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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the semantic ambiguity of coordination connected by 'and' in English and show a clear explanation for the meaning of the sentence. Two sentences which are connected by 'and' can be divided into the symmetric conjunction and the asymmetric conjunction according to its meaning. Especially, in order to explain the different meaning in the asymmetric conjunctions, we introduce the theory of presupposition and entailment, which provides the solution to the ambiguity in meaning. It can be said that presupposition and entailment can logically explain the meaning of natural language.
We carried out the tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) with a tip that is functionalized with a Aunanoparticle (AuNP, with a diameter of 250 nm). The AuNP tip is fabricated by a direct mechanical pickup of a AuNP from a flat substrate, and the TERS signal from the AuNP tip - organic monolayer - Au thin film (thickness of 10 nm) is recorded. We find that such a AuNP-tip interacting with a thin film routinely yields signal enhancement larger than ~104, which is sufficient not only for local (with detection area of ~200 nm2) Raman spectroscopy, but also the nanometric imaging of organic monolayers within a reasonable acquisition time (~20 minutes/image).
This paper attempts to account for the intrinsic properties of the there-subject, focusing on the discourse functions of the there-subject. In discourse, the there-subject constructions are used as natural answers to each question, while the corresponding NP-subject constructions are unlikely, or marginal expressions. In addition, definiteness NPs can substitute for indefinite NPs as notional subjects in there- constructions with respect to the concept of information. Based on this, I suggest that the subject there should not be a semantically vacuous element and that the subject there implies a piece of information, a speaker's recognized information. This provides evidence to assume that the there-subject may be a linguistic item which fulfills a pragmatic function in that it presupposes the propositional content of presupposed units in discourse. It is also asserted that the there-subject is a presupposition- triggering information marker. This property implies that it would be a pronoun that represents a presupposedly-sentential unit, a presupposition. Consequently, it is maintained that it is an introductory sentential pronoun.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of short-term English camp participation on some affective factors and students’ school activities. The subjects participating in this research totaled 160, including 15 elementary school teachers and 67 students’ parents. The students took part in the 5 night-6 day English camp held by a regional university, financially supported by a regional government. The results are as follows: First, the camp helped to increase students’ interest in English. Second, the camp had a positive effect on enhancing students’ self-confidence in English and the understanding of their teachers’ native English. Third, the majority of the students were satisfied with the camp textbook, facilities, and class organization. When it comes to the effects of short-term English camp on the students’ school activities, the camp also has a great effect on their attitudes towards the classes in school. The students who participated in the camp reportedly showed more active participation in their English class with more self-confidence than in the past. In addition, it was claimed that some students showed better capacity for self-expression in English. In conclusion, the English immersion program proved to be one effective program for students of a rural area’s elementary school, providing them with opportunities to have a good experience in taking native English speakers’ classes.
A continuing controversy in the language learning strategy research is related to language learning strategies’ relationship to English achievements and their influence on what should be taught. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between language learning strategy and English achievements. This research was done through the foreign language component of the College Scholastic Ability Test(SAT) and the grammar test. This study surveyed 98 undergraduate students, who were divided into three groups: low, mid and high. The findings of this study were as follows:(1) It is the compensation strategy which the students use the most among the six language learning strategies. (2) Both memory and cognitive strategies show significant differences in how male and female students use them. As an example, female students use more language learning strategies than male do. (3) Both memory and cognitive strategies show significant differences among the three groups in the foreign language component of the Korean SAT. However, only the cognitive strategy shows significant difference in the grammar subject. (4) A statistically significant correlation was found between the foreign language component of the Korean SAT and grammar achievements. In addition, only the cognitive strategy was significantly related to the foreign language component. Conversely both memory and cognitive strategies were related to the grammar achievement. Finally, this research suggests that the cognitive strategy is the best indicator for predicting English achievement in the foreign language component of Korean SAT and grammar learning.
본 연구에서 사용한 메디아는 규사(SiO2)를 이용하였으며, 표준체를 이용하여 직경 1.5~2.0 mm의 시료를 선별하여 실험에 사용하였다. 규사는 증류수에 충분히 세척한 후 105°C 오븐에서 완전건조시킨 뒤 철코팅을 실시하였다. pH 4, 7, 10으로 조절한 증류수에 각각 7 mg FeCl3/L가 되도록 1% FeCl3 용액을 투입하였으며, pH 조절 시에는 0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH 용액을 사용하였다. 완성된 코팅 용액에 규사를 2시간 동안 침지시켜 표면 코팅이 일어나도록 한 후 105°C 오븐에서 건조하였다. 실험에 사용한 원수는 KH2PO4(Samchun chemical)를 이용하여 5 mg PO43-/L의 농도로 제조하였으며, 철코팅 규사를 투입하고 10, 30, 60, 90분간 반응시킨 후 샘플링한 뒤 Hach method 8048 Ascorbic acid method에 따라 PO43- 농도를 분석하였다.
최근 문제가 되고있는 난분해성 유기화합물은 하수처리장에 유입되어 활성슬러지 등의 생물학적 처리과정 중에서도 분해되지 않고 방류수로 배출되고 있어 사회·환경적 이슈가 되고 있다. 언론 보도에 따르면 수도권 상수원인 팔당호로 흘러드는 경안천과 경기 구리에서 한강과 만나는 왕숙천에서 국립환경연구원이 2015년 8월부터 2016년 5월까지 한강과 지천 8개 지점에서 환경호르몬 예비조사를 실시한 결과 경안천에서 L당 0.068 ㎍, 왕숙천에서 최고 0.04㎍의 Bisphenol A(환경호르몬 물질)와 또 하나의 대표적 환경호르몬 물질인 프탈레이트가 검출됐다고 밝혀 졌다. 내분비계 장애/교란물질(endocrine disruptors, hormonally active agents, endocrine disrupting chemicals, endocrine disrupting compounds(EDCs))은 생체 외부에서 들어와 내분비 기관 안에서 호르몬의 생리 작용을 교란시키는 화합물을 말한다.
This research examined the influence of university ski-class student's two patterns, extra-role behavior divided into citizenship behavior and badness behavior. The class quality conception and learning intention are under the influence of these two patterns. Random sampling was 257 'S' university students. According to SPSS Ver. 12.0, we executed the frequency analysis, reliability analysis, analyzing the situation relationship, factor analysis. According to the AMOS 4.0. we also executed structural equation model analysis to verify the research model. We obtained like following consequence from analysis. First, ski-class student's citizenship behavior has positive influence on the class quality conception. Second, ski-class student's badness behavior has negative influence on the class quality conception. Third, ski-class student's citizenship behavior has positive influence on the learning intention. Forth, ski-class student's badness behavior has negative influence on the learning intention. Firth, ski-class student's class quality conception has positive influence on the learning intention 이 연구는 대학교 스키수업 수강생의 두 가지 유형의 역할외 행동(extra-role behavior)인 시민행동과 불량행동이 수업품질지각과 수강의도에 미치는 영향을 규명하는데 있다. 이를 위해 S대학교 스키수업 수강생을 대상으로 257표본을 추출하였다. 자료 분석은 SPSS Ver. 12.0을 활용하여 빈도분석, 신뢰도분석, 상관관계분석, 요인분석을 실시하였으며, 연구모형을 검증하기 위하여 AMOS 4.0을 활용하여 구조방정식모형분석을 실시하였다. 이상의 연구방법과 절차에 따라 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 첫째, 스키수업 수강생의 시민행동은 수업품질지각에 정(+)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 스키수업 수강생의 불량행동은 수업품질지각에 부(-)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 스키수업 수강생의 시민행동은 수강의도에 정(+)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 넷째, 스키수업 수강생의 불량행동은 수강의도에 유의한 영향을 미치지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 다섯째, 스키수업 수강생의 수업품질지각은 수강의도에 정(+)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다.