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Objective: To analyze the relationship of clinical factors and gait parameters of patients with failed back surgery syndrome. Method: We investigated 25 male patients with back and /or lower limb pain who underwent lumbar spine operation. The following data were evaluated: clinical symptoms, physical examination, duration from operation to the gait analysis, number and level of operation, Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), modified Dallas pain questionnaire, psychological evaluations (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI) and gait parameters through 3 dimensional gait analysis. Results: Walking velocity was inversely correlated with scores of modified Dallas pain questionnaire and BDI. Stride length was inversely correlated with scores of return to work, neurogenic claudication, VAS, modified Dallas pain questionnaire and BDI. Range of pelvic obliquity was inversely correlated with scores of modified Dallas pain questionnaire and BDI. There was no significant differences between findings of physical exam and gait parameters. Conclusion: Results of the gait analysis of patients with failed back surgery syndrome showed significant relationship with clinical factors reflecting psychosocial background of patients.
Krabbe's disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hemiplegia, paraplegia, ataxia, cortical blindness, and peripheral neuropathy. This disease is caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme galactocerebroside β- galactosidase(GALC), resulting in demyelination of white matter of brain and peripheral nerve. We reported a 38-year- old female developed a slowly progressive weakness of lower extremities and gait disturbance since age of 10. Neurological examination revealed spastic weakness of both lower extremities, hyperactive deep tendon reflexes and in-trinsic muscle atrophy of both hands and feet. Electrophysiologic study showed uniform demyelinating sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. T2-weighted brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) findings revealed symmetric high signal intensity along the bilateral corticospinal tract. The diagnosis of Krabbe's disease was confirmed by finding of markedly reduced GALC activity in leukocyte. We recommended to consider Krabbe's disease in the diagnosis of patients affecting both central and peripheral nervous system.
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This paper investigates the effect of Social Security dependent benefit provisions on the labor supply of married women aged 25-54. Many provisions of the Social Security program may distort an individual’s work incentive. In particular, the availability of dependent benefits may reduce the net return to work since secondary earners, who are likely to claim benefits based on their spouses’ earnings records, pay the full payroll tax without receiving marginal benefits for additional earnings. I rely on differences in Social Security coverage among husbands by state and sector to identify the impact on the labor supply of their wives. The results show that married women tend to reduce their labor supply when dependent benefits are available, suggesting that changes in the Social Security system that strengthen the relationship between earnings and benefits would have a positive effect on the labor supply of married women.
Copper composite materials have attracted wide attention for energy applications. Especially $CuInS_2$ has a desirable direct band gap of 1.5 eV, which is well matched with the solar spectrum. $CuInS_2$ nanoparticles could make it possible to develop color-tunable $CuInS_2$ nanoparticle emitter in the near-infrared region (NIR) for energy application and bio imaging sensors. In this paper, $CuInS_2$ nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by thermo-decomposition methods. Surface modification of $CuInS_2$ nanoparticles were carried out with various semiconductor materials (CdS, ZnS) for enhanced optical properties. Surface modification and silica coating of hydrophobic nanoparticles could be dispersed in polar solvent for potential applications. Their optical properties were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The structures of silica coated $CuInS_2$ were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
LiCoO2, a cathode material for lithium rechargeable batteries, was prepared using recycled Co3O4. First, cobalt powders were separated from waste WC-Co hard metal with an acid-base chemical treatment. Subsequently, Co3O4 powders were prepared by thermal treatment of the resulting Co(OH)2. By adding a predetermined amount of LiOH •H2O, LiCoO2 was obtained by sintering for 10 h in air at 800 οC. Nano-sized LiCoO2 was obtained by thermal treatment of the LiOH-coated Co3O4 particles at 500 οC for 3 h. LiOH was coated onto the Co3O4 particles by a sonochemical method. The synthesized micro- and nano-LiCoO2 particles using recycled Co precursors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis.