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        • KCI등재

          『서유기』 車遲國 도술시합의 불교적 독해

          강경구(Kang, Kyong-Koo)(姜鯨求) 대한중국학회 2019 중국학 Vol.69 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          『서유기』는 삼장, 孫悟空 일행이 서천여행을 하면서 겪는 81가지 고난을 주된 내용으로 하고 있다. 이 81難은 완전한 진리의 성취에 이르기까지 거치게 되는 점차적 단계를 상징하는 것으로서 각각의 에피소드는 자기완결성과 전후맥락성을 동시에 갖추고 있다. 그래서 출발에서 도착에 이르기까지의 맥락적 관점에서 보면 전체 81난은 하나의 큰 원형고리를 형성하며, 자기완결적 관점에서 보면 각 에피소드는 전체의 큰 고리에 꿰어지는 작은 원형고리들이 된다. 그것은 중국선에서 완성된 돈오선과 점수선의 도리를 하나로 통합하여 수용한 결과로 보인다. 본고에서는 각각의 에피소드가 자기완결성을 갖고 어떻게 전체적인 전후맥락성을 구성하는지를 살펴보고자 한다. 그것은 車遲國의 도술시합이 中道, 對法 등과 같은 불교적 진리와 실천을 어떻게 비유적으로 형상화하고 있는지를 해석하는 방식을 취하게 될 것이다. The Journey to the west(西遊記) mainly deals with the 81 trials, that the monk Xuanzang(玄奘) s travel group suffers from the traveling to India. These 81 trials symbolize the gradual steps that lead to the attainment of perfect truth, each episode having both self-completeness and contextuality. So from departure to arrival, the whole 81 trials form a large circular ring, and each episode becomes a small circular ring that fits into the big ring of the whole. It seems to be the result of accepting the two types of Chinese Zen: Zen of sudden-enlightenment & Zen of Gradual practices. In this paper, we will analyze the magic matches in the Che-Chi country(車遲國). It includes raining matche, meditation matche, clairvoyance matche, and the matche of dead and Resurrection. In the Che-Chi country the monk, the three taoists, and the king obsessed with me and mine and are losing their balance of midway(中道). Sun wu kong(孫悟空) breaks down their obsession through the series of matches. First, Sun Wu Kong save the monks by breaking the carts. and he throw out the Statue of god into the toilet In order to break down the error of the ultimate sublime dimension and existence. This is the way of emphasize relativity(對法) of Hui-Neng(惠能). In the raining matche it teaches the way of put down obsession of the self, in the meditation matche it teaches the way of stop the assimilation with a subject, in the clairvoyance matche it teaches that all things have no substance, and finally in the matche of dead and resurrection it teaches that life appears in various forms.

        • KCI등재

          손오공과 諸神의 전투에 대한 불교적 독해

          강경구(Kang, Kyong-Koo) 대한중국학회 2017 중국학 Vol.60 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          이 논문은 손오공과 제신들 간의 전투에 대한 불교적 독해를 주제로 한다. 서유기는 당 玄奘의 구법여행을 그 소설창작의 모티프로 삼고 있는 바, 이로 인해 전체 여정은 물론 각장의 이야기와 주제의식 또한 현장의 불교적 실천과 긴밀한 친연성을 갖고 있는 것으로 이해 된다. 또한 서유기는 다양한 불교적 사상들을 문학적 형상으로 녹여내고 통합한 현장으로 이해될 필요가 있다. 孫悟空의 형상 또한 그 탄생, 도술학습, 諸神과의 전투, 서천 여행과정에 서의 역할 등에 있어서 일관된 불교적 메시지가 발견된다. 요마에서 성인으로 승화하는 그전체적 여정은 유식의 轉識得智의 경로를 밟고 있으며, 각 장의 모험담은 空性의 깨달음이라는 주제의식의 구현을 지향하고 있다. 이러한 맥락에서 손오공의 형상과 역할을 고찰한다면 서유기에 대해 보다 풍부하면서도 일관된 이해에 도달할 수 있을 것으로 생각된다. 본고에 서는 손오공과 제신의 전투를 자아의 집착과 그 해결을 위한 노력으로 보고 그 의미를 천착 해보고자 한다. 그것은 불교에서 三法印으로 규정하는 無常ㆍ苦ㆍ無我라는 삶의 본질에 대한 부정으로 시작되어, 그 집착에 대한 관찰로 이어지며, 자아의 공성에 대한 발견으로 일단락된 다. Journey to the West is a novel that described a journey toward sublimation of mind, where distinct Buddhistic symbol and message are found. Journey to the West takes Master Monk Xuanzang’s sermon journey as the motif of the novel creation. Due to this, it is understood that the story of each chapter and subject consciousness have a close affinity with Buddhistic practice of the site. Particularly, Dharmalaksana and Prajna belong to the consistent subject consciousness that leads the whole story of Journey to the West. Besides, practices of various Chinese Buddhism are taken as the content, accordingly, Journey to the West is necessary to melt various Buddhistic ideologies in literary figure and be understood as the united site. However, due to the excellent achievement of literary embodiment, Buddhistic subject consciousness seemed to be concealed. Study on Buddhistic subject consciousness on Journey to the West proceeded considering this point is not rare in domestic and overseas, and the researcher also proceeded consideration related to this. Image of Sun Wukong also shows a consistent Buddhistic message in respect of the birth, Taoist art learning, battle with gods, and the role in journey to the West, etc. The overall journey from Demon to saints takes the route of Dharmalaksana’s Turn to wisdom, adventure story of each chapter aims for the realization of the subject consciousness of realization of Emptiness. In this context, when considering the image and role of Sun Wukong, more abundant and consistent understanding to Journey to the West can be attained. This research intended to view the battle between Sun Wukong and gods as the obsession of the self and the efforts for the settlement and investigate the significance. When surveying beforehand, battle between Sun Wukong and gods begins from the obsession of the self, reveals feebleness of the efforts to suppress and control it, then suggests the way of observation as the solution. That begins the denial of the essence of life, i.e. Impermanenceㆍpainㆍanatman, defined as Three marks of existence of Buddhism, continues to the observation of that obsession, then concludes as the discovery of siege of the self. Above all, this research begins discussion by investigating the way the denial of current state of life appears.

        • 高行健의 《八月雪》과 《六祖壇経》

          姜鯨求(Kang Kyong-Koo) 동북아시아문화학회 2005 동북아시아문화학회 국제학술대회 발표자료집 Vol.- No.-

          Gaoxingjian(高行健), winner of the Nobel Prize in 2000, has been recognized as a writer of having a rich oriental color in his works" structure and content. In particular, the factors of Zen"s thought in his works need to be emphasized. His major work, Soul Mountain(靈山), which brought the decisive opportunity of the Nobel Prize depends on the correct view of zen"s values. This tendency also remains in the dramas which he has mostly written. Researchers considering his works to contain a new genre considered to be drama. Gaoxingjian"s Snow in August(八月雪) is a work which most represents such a godlike feature. In Snow in August, he modernly explains The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch(六祖壇經) a main scripture of Chinese Zen. This study not only focus on contents and structural features of Snow in August, but also the differences between it and its original work, The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriach, especially. That is why his creative behavior is remarkable. First of all, he seems to have chosen a method that adds his shadow to each character in shaping characters. It is understood that he did not attempt to faithfully reproduce Huineng(慧能) who existed historically but himself through Huineng. On that basis, I analysed the story as follows: Firstly, the image of Gaoxingjian is overlapped with that of Huineng. For example, when Huineng refused an invitation of the king, there is a scene of Xuejian(薛簡), a messenger, when he held a daggar, Huineng pushed his neck. Between Huineng and the king there had been a friendly relationship for a long time. But Gaoxingjian, which had experienced the dictatorship power of Maozedong(毛澤東), handled the relationship between Huineng and the king as hostile. It is thought that is why Gaoxingjian wanted to describe a free human. Secondly, the experience of Gaoxingjian is reflected on the shape of Wujincang(無盡藏). Wujincang is a Buddhist nun who put only her name on the original scripture. But Gaoxingjian gave Wujincang the role of the second heroine. Wujincang created by Gaoxingjian is a person of sorrow which can be understood by other men. It was what a great person like Huineng can not resolve. It might have been a meaningless thing to get to The Other Shore in such a situation. So to speak, it was a terribly demanding thing for Wujincang to lift women" restraint before his existential determination. Gaoxingjian experienced a compulsive control by the dictatorship power. He understood women"s situation based on his experience. That is, women are always relativized by men as shunned by authority. Thirdly, the world which the writer imagined is represented through zen Masters" shapes. In Snow in August, Graxingjian enjoys the interaction among zen Masters in a place. On the other hand, the place seems to be lively, but disorderly, noisy and meaningless. He understands it is the gods" world, the society which he dreamed of. That is, he wanted to show a society which is seemingly disorderly but very lively, reflecting each voice, It is difficult to look for such a world in modern china.

        • KCI등재

          高行健 소설의 소통, 우정, 그리고 소설형식

          姜鯨求(Kang Kyong-Koo) 대한중국학회 2006 중국학 Vol.27 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        • KCI등재후보
        • KCI등재

          『서유기』의 에피소드 배치에 대한 불교적 독해 : 雙叉嶺과 兩界山의 에피소드를 중심으로

          강경구(Kang, Kyong-Koo)(姜鯨求) 대한중국학회 2020 중국학 Vol.73 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          본고는 化生寺→弘福寺→法門寺→鞏州城→河州衛→福原寺→雙叉嶺→鎭山太保劉伯欽→兩界山[五行山]에 이르는 『西遊記』 출발단계의 에피소드 배치가 유식 5위의 최초 2단계에 해당한다는 점을 고찰한 논문이다. 삼장의 중국 내 여행은 유식 수행의 資糧位, 그중에서도 十住에 해당한다. 그것은 삼장의 여행이 주로 숙박하여 묵는 일[住]로 묘사되어 있다는 점 등 몇 가지 소설적 장치의 고찰을 통해 확인된다. 삼장의 雙叉嶺에서의 체험은 유식의 자량위, 그중에서도 十行에 해당한다. 그것은 쌍차령에서 만난 진산태보가 십행의 善伏 삼매를 성취한 功德林 보살의 형상으로 해석된다는 점을 포함한 몇 가지 비유와 상징에 대한 고찰을 통해 확인된다. 삼장의 쌍차령 천도재 이야기와 兩界山 직전까지의 여정은 자량위, 그중에서도 十廻向에 해당한다. 또한 양계산과 양계산 직후의 체험은 加行位의 각 단계에 상응한다는 점을 살펴보았다. 그것은 손오공이 양계산을 뚫고 나오기 전에 삼장 일행을 동쪽으로 7∼8리 훨씬 넘게 거꾸로 돌아가도록[十廻向] 하는 점 등의 소설적 장치에 대한 고찰을 통해 확인된다. The Journey to the west(西遊記) mainly deals with the 81 trials, that the monk Xuanzang(玄奘) s travel group suffers from the traveling to India. These 81 trials symbolize the gradual steps that lead to the attainment of perfect truth, each episode having both self-completeness and contextuality. So from departure to arrival, the whole 81 trials form a large circular ring, and each episode becomes a small circular ring that fits into the big ring of the whole. It seems to be the result of accepting the two types of Chinese Zen: Zen of sudden-enlightenment & Zen of Gradual practices. In this paper, we will analyze the magic matches in the Che-Chi country(車遲國). It includes raining matche, meditation matche, clairvoyance matche, and the matche of dead and Resurrection. In the Che-Chi country the monk, the three taoists, and the king obsessed with me and mine and are losing their balance of midway(中道). Sun wu kong(孫悟空) breaks down their obsession through the series of matches. First, Sun Wu Kong save the monks by breaking the carts. and he throw out the Statue of god into the toilet In order to break down the error of the ultimate sublime dimension and existence. This is the way of emphasize relativity(對法) of Hui-Neng(惠能). In the raining matche it teaches the way of put down obsession of the self, in the meditation matche it teaches the way of stop the assimilation with a subject, in the clairvoyance matche it teaches that all things have no substance, and finally in the matche of dead and resurrection it teaches that life appears in various forms.

        • KCI등재

          『서유기(西遊記)』의 화과산(花果山)에 대한 불교적 독해

          강경구 ( Kyong Koo Kang ) 동아시아불교문화학회 2015 동아시아불교문화 Vol.0 No.24

          본고는 『서유기』의 花果山이 갖는 의미에 대한 불교적 질문과 그에대한 응답의 흔적들이다. 花果山에 대한 묘사에는 비유와 상징이 중층적으로 발견되는데, 그것은 그 공간을 신비화하는 수준에 머물지 않는다. 이에 『서유기』의 전체 이야기를 감안하여 花果山이 갖는 의미를 탐색해보고자 하였다. 손오공의 고향으로서 花果山은 둘로 나뉘는 경계선으로서의 의미를 갖는다. 하나에서 둘, 셋, 만물로 확산해나갈 수도 있고, 만물에서 하나로 수렴해 들어올 수도 있다. 무엇보다 花果山에 대한 묘사는 하나와 만물의 둘 아닌 중도의 이치를 다양한 비유와 상징으로 드러내보여 준다. 손오공은 몇 번에 걸쳐 花果山에 귀환하는데 그 중 중요한 의미를 갖는것이 두 번 있다. 첫 번 째의 귀환은 수보리 존자에게서 도술을 배운 뒤 일어난다. 이 때 손오공은 花果山에 귀환하여 무상, 고, 무아의 삼법인에 반하는 만행을 저지른다. 그것은 궁극적 실체성에 대한 집착으로 이해된다. 두 번째의 귀환은 모양을 바꿔 나타나는 백골정 요괴를 거듭 때려죽인 뒤 일어난다. 삼장은 팔계의 주장에 움직여 손오공을 쫓아내는데, 손오공은 花果山에 귀환하여 자아왕국을 재건한다. 이것은 色에 집착하는팔계와 공성에 집착하는 손오공 간에 일어나는 갈등을 비유한다. 그것은 팔계와 손오공이 각기 집착을 내려놓고 둘이 함께 하는 것으로 해소된다. 『서유기』에는 유ㆍ불ㆍ도의 동시적 긍정이 발견되고, 불교의 경우만가지고 보더라도 근본불교, 대승불교, 밀교, 선불교는 물론 반야ㆍ화엄ㆍ법화의 도리에 대한 통섭의 의도가 뚜렷하다. ‘불교적 독해’라는 본고의 논제는 이러한 점을 고려하여 일정한 경향성을 뜻하는 말로 쓰였다. This paper reviews the meaning of mountain of flowers and fruits as portrayed in Journey to the West, by looking at it from a Buddhist perspective. The descriptions of mountain of Flowers and fruits carry layers of analogy and symbolism that go beyond giving the space a mysterious feel. As such, this paper seeks to review the meaning of mountain of flowers and fruits by considering the overall narrative of Journey to the West. Mountain of flowers and fruits are meaningful in that it is the border that divides two worlds and is also the hometown of Monkey King . It is a place where things increase from one to two, three and infinity, but also a place where infinity is boiled down to one. Above all, the descriptions of mountains of flowers and fruits show various analogies and symbolisms used to portray the principle of the middle ground and moderation. Monkey King returns to mountains of flowers and fruits on several occasions, but among them there are two times when the return carries special meaning. The first return happens after learning magic skills from Subhuti. At this point, after his return, Monkey King commits the atrocity of going against the three principles that rule mankind, which is the Zen state and the sense of losing oneself to become one with the universe. This is understood as his obsession over ultimate specificity. The second return happens after beating to death the White Bone Demon that keeps transforming himself. Monk Xuanzang shoos Monkey King after being persuaded by Eight-Commandment Pig, and Monkey King returns to the mountain of flowers and fruits to rebuild his Self kingdom. This is a symbolism referring to the conflict between Eight-Commandment Pig who obsesses over carnal desires and Monkey King who obsesses over titles. The conflict is resolved when both sides move away from their obsessions. The Journey to the West shows simultaneous nodding to and acceptance of Confucius ideas, Buddhist concepts and Zen ideas. Even with Buddhist ideas, the various branches including Hinayana Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhism, Vajrayana, Zen Buddhism and the Prajna, Avatamsaka and Tiantai Sect are clearly incorporated together. The topic of a Buddhist reading takes this into account to refer to a certain tendency found in the literary work.

        • KCI등재

          부정과 비판과 배격의 논리, 『선문정로』 수증론의 한 특징

          강경구 ( Kang Kyong-koo ) 동아시아불교문화학회 2021 동아시아불교문화 Vol.- No.46

          『선문정로』는 참선 수행의 지침서이다. 직접 선수행을 하는 입장에서 이 책을 대한다면 어떤 방식의 이해와 적용이 가능할 것인가? 이것이 본고의 기본적 문제의식이라 할 수 있다. 『선문정로』는 다양한 인용문을 통해 그 주장의 논거로 삼고자 한다. 이 과정에서 성철스님은 생략, 추가, 변환 등의 방식으로 인용문에 개입하기도 한다. 이러한 인용문에의 개입은 필연적으로 원래적 맥락과의 어긋남을 수반한다. 흥미로운 것은 그 맥락적 어긋남이 일어나는 지점에서 수행과 깨달음에 대한 새로운 초점 맞추기의 시도가 발견된다는 점이다. 『선문정로』에서 몇 개의 장은 부정과 비판과 배격의 주제 의식을 그대로 노출하는 방식으로 장의 제목이 설정되어 있다. 제13장 해오점수, 제14장 분파분증, 제15장 다문지해, 제19장 소멸불종이 그것이다. 이것은 해오를 중시하는 견해, 지위 점차를 통해 한 단계씩 올라가 깨달음에 이르고자 하는 기획, 불교적 지식의 축적과 지해의 증장을 숭상하는 풍조, 스스로 깨달음을 선언하는 대망어가 횡행하던 선문의 병통에 대한 비판과 치유방안을 제시하고 자 했던 집필 의도와 밀접한 관련이 있다. 이들 장의 설법에는 이러한 단절과 극복의 실천이라는 주제의식이 유독 두드러지게 나타난다. 이에 해당 장들에 대한 고찰을 통해 어떠한 주제의식을 어떻게 전달하고 있는지 구체적으로 살펴보고자 한다. The best way to Sŏn(『선문정로』) is a guidebook of Sŏn Meditation. How can you understand and apply this book from the standpoint of Meditation practice? This is the problem consciousness of this paper. It is based on the argument through various quotations. Here, the monk Songchol intervenes in the quotation by omitting, adding, or converting. Intervention in these quotations inevitably entails a deviation from the original context. Interestingly, at the point where the contextual misalignment occurs, an attempt to focus on meditation and enlightenment is found. Some of the chapters in this book are titled in a way that directly reveals the subject consciousness of negation, criticism, and rejection. The line of Realization of the understanding level & Gradual improvement(Chapter13), The line of Partial breakdown & Partial enlightenment(Chapter14), The line of Hear a lot & Knowing well(Chapter15), Extinction of Buddha seed(Chapter19). In Chapter13 monk Songchol Criticize such thoughts to value Realization of the understanding level & Gradual improvement. In Chapter14 monk Songchol Criticize such Planning to gradually go up one step and reach enlightenment. In Chapter15 monk Songchol Criticize a trend to venerate the accumulation of Buddhist knowledge and the increase of intelligence. These are intended to present criticism and cure measures for the disease of the Korean Sŏn sect.

        • KCI등재

          지하철 한글 역명의 중국어 표기에 대한 고찰

          강경구(Kang Kyong Koo,姜鯨求) 대한중국학회 2015 중국학 Vol.51 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Seoul Metro has set up a principle of liberal translation on naming its stations that it will use thematic role in naming stations in Korean to reveal the origin of the place name and is abiding by the principle. Busan Humetro also applies the same principle. In the view that it can complement the broad principle of transliteration, the thematic role can be fully considered and used in parallel as well. Especially, when thematic role is used, the place name in Chinese characters should be considered first. Furthermore, accurate understanding on the origin of the place name should be sought. However, when looking at closely, there are mistakes in many cases, such as that, the existing Chinese character place names are not considered in thematic role, or the origin of place names are misunderstood, or Chinese characters are wrongly applied. In case of transliteration, there is no independent standard on writing Chinese characters for Korean pronunciation. Therefore, a definite implementation scheme which fully reflects 「Template(英??音表)」should be sought. Particularly, It should be considered that the common noun at the rear should be thematically translated or its original pronunciation be written as is. In common nouns at the rear which reveal the natural topography, there are many cases that the common nouns at the rear have lost the topographic informativity. Therefore, it would be appropriate to do transliteration for the whole place name in case the common noun at the rear does not contain the information of the relevant region. However, looking at the actual translation examples, the place names containing the old topographical information were thematically translated uniformly, for example, 나루(ferry)→渡口, 다리(bridge)→橋, 샛강(side river)→江, 내(stream)→川, 못(pond)→池, etc. In the cases that the station name contains the needed information, for example, 성당못(Catholic church pond)→聖堂池 in Daegu Subway, the thematic role is necessary, however, it should be noted that there is a possibility of conveying unnecessary information, like, 여의나루(Yeouinaru)→汝矣渡口. In contrast to this, for the cases of public offices or institutions, it is basically necessary to transfer into corresponding offices or institutions in China. Presently, it is written literally as 시청(city hall)→市? or 구청(borough office)→??, but a way to change this to 市政府, or?政府 should be considered. It would also be proper to write 검찰청(Public Prosecutors' Office) to ?察院, rather than ?察?. In cases that the Chinese character writings are not commonly used, like 政府?舍, It would be also appropraite to try to find words which are commonly used, like 政府?公大?, rather than writing as ?舍. However, for the institutions like ???事堂, which does not exist in China, should be treated as exceptions. It would be awkward to translate it into 人民大?堂 overly. Because their roles are completely different each other. On the other hand, in case of writing an English word place name into Chinese, it is necessary to judge whether it is a common noun or a proper noun. If it is a common noun, thematic role would be appropriate, and if it is a proper noun, transliteration should be done. The most problematic cases are when Chinese characters are written together while the English word place names are not translated; Centum City and Renecite Station fall under this category. For Centum City, translated words such as 仙登城 or 仙?城, which have transliteration and thematic role together, could be suggested, and for Renecite, transliterations such as 日?西德 or 日?西特 could be suggested. In translating Chinese words, it is particularly important to have uniformity whether it is by transliteration or by thematic role. For the case of 버스터미널(bus terminal), it would be embarrasing to write diff

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