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Stress rupture behavior of Mar-M247LC alloy was investigated in the temperature range of 760℃-980℃. The amount of residual eutectic γ' was varied by controlling the solution treating time at 1260℃. As the solution treating time at 1260℃ was increased, the amount of residual eutectic γ' was reduced and the stress-rupture life was increased. Especially the increase of rupture lives are more pronounced in the 760℃/587MPa condition than in the 982℃/152MPa condition. In the 760℃/587MPa rupture is occured by both transgranular and intergranular mechanism. It was observed that the small grains were disappeared during solution treatment because of the reduced amount of residual eutectic γ' associated with the increased solution treating time, which was considered as one of the barriers for the migration of grain boundaries. The improved stress-rupture life was attributed to the disappearance of the isolated small grains as well as the reduction of the amount of residual eutectic γ' which acted as early crack initiation sites.
Purpose: The cDNA microarray provides a powerful alternative with an unprecedented view in monitoring geneexpression levels and leads to discoveries of regulatory pathways involved in complicated biological processes. Our aim is to explore the different gene-expression patterns in gastric adenocarcinomas. Materials and Methods: By using a cDNA microarray representing 4,600 cDNA clusters, we studied the expression profiling in 10 paired gastric adenocarcinoma samples and in adjacent noncancerous gastric tissues from the same patients. Alterations in the gene-expression levels were confirmed by Vsing Northern blots and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) in all of 4 randomly selected genes. Results: Genes those were expressed differently in cancer ous and noncancerous tissues were identified. 44 (of which 26 were known) and 92 (of which 43 were known) genes or cDNA were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in more than $80\%$ of the gastric adenocarcinoma samples. In cancer ous tissues, genes related to gene/protein expression, cellcycle regulation, and metabolism were mostly up-regulated whereas genes related to the oncogene/tumor suppressor gene, cell structure/motility, and immunology were mostly down-regulated. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR results for the four genes we tested were consistent with the array findings. Conclusions: These results provide not only a new molecular basis for understanding the biological properties of gastric adenocarcinomas but also a useful resource for future development of therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for gastric adenocarcinomas.
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Financial Investment Services and Capital Market Act (“the Act”) was newly enacted on August 3, 2007 and has been effective from February 4, 2009, which was established for the purpose of changing our capital market dramatically by means of bringing in the merits of the capital market of advanced countries. The details on major changes are as follows; Firstly, the core of the Act is that the principle of comprehensiveness was selected as a major standard of the Act. The definition named financial investment instrument (“FIS”) was introduced to make the scope of the financial instruments to be applied to the Act comprehensively. The FIS consists of three(3) items such as securities, exchange-trade derivatives and over-the-counter derivatives. Securities are composed of six(6) items like debt instrument, equity securities, beneficiary certificates, investment contract securities, derivatives-combined securities and securities depositary receipts. Secondly, the Act was categorized by six(6) Financial Investment Businesses such as investment trading business, investment brokerage business, collective investment business, investment advisory business, discretionary investment business and trust business. And investors was categorized by ordinary investor and professional investor. Based on the combination of such categories, each financial function could be specialized, and the requisites of entry to serve each financial function was established. Thus, in order to serve another financial function, the requisite of entry required shall be met. Thirdly, the financial investment business entity(“FIBE”) could operate all six(6) businesses in case he meets the requisite of entry. On the other hand, so as to solve the issue of conflict of interest arising from such addition of business, several principles including, but not limited to, cut-off of exchanges of information was stipulated in the Act. Fourthly, the articles for the protection of investors, especially, an ordinary investor was reinforced through introducing the principles such as the principle of prohibition on undue recommendation, the principle of suitability and explanation. The comments necessary for changing and enforcing the Act more desirably are as follows; Firstly, the role of supervisory authorities shall be fortified to prohibit misuse of the Act, by which we could not undergo the international financial crisis which the developed countries now has undergone. Also, so as not to undergo any kind of international financial crisis to be happened in the future, the establishment of international financial regulation to be applied to and bind upon almost all of the countries would be essential. Secondly, it would be substantial to protect investors, especially, an ordinary investor from the behavior that the FIBE try to gain more money under the sacrifice of investors. Article 44, 49 and 147 of the Act serve those purpose. Thirdly, it would be essential to maintain the impartiality of the credit appraisal. Therefore, it would be critical for a credit appraisal company(“CAC”) to appraise objectively, by dint of paying the appraisal fee to CAC, not by the FIBE but by the third party to whom the FIBE shall deposit the appraisal fee. Finally, the development of capital market shall keep pace with 1st industry and 2nd industry through which the capital market would grow soundly and harmoniously.
Recrystaltization at the surface of specimen was observed during heat treatment due to lathe machining or shot peening. In order to investigate the effect of surface recrystallization on creep properties, creep test was conducted at 1050℃ under a stress of 123MPa. Creep rupture lives were compared among DS specimen without surface recrystallized layer, specimens with surface recrystallized layer of 80∼100㎛ and 160-180㎛. Creep rupture time of DS specimen without surface recrystallized layer was longer than DS specimen with surface recrystallized layer (160-180㎛), which was reduced more than the specimen with surface recrystallized layer(80-100㎛). Microcracks were formed around γ´ denuded zone.