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We investigated the effect of silicate coating of rice seeds on bakanae disease incidence and the quality of seedlings raised in seedling boxes and transplanted into pots. The silicate-coated rice seed (SCS) was prepared as follows. Naturally infested rice seeds not previously subjected to any fungicidal treatment were dressed with a mixture of 25% silicic acid at pH 11 and 300-mesh zeolite powder at a ratio of 50 g dry seed - 9 mL silicic acid - 25 g zeolite powder. The following nursery conditions were provided : Early sowing, dense seeding in a glass house with mulching overnight and no artificial heating, which were the ideal conditions for determining the effect on the seed. The nursery plants were evaluated for Gibberella. fujikuroi infection or to determine the recovery to normal growth of infected nursery plants in the Wagner pot. Seedlings emerged 2-3 days earlier for the SCS than they did for the non-SCS control, while damping-off and bakanae disease incidence were remarkably reduced. Specifically, bakanae disease incidence in the SCS was limited to only 7.8% for 80 days after sowing, as compared to 91.6% of the non-SCS control. For the 45-days-old SCS nursery seedlings, the fresh weight was increased by 11% and was two times heavier, with only mild damage compared to that observed for non-SCS. Even after transplanting, SCS treatment contributed to a lower incidence of further infections and possibly to recovery of the seedlings to normal growth as compared to that observed in symptomatic plants in the pot. The active pathogenic macro-conidia and micro-conidia were considerably lower in the soil, root, and seedling sheath base of the SCS. In particular, the underdeveloped macro-conidia with straight oblong shape without intact septum were isolated in the SCS ; this phenotype is likely to be at a comparative etiological disadvantage when compared to that of typical active macro-conidia, which are slightly sickle-shaped with 3-7 intact septa. A active intact conidia with high inoculum potential were rarely observed in the tissue of the seedlings treated only in the SCS. We propose that promising result was likely achieved via inhibition of the development of intact pathogenic conidia, in concert with the aerobic, acidic conditions induced by the physiochemical characteristics associated with the air porosity of zeolite, alkalinity of silicate and the seed husk as a carbon source. In addition, the resistance of the healthy plants to pathogenic conidia was also important factor.
지구온난화에 따른 북한지역의 식량작물 생산을 주축으로 하는 이모작의 특성을 평가하기 위해서 온난화의 지역적 특성, 겨울작물의 월동온도, 여름작물의 냉해유발온도 및 이모작 작부양식별 소요적산온도 확보 등 온열지표의 변화를 농업기후지대별로 검토한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 온난화의 지역적 특성 북한의 온난화는 과거(1973-1994)보다 최근(2002-2006) 들어 연간 평균기온 3,271℃ 로 233℃ 나 상승되었고 일평균기온은 8.96℃ 로 0.64℃ 증가되었다. 일평균기온의 지역간 변이는 아한대인 북부내륙고산지대의 삼지연에서 1.06℃ , 온대인 동해안중부지대의 장전에서 12.26℃ 로 큰 변이를 보였다. 2. 겨울작물의 월동가능지역 확대 겨울작물의 월동온도를 기준으로 가을보리+벼 이모작 (-13℃ 이상 지역) 가능지역의 분포는 과거 서해안과 동해안 및 서부중간지대의 일부에서 최근 들어 서부중간지대의 전역으로 확대되었고, 가을밀+벼 이모작(-15℃ ) 가능지역은 과거 서해안과 동해안 및 서부중간지 전역에서 최근 중부산간지대의 전역과 북부산간 일부지역까지 확대되었다. 3. 여름작물의 냉해우려지역 분포 7월중 일평균기온 17℃ 이하의 장해형냉해 유발온도의 경과일수를 기준으로 냉해우려지역의 분포는 북부내륙고산지대에서 21-29일, 동북해안북부지대에서 8-10일, 동북해안남부지대에서 2-5일로 나타났다. 4. 이모작 적산온도 확보의 지역적 분포 월동작물 가을밀과 결합된 여름작물(벼, 옥수수 및 콩) 이모작을 가능케 하는 적산온도 3,150℃ 이상 확보지역의 분포는 북부내륙고산지대를 제외한 북한 전역으로 확대되었고, 여름작물 봄감자와 결합된 벼, 옥수수 및 콩 등 이모작을 가능케 하는 적산온도 2,650℃ 이상 확보지역의 분포는 일부 북부내륙고산지대 혜산지역까지 가능하였다. In order to evaluate the benefits of global warming on the double cropping with staple crops in North-Korea, four aspects such as the increasing rate of air temperature, the wintering temperatures for winter crops, the causing temperature of cool injury to rice and the securing of accumulated temperature for the double cropping in the different agricultural climate zones were analyzed by comparing the differences between the past 22 years from 1973 to 1994 and the recent 5 years from 2002 to 2006. The warming rate in recent daily mean air temperature of 8.96~circC in North Korea was higher by 0.64~circC than that in the past with large regional variations ranging from 1.06~circC in Samjiyeon of northern inland semi-alpine zone to 12.26~circC in Jangjeon of east central coastal zone. With the accumulated temperatures of more than 3,150~circC and 2,650~circC , it was possible to apply the double cropping patterns with winter wheat and for cropping patterns with spring potato, respectively, to the whole region except for the northern inland semi-alpine zone. However, the wintering temperature higher than -15~circC of average daily minimum air temperature of January, cropping patterns were impossible to northern inland semi-alpine zone and most regions of the northern mountainous zone. The days passed by below 17~circC in daily mean air temperature, causing the spikelet sterility at meiotic stage of rice in July, were a lot recorded from 21 to 29 days in northern inland semi-alpine zone and from 2 to 10 days in east-northern coastal zone, respectively. Therefore, a reasonable utilization of heat / temperature resources would relieve the limiting factors in double cropping for stable production of staple crops in North-Korea.
To understand interrelations between water quality and community structure of phytoplankton around the season of red tide outbreak, field surveys were conducted 10 times off the coast of Tongyeong from July to September in 2002. Because of heavy rain for 10 days, environmental conditions were changed and differed from the previous year, sustaining high nutrients and low salinity. During the surveyed period 48 species of 29 genera of phytoplankton were identified, and diatom and dinoflagellate was 51.8% and 38.0%, respectively. At the time of bloom, cell counts of C. polykrikoides were outstanding but the number of species remarkably decreased. There were striking differences in dominant species among research stations before the bloom. Diatoms were the most dominant group in the whole study area in that period. Diversity and evenness index were highest just before outbreak of the red tides(2 Aug, 2002). During the bloom (4 Aug.), it decreased to the lowest value and then began to increase slowly. The result of PCA on water quality vs phytoplankton biomass showed that the land loads of nutrient may be the main cause of summer rally of phytoplankton biomass.
To investigate the effect of soluble silicate zeolite dressing of the rice against bakanae disease, field trial in reclaimed land and in vitro were carried out. The coated rice seeds (SCS) which were dressed with the mixture of 25% silicic acids (binder), and the zeolite (coating powder). In wet direct seeding, uniform scattering of rice seeds on the soil surface and the better seedling establishment were shown in SCS treatment plots. The incidence of bakanae disease began from the mid tillering stage toward the heading stage. Around heading stage, the ratio of infected tillers reached its highest point by 9.9% in non-SCS treatment plots. While, in SCS treatment plots, the ratio of infected tillers was no more than 0.01%. The vitality of the pathogenic fungi of bakanae disease in the SCS and non-SCS samples were assessed. Samples were incubated for one week keeping proper humidity at 30°C after inoculated with panicles of infected rice plants from experimental field plots. In non-SCS treatment, pinkish colonies were formed on the grain surface of panicle of infected plants, and mycelium, macro-conidia and micro-conidia were developed actively inside part of infected grain inoculated. While in SCS treatment, micro-conidia and mycelium were not survived and the growth of macro-conidia, mycelia were greatly inhibited and withered. Based on the results, it is concluded that the environmental friendly control of bakanae disease by use of SCS is possible and soluble silicate can be applied as agents for replacement of seed disinfection. 벼 직파재배에서 볍씨에 피복재인 지오라이트와 결합재인 수용성규산(25%)으로 혼합 코팅된 “규산코팅볍씨(SCS)” 의 활용에 의한 키다리병 억제효과를 구명하고자 서해안간척지유래토양에서 담수표면직파된 포장시험과 아울러시험포장에서 발병된 키다리병 이병주를 접종원으로 하여변온조건(주야 18~26°C)과 항온조건(30°C)에서 실내시험으로 수행한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 담수직파에서 규산코팅볍씨 처리구는 무코팅볍씨 처리구에서 보다 입모분포상태가 균일하였고 분얼중기경 건물생산량이 13% 증가되었다. 2. 무코팅볍씨 처리구에서는 분얼중기 경부터 키다리병이 발생되어 종자감염을 일으키는 출수기 경에 9.9% 의 심한 이병경율을 보인 반면에 규산코팅볍씨 처리구에서는 분얼중기까지 거의 발생이 없다가 출수기 무렵에 0.01%의 극미한 발생으로 99.9%의 방제가를 보였다. 이병주의 줄기마디와 이삭영화 감염부위에서는 전형적인 키다리병균의 소형분생자와 대형분생자 및 균사체 등이 확인되었다. 3. 무코팅볍씨와 규산코팅볍씨를 30°C 항온기에 각각 치상하고 시험포장에서 발병된 이병주의 이삭을 2주일간 접종 처리한 결과 무코팅볍씨 처리구의 접종이삭종자에서는 종자표면에 균총이 형성되었고 종자내에는 소형분생자, 대형분생자 및 균사 발육이 왕성하게증식된 반면에 규산코팅볍씨 처리구에서는 소형분생자와 균사는 생존하지 못하였고 대형분생자와 균사체발육은 크게 위축되었다. 이상의 결과로 규산코팅볍씨의 활용으로 직파재배 시 종자소독 없이도 친환경적 키다리병 방제가 가능하며, 향후종자소독제로의 개발도 가능할 것으로 판단되었다.
The land area of the China is so great as 960 million ha while the farming rand is only 1.0% of this. Thus, the average individual farm size is 0.09ha (0.44㏊ per farm household) winch has been caused a shortage of food supply to the people. This means that there is more developmental potential in agriculture. Therefore, the China government of central as well as provincial has recently concentrated on an establishment of the comprehensive development in agriculture at the region of the plain. Major developmental programmes are 1) an improvement of agricultural environment such as expansion of farming land, improvement of soil fertility, establishment of forest against wind, water management, 2) development of improved crop variety, and 3) extension of high yielding technologies in agriculture. To successfully achieve these programme in the near future each province has been entirely proceeded to the exhibition of research outputs and award systems which would give rise to increase of agricultural productivity and high competition to a world market of agricultural products.
Organic substances are released from phytoplankton cells during all phases of growth. The type and amounts of organic substance excreted and the effects of nutrient limitation are often highly species-specific. Dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides grown in batch culture produced an exopolysaccharide. Exopolysaccharide and intracellular polysaccharide concentrations increased as C. polykrikoides cultures progressed from exponential phase, through stationary phase, to declining phase. In the exponential phase, the concentration of exopolysaccharide was relatively low, but in the stationary phase, it showed a rapid increase which seemed to coincide with the depletion of nitrate from the medium. Of the 20 amino acids analyzed, proline dominated in the organic matter of all cultures ranging from 48.2 to 79.9 nmol L?1, and constituting the 20-90% of total amino acids, and followed by histamine varying from 0.7 to 47.5 nmol L?1. Leucine and cysteine were also abundant in the stationary phase. The release rates of exopolysaccharide and intracellualr polysaccharide were higher the end of stationary phase than in the exponential phase. Exopolysaccharide concentration per cell was more than two times higher during the end of stationary phase than that in exponential phase. C. polykrikoides produced extracellular polysaccharide at a rate of 47.04 pg cell?1 day?1.