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이 논문에서는 1920년대 방정환ㆍ윤석중과 1930년대 강소천ㆍ박영종의 주요동요ㆍ동시에 나타난 아동 관념의 변화를 논제로 삼았다. 그 동안 1900-1920년대 근대아동문학에서 아동 관념이 형성된 과정은 비교적 잘 규명되었지만, 1930년대에 발생한 극적인 변화에 대해서는 거의 논의가 없었다. 이 글에서는 1920년대와 1930년대의 주요 동요ㆍ동시에서 화자의 페르소나 특성과 초점화 방식을 비교ㆍ분석함으로써 어른이 충분히 이해ㆍ인식할 수 있는 속성을 지닌 자에서 미지의 존재로 아동 관념이 변화했음을 검토했다. 먼저 1920년대 방정환과 윤석중의 주요 동요ㆍ동시에서 아동은 어른이 충분히 이해ㆍ인식할 수 있는 자로 형상화되었음을, 어른 화자의 영 초점화와 아동 화자의 내적 초점화를 검토함으로써 살펴봤다. 방정환은 주로 어른 화자의 영 초점화 방식을 활용해서 등장인물인 아동을 전지의 태도로 서술했고, 윤석중은 담론주체인 어른이 충분히 이해ㆍ인식할 수 있는 아동 화자를‘나'로 내세운 내적 초점화 방식을 사용했다. 이에 비해 강소천은 내적 초점화와 영 초점화를 사용했지만 담론주체인 어른이 쉽게 이해ㆍ인식할 수 있는 세속적인 관심ㆍ이익에 무관한 아동을 화자로 설정했고, 박영종은 어른 화자가 작품 밖의 서술자로서 어른의 사회적ㆍ시대적인 이념과 현실적ㆍ관습적ㆍ도덕적인 가치로 쉽게 설명하기 곤란한 낯선 아동의 언행과 그의 세계를 관찰ㆍ이야기하는 외적 초점화를 선택했다. 이러한 1920년대와 1930년대 주요 동요ㆍ동시에 나타난 아동 관념의 변화는 아동을 바라보는 어른의 시각이 극박하게 전도되는 현상이 있었음을 암 시해준다. 아동은 어른의 품 안에서 바깥으로, 어른이 이미 살아왔고 충분히 아는 이전의 자아(전-아(前-我))에서 절대적인 타자로 변화된 것이다. 이런 변화는 물론 인식론적인 것이다. 1930년대의 인간은 자기 안에서 절대적인 타자라는 잉여 혹은 구멍을 본 것이다. This paper researches the change about the idea of children from the children`s verses of 1930s to 1920s. We have been understanding all the time that adult knows children very well for they live together. This idea about children started from 1920s. But the children`s verses of Kang, So-cheon and Park, Yeong-jong, shows new idea of children who is the unknown being. I searched the children`s verses of 1920s of Bang, Jeong-hwan and Yun, Seok-jong. In their verses, adult knows children very well. So Bang, Jeong-hwan used zero focalization. Zero focalization is that adult-speaker is omniscient. Bang, Jeong-hwan`s adult-speaker knows children in the his verses. And Yun, Seok-jong applied children`s persona in his verses. In this time, children`s persona is same to adult. But in the age of 1930s Kang, So-cheon and Park, Yeong-jong saw new idea of children from the children`s verses. First and foremost, the children was the unknown being. Kang, So-cheon did understand that the Knowing adult is difficult. He used children`s persona whom he cannot understand. And Park, Yeong-jong made use of external focalization. The method of external focalization is that adult-speaker looks at children`s behavior and language. The change about the idea of children from the children`s verses of 1930s to 1920s searches the Other of 1920s. The Other is hiding our modern human`s mind. The change is possible for un-hiding the Other of our modern human`s mind.
The water level and temperature properties for the cooling system of potassium titanyl phosphate laser systems were observed. The middle point of the GMR-SV magnetoresistance curve is set in the neighborhood of high magnetic sensitivity (2.8 %/Oe). The experimental results for resistance dependence on water height and temperature showed linear regions with rates of 0.4 Ω/mm and 0.1 Ω/℃, respectively. The proposed results were found to be for adjusting the water level and temperature in the laser cooling system.
Massive identification of differentially expressed patterns has been used as a tool to detect genes that are involved in disease related process. We employed circular single stranded sense molecules as probe DNA for a DNA chip. The circular single stranded DNAs derived from 1,152 unigene cDNA clones were purified in a high throughput mode from the culture supernatant of bacterial transformants containing recombinant phagemids and arrayed onto silanized slide glasses. The DNA chip was examined for its utility in detection of differential expression profile by using cDNA hybridization. Hybridization of the single stranded probe DNA were performed with Cy3- or Cy5-labeled target cDNA preparations at 60℃. Dot scanning performed with the hybridized slide showed 29 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated genes in a cancerous liver tissue when compared to those of adjacent noncancerous liver tissue. These results indicate that the circular single stranded sense molecules can be employed as probe DNA of arrays in order to obtain a precious panel of differentially expressed genes.
( Jong Cheon Park ), ( Sun Gu Hwang ), ( Jong Man Kim ), ( Jin Kon Kim ), ( Jun Hyuk Seo ), ( Duck Kyun Choi ), ( Hee Soo Lee ), ( Hyun Cho ) 대한금속재료학회 ( 구 대한금속학회 ) 2010 ELECTRONIC MATERIALS LETTERS Vol.6 No.3
The etch characteristics of high-k dielectric HfO2 films and the etch selectivity for HfO2 over Si in fluorine-and chlorine-based inductively coupled plasmas have been studied. Fluorine-based ICP discharges produced practical and controllable etch rates and the etched HfO2 surfaces sustained similar or better RMS roughness values than that of the unetched control sample under most of the conditions examined. Anisotropic pattern transfer with a vertical sidewall profile (θ = 97°) was performed in CF4/Ar ICP discharges and no significant change in the dielectric property of HfO2 films was detected. 5Cl2/10O2 ICP discharges produced high etch selectivities > 6.3 (max. ~7.6) for HfO2 over Si.
Viral and non-viral vectors have been used in the delivery of genetic materials into animal cells and tissues, with each approach having pros and cons. Non-viral vectors have many useful merits such as easy preparation, low immunity and size tolerance of a transgene when compared to those of viral vectors. Delivery specificity may be achieved by complex formation between receptor ligands and a non-viral vector. In the present study, non-viral vector systems are investigated in an effort to find a practical delivery means for gene therapy, Receptor-ligand interaction between transferrin-receptor and transferrin was utilized for efficient gene transfer into cancer cells. A plasmid vector, pcDNA3 (LacZ) was ligated with a small duplexed oligo fragment in which a Biotin-VN™ phosphoramidite was placed in the middle of the oligo. The plasmid vector labeled by biotin was then conjugated with biotin-labeled transferrin via streptavidin. This trimeric conjugates were delivered to a hepatoma cell line, HepG2. The delivery efficiency of the trimeric conjugate was 2-fold higher than that of cationic liposomes used for transfection of a plasmid vector. These results demonstrate that a plasmid vector can be efficiently transferred into cells by forming a trimeric complex of plasmid vector-linker-ligand.
The small punch creep test method was developed to complement the demerits of the existing uniaxialcreep test method. A 10×10×0.5mm thin-plate specimen was used in the test, which could help save specimensand testing time. However, theories on the mechanism and significance of the small punch creep testhave not been established clearly yet, and further research should be conducted. In this study, to analyze thebehaviors of the small punch creep test, experiments were conducted using the interrupted small punch creeptest method for five different lifetime fractions under the designed load and temperature using the Ni-base alloy,which is one of the very attractive candidate materials for the future advanced fossil power plant. The stressconcentration part of the specimen, which is critical in analyzing the failure characteristics, was determinedvia FEM, and its effect on the failure mechanism was also studied through a microstructural analysis.
Jong-Ho,Seo,,Jung-Kyung,Moon,,Ja-Hwan,Gu,,Gun-Ho,Jung,,Min-Jung,Seo,,Seong-Hyu,Shin,Dae-Wook,Kim,,Chung-Dong,Hwang,,Hwi-Jong,Lee,,Sung-Hwan,Oh,Weon-Young,Choi,,and,Young-Up,Kwon 忠北大學校 農業科學硏究所 2015 農業科學硏究 Vol.31 No.1
Introduction of double cropping of winter cereals-summer corn is important for increasing grain self-sufficiency in South Korea. Adaptability for cropping seasons, and silage and grain yields of double cropping corn planted in early- and late-June to winter barley were compared with single cropping corn planted normally in late April for 2008 and 2009 in central part of Korea. Physiological maturity of corn planted in June was delayed to late September or mid October while that of single cropping corn planted in April was delayed to late August. There was not much difference in total GDD among planting times. Stover DM of corn was 30% less than that of single cropping corn, but reduction of ear DM or grain yields by later planting due to double cropping was 4% less. Yields of double-cropped corn, particularly in ear DM or grain yield increased as planting density increased to 7.78 × 104 plants ha-1. It is thought that the double cropping of winter barley-corn for silage production could be accepted easily because of better weather condition for corn harvest, higher annual total silage yield and enough time for seedbed preparation for barley. Double cropping with barley silage for corn grain could be practiced without reduction of corn grain. But cropping season of barley grain - corn grain was short because of overlapping between corn maturity and annual barley seeding in mid-October.
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To improve the flame retardant performance of cellulose fibers, fluorine functional groups were introduced under various controlled fluorination conditions. The properties of the fluorinated cellulose fibers were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and a thermogravimetric analysis. The fluorine functional group content in the fluorinated cellulose fibers increased with an increase in the fluorination temperature. However, the fluorination reaction increased the char yield and decreased the rate of degradation of the cellulose fibers by introducing donors, enabling the formation of a thick and compact char layer. Therefore, the flame retardant properties of cellulose fibers were improved following the fluorination treatment.