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      • KCI등재

        고용의 유연안정성(flexicurity)과 근로계약법의 법제화 방향

        김병옥 忠北大學校 法科大學 法學硏究所 2013 法學硏究 Vol.24 No.1

        労働市場をめぐる環境変化により従属労働を理念とする伝統的な労働法体制にかわる新たな労使関係のパラダイムが議論されている. そして, その方向として勤労契約法制の導入, 事業場内での協力的な労使関係の強化, 国家の積極的な雇用政策の実施および雇用の柔軟性の向上などが提示されている. この論文では, 向後, 我が国が勤労契約法を制定するにおいて, 内ㆍ外部労働市場の全体的な観点からみて雇用の柔軟性と安定性の調和のある規制をするためには, どのような内容で法案を構成するのが望ましいか, その方向を提示する. 我が国は, 日本やドイツ及びアメリカなどに比べ, 解雇および非正規勤労に対する規制が厳しくて雇用の量的な調整が容易にならなく, 内部労働市場でも就業規則の不利益変更時の勤労者側の集団的な同意が法定の効力要件となっているなど雇用の質的な調整も困難である. また, 継続的な法律関係である勤労契約の成立ㆍ展開ㆍ終了に関して両当事者の対等な合意を可能とする民事的な法律の不在などの問題点がある. 日本やドイツの雇用ㆍ勤労条件決定制度は, 民法上の解雇の自由を労働法で制限するによって雇用保障の側面で我が国と類似した制度を備え, また, 勤労契約法を制定したか制定しようと努力している. アメリカの制度は, 勤労契約に関する別の法律は存在しなく, 普通法上の任意雇用の原則(employment-at-will doctrine)により外部労働市場を通じて雇用の量的ㆍ質的な調整がなされるのである. 両制度は, 雇用の安定性と柔軟性が調和を成す方向へ, 収斂されている. 勤労契約法の主な内容は, 総則, 勤労契約の成立ㆍ展開ㆍ終了, 及び企業変動時の雇用承継に関する問題であり, 関聯制度として勤労者代表制度と個別紛争解決制度をあげることができるが, その内容をどのように構成するかにより労働市場の柔軟安定性の程度が決定される. 雇用の安定性と柔軟性が調和を成す制度とは, 勤労契約の成立ㆍ展開ㆍ終了の全過程で, 勤労者たちの雇用と勤労条件を安定的に保障するとともに, 企業が経済変動によく適応できるように柔軟性を保障する制度である. 過渡期的な勤労関係と雇用終了過程などでの勤労者たちの雇用保障のための規定や, 就業規則の不利益変更法理の立法化など雇用の柔軟性を向上させる規定は, このような雇用の安定性と柔軟性の均衡という観点から理解できる.

      • KCI우수등재
      • KCI우수등재
      • KCI등재
      • KCI우수등재
      • KCI등재후보

        현대 남성복식에 나타난 Borderless현상

        김병옥,이상례 한국의류산업학회 2003 한국의류산업학회지 Vol.5 No.5

        This study looks upon the borderless phenomenon of genres and at the disintegration of boundaries in fashion, the current 'borderless trend', and analyze modem men's fashion having borderless phenomenon under social changes and disclose current men's fashion. The borderless phenomenon of men's fashion declines traditional image of gender and expresses modern men's images strongly in accordance with social changes: Thus, in modern days, men's images have changed from muscular men having show-off and superiority to women-like men having pearly skin and slender figure. Men's fashion also looked for feminization to let men like make-up, beauty salon, cosmetic surgery and women-like hair style, etc. Men have been also given women's sexy and sensual beauty to put on innerwear as an outerwearization. The Influx and mixing of mutually different cultures is expressed in Hippie, Ethnic, Oriental trends. Mutually opposing country's factors mix so that a new culture is established. Also, the sharing of fashions amongst younger and older generation has occurred for reasons that are similar to the reasons above.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        사람 치은섬유세포와 치주인대섬유모세포에서 Periostin과 S100A2-, S100A4-칼슘결합단백 mRNA의 발현

        김병옥,한경윤,최용선,김세훈,박병기,김흥중,박주철,Kim,,Byung-Ock,Han,,Kyung-Yoon,Choi,,Young-Sun,Kim,,Se-Hoon,Park,,Byung-Gi,Kim,,Heung-Joong,Park,,Joo-Cheol 대한치주과학회 2001 Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science Vol.31 No.1

        Gingival fibroblasts(GF) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts(PDLF) are the major cellular components of periodontal soft connective tissues, but the precise molecular biological differences between these cells are not yet known. In the present study, we investigated the expression of S100A4, S100A2 calcium-binding protein and osteoblast-specific factor 2(OSF-2, Periostin) mRNA in GF and PDLF in vitro through the process of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and Northern blot analysis in each. Human GF and PDLF were isolated from the gingival connective tissue and the middle third of freshly extracted healthy third molars. They were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium(DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum and cells in the third passage were used in the experiments. After extracting total RNA from cultured cells, RT-PCR and Northern analysis were performed using S100A4-, S100A2- and Periostin-specific oligonucleotide primers and subcloned cDNA probes in each. In PT-PCR and Northern analysis, the expression of S100A4 and Periostin mRNA in GF was slightly detectable. Interestingly, the expression of S100A4 and periostin mRNA in PDLF was much higher than that in GF. On the other hand, S100A2 mPNA was highly expressed in both GF and PDLF. Since there was a marked difference of S100A4 and Periostin expression between GF and PDLF in vitro, these data suggest that S100A4 and periostin could be used as a useful marker for distinguishing cultured gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        치주질환 환자의 말초혈액내 glutathione peroxidase와 catalase의 활성 변화에 관한 연구

        김병옥,김찬진,한경윤,Kim,,Byung-Ok,Kim,,Chan-Jin,Han,,Kyung-Yoon 대한치주과학회 1995 Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science Vol.25 No.3

        It has been believed that the increased release of free oxygen radicals ($O_2^-,H_2O_2$, and $OH^-$) might be a factor in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase(GSH-PX) and catalase can protect the tissue damage from the $H_2O_2$. In order to investigate the GSH-PX and catalase activity in the blood plasma and red blood cells(RBCs) of the patients with periodontitis, 19 patients who had good general health, attachment loss more than 6 mm and bone loss were selected as periodontitis group, 7 patients who had severely inflamed gingiva were selected as gingivitis group, and 15 volunteers with good general and periodontal health were selected as normal group. 17 of 26 patients were performed scaling and root planing to reduce the gingival inflammation for gingivitis and periodontitis groups, and were selected as posttreatment group. After blood plasma and RBCs were collected and separated 1 ml of peripheral blood from each subject, GSH-PX activity in blood plasma and RBCs was measured by the same method that Stefan et al. did, and catalase activity in RBCs was measured by the same method that Beers et al. did. The difference of GSH-PX and catalase activity between normal, gingivitis, and periodontitis groups was statistically analyzed by ANOVA with SPSS/PC+ program, and the difference between pretreatment and posttreatment groups was analyzed by Student t-test. The results were as follows : 1. GSH-PX activity in blood plasma was significantly lower in the gingivitis group($0.8683{\pm}0.0658$), periodontitis group($0.7130{\pm}0.1333$) than in the normal group($1.0241{\pm}0.0801$)(p<0.05), and GSH-PX activity in RBCs was significantly lower in the gingivitis groupt. $0.8156{\pm}0.1167$), periodontitis group($0.7533{\pm}0.1185$) than in the normal group($l.1963{\pm}0.2044$)(P<0.05), but there was no statistical significance in the difference of GSH-PX activity in RBCs between the gingivitis group and periodontitis group(p>0.05). 2. Catalase activity in RBCs was siginficantly lower in the periodontitis group($117.34{\pm}35.01$) than in the normal group($l52.38{\pm}32.09$)(p<0.05). 3. GSH-PX activity in blood plasma was significantly increased in the posttreatment groupe $1.0376{\pm}0.2820$) compared to the pretreatment group(0.7608 0.1600) (p<0.05), and GSH-PX activity in RBC was significantly increased in the posttreatment group($1.0421{\pm}0.2330$) compared to the pretreatment group($0.7728{\pm}0.1210$)(p<0.05). 4. There was no statistical significance in the difference of catalase activity in RBCs between the pretreatment group($112.04{\pm}43.65$) and posttreatment group($l33.41{\pm}39.16$)(p>0.05).The results, within the limits of the present experiment, suggest that the lowered activity of GSH-PX and catalase in blood plasma and RBCs may be related with periodontopathogenesis.

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