjin Standard Sand. Shear strength parameters of Jumunjin Standard Sand were obtained by performing the triaxial compression tests. Direct shear tests were also carried out to find the mechanical properties of the interface between the lining and the covered material. Numerical analysis with the commercially available program of FLAC were performed to compare with results of centrifuge model experiment. In numerical modelling. Mohr-Coulomb elasto-plastic constitutive model was used to simulaye the behavoor of Jumunjin Standard Sand and the interface element between the lining and the covered material was implemented to simulate the interaction between them. Compared results between model tests and numerical estimation with respect to displacement of the lining showed in good agreements.
This thesis is results of experimental works on the behavior of the cut-and-cover tunnel. Centrifuge model tests were performed to simulate the behavior of the cut-and-cover tunnels having cross sections of national road and subway tunnels Model experiments were carried out with changing the cut slope and the slope of filling ground surface Displacements of tunnel lining resulted from artificially accelerated gravitational force up to 40g of covered material used in model tests, were measured during centrifuge model tests In model tests. Jumunjin Standard Sand with the relative density of 80 % and the zinc plates were used for the covered material and the flexible tunnel lining. respectively Basic soil property tests were performed to obtain it's the property of Jumumjin Standard Sand Shear strength parameters of Jumunjin Standard Sand were obtained by performing the triaxial compression tests Direct shear tests were also carried out to find the mechanical properties of the interface between the lining and the covered material Compared results model tests estimation with respect to displacements of the lining
This study was conducted to examine the influences of two human chorion gonadotrophins (hCGs) being injected into young or aged (45- to 65-week old) outbred (ICR) mice on developmental capacity of oocytes retrieved. In vitro-culture and parthenogenetic activation of oocytes retrieved were employed for the assessment. Superovulation was determined as being induced when more than 25 oocytes were retrieved. No aged mice were superovulated, while in contrast, 67-100% were superovulated in the 6- to 8-week-old (young) mice. In the aged, hCG injection yielded better retrieval (5 vs. 13 to 14.8 oocytes/mouse). Overall, no significant difference between two hCGs was detected but between the young and aged, significant differences in maturational arrest (0% vs. 39% MI arrest and 46% vs. 15% degeneration) and developmental capacity (24% vs. 46% 8-cell embryo development) were detected. In conclusion, hCG injection contributes to increasing oocyte retrieval from aged outbred mice, but the kinds of gonadotrophin influenced the efficiency of hyperstimulation induction in specific ages.
This paper is an experimental and numerical research works about the effects of the bearing capacity of sloped rubble mound on the density of rubble mound and the position of footing. Centrifuge model tests were performed to investigate the bearing capacity of rubble mound by changing the density of rubble mound and the location of loading in forms of strip loading to simulate the caisson. Materials of rubble mound used in the model tests were crushed rocks having similar value of uniformity coefficient to the value in field. Two different relative densities of 80% and 90% were prepared during tests. The dimens ions of centrifuge model were trapezoidal shape of model mound having the bottom width of mound, 30cm and height of mound, 10cm. Gravity level applied during the centrifuge test was 50G. Surcharge loading in the forms of strip loading was applied on the top of the sloped model mound. Tests were carried out by changing the position of loadi ng. The rigid model footing was located in the center of top of the model rubble mound and the edge of model footing was at the crest of mound. Test results were analyzed by using the limit equilibrium methods proposed by Meyer hof(1957) and Bowles(1982) and the numerical approach with FLAC being available commercially software. For the numerical estimations with FLAC, the rubble mound was simulated with the constitutive relationship of Mohr-Coulomb elasto-plastic model.
Although clinical findings are very useful but roentgenogram is best method for diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the skull. Eight proved cases of osteomyelitis of the skull, which are colected during last 8 years, are reviewed. On roentgenographic findings 7 of 8 cases show osteolytic bone defect and one shows sclerotic change with increase of bone thickness. Marginal sclerosis of the defect is observed in 2 of 7 osteolytic lesions. Free sequestrum within lytic defect is presented in 3 cases.
Forest fires occurred in Korea during past 50 years showed a lot of periodic changes according to the environmental changes. Average occurrences and the damaged area by the forest fires numbered 451 times and 3,760ha a year, respectively. The damaged amount of trees and values were largely increased by the expansion of aged trees growing area along with 1st and 2nd Essential Plan for Forest and by the large-scaled forest fires occurred in 90s and 2000s. The damages were sharply increased since 90s. The number of occurrences and damaged areas according to the region and the control division showed some variant results, but the numbers related to Kyungbuk and Kangwon region noticeably large in compared to the other regions. For Kangwon region, the damaged areas were larger in spite of the occurrences because of the large-scaled forest fires in 90s and 2000s. The statistics represents that carelessness by mountain-goers was the top cause of the origin of fire. The number was 30% in 60s and 70s, but was increased to 50% after 80s. The most frequent month of forest fire had been April, however the tendency showed that increasing the frequency in March and November but decreasing in April during 80s. 15% of the total of forest fire had occurred on Sunday,but the forest fire rate sharply increased on Friday and Saturday after the introduction of five-day workweek since 2000s. For hourly base, the forest fire occurred around 14:00~18:00(2~6PM) of 50%, and around noon(11:00~13:00) of 35%. However, the occurrence of forest fire in the afternoon were decresed steadily, and the forest fire which occurred noon, morning, and night were relatively increased. The forest fire rate of night time was represented the highest among them. 지난 50년간 우리나라의 산불은 사회적인 여건과 산림여건 그리고 산림정책, 제도 그 외 시대적인 기상변화에 따라 산불의발생건수와 피해면적 등이 다양하게 변화했고, 연도별로 평균 451건의 산불이 발생했고 3,760 ha의 피해룰 입었다. 또한,1990년대와 2000년대에는 1, 2차 산림기본계획사업의 성공으로 산림내 고령급의 산림면적율이 증가하여 대형산불이 발생했으며,특히 90년대 이후 산불은 급격히 증가하였다. 지역별로 보면 경북은 산불발생 건수가, 강원도는 피해면적이 가장 컸으며 강원도의 피해면적이 컸던 이유는 90, 2000년대의 대형산불 때문인 것으로 나타났다. 산불발생 원인은 입산자실화가 가장 많았는데그 비율을 보면 60, 70년대의 30%였던 것이 80년대에는 50%로 증가하였다. 월별로는 4월에 가장 많이 발생은 하였으나, 3월, 11월에도 증가 추세에 있다. 요일별로는 일요일에 가장 많이 발생하였으나, 2000년대 주5일제 시행으로 금요일과 토요일에도 급격한 증가를 보였다. 시간대별로는 오후 2시에서 6시 사이에 50%, 11시와 오후 1시 사이에 35%였으나, 특히 시간대별산불발생률에서 오후시간대의 산불발생율은 지속적으로 감소하는 반면에 정오, 야간, 오전시간대의 산불발생율은 지속적으로 증가하고 있으며 특히, 야간산불의 발생율 증가폭이 가장 큰 것으로 나타나고 있어 향후 야간산불에 대한 산불방지대책 마련도필요할 것으로 판단된다.