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Gaoxingjian(高行健), winner of the Nobel Prize in 2000, has been recognized as a writer of having a rich oriental color in his works" structure and content. In particular, the factors of Zen"s thought in his works need to be emphasized. His major work, Soul Mountain(靈山), which brought the decisive opportunity of the Nobel Prize depends on the correct view of zen"s values. This tendency also remains in the dramas which he has mostly written. Researchers considering his works to contain a new genre considered to be drama. Gaoxingjian"s Snow in August(八月雪) is a work which most represents such a godlike feature. In Snow in August, he modernly explains The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch(六祖壇經) a main scripture of Chinese Zen. This study not only focus on contents and structural features of Snow in August, but also the differences between it and its original work, The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriach, especially. That is why his creative behavior is remarkable. First of all, he seems to have chosen a method that adds his shadow to each character in shaping characters. It is understood that he did not attempt to faithfully reproduce Huineng(慧能) who existed historically but himself through Huineng. On that basis, I analysed the story as follows: Firstly, the image of Gaoxingjian is overlapped with that of Huineng. For example, when Huineng refused an invitation of the king, there is a scene of Xuejian(薛簡), a messenger, when he held a daggar, Huineng pushed his neck. Between Huineng and the king there had been a friendly relationship for a long time. But Gaoxingjian, which had experienced the dictatorship power of Maozedong(毛澤東), handled the relationship between Huineng and the king as hostile. It is thought that is why Gaoxingjian wanted to describe a free human. Secondly, the experience of Gaoxingjian is reflected on the shape of Wujincang(無盡藏). Wujincang is a Buddhist nun who put only her name on the original scripture. But Gaoxingjian gave Wujincang the role of the second heroine. Wujincang created by Gaoxingjian is a person of sorrow which can be understood by other men. It was what a great person like Huineng can not resolve. It might have been a meaningless thing to get to The Other Shore in such a situation. So to speak, it was a terribly demanding thing for Wujincang to lift women" restraint before his existential determination. Gaoxingjian experienced a compulsive control by the dictatorship power. He understood women"s situation based on his experience. That is, women are always relativized by men as shunned by authority. Thirdly, the world which the writer imagined is represented through zen Masters" shapes. In Snow in August, Graxingjian enjoys the interaction among zen Masters in a place. On the other hand, the place seems to be lively, but disorderly, noisy and meaningless. He understands it is the gods" world, the society which he dreamed of. That is, he wanted to show a society which is seemingly disorderly but very lively, reflecting each voice, It is difficult to look for such a world in modern china.
본고는 『서유기』의 花果山이 갖는 의미에 대한 불교적 질문과 그에대한 응답의 흔적들이다. 花果山에 대한 묘사에는 비유와 상징이 중층적으로 발견되는데, 그것은 그 공간을 신비화하는 수준에 머물지 않는다. 이에 『서유기』의 전체 이야기를 감안하여 花果山이 갖는 의미를 탐색해보고자 하였다. 손오공의 고향으로서 花果山은 둘로 나뉘는 경계선으로서의 의미를 갖는다. 하나에서 둘, 셋, 만물로 확산해나갈 수도 있고, 만물에서 하나로 수렴해 들어올 수도 있다. 무엇보다 花果山에 대한 묘사는 하나와 만물의 둘 아닌 중도의 이치를 다양한 비유와 상징으로 드러내보여 준다. 손오공은 몇 번에 걸쳐 花果山에 귀환하는데 그 중 중요한 의미를 갖는것이 두 번 있다. 첫 번 째의 귀환은 수보리 존자에게서 도술을 배운 뒤 일어난다. 이 때 손오공은 花果山에 귀환하여 무상, 고, 무아의 삼법인에 반하는 만행을 저지른다. 그것은 궁극적 실체성에 대한 집착으로 이해된다. 두 번째의 귀환은 모양을 바꿔 나타나는 백골정 요괴를 거듭 때려죽인 뒤 일어난다. 삼장은 팔계의 주장에 움직여 손오공을 쫓아내는데, 손오공은 花果山에 귀환하여 자아왕국을 재건한다. 이것은 色에 집착하는팔계와 공성에 집착하는 손오공 간에 일어나는 갈등을 비유한다. 그것은 팔계와 손오공이 각기 집착을 내려놓고 둘이 함께 하는 것으로 해소된다. 『서유기』에는 유ㆍ불ㆍ도의 동시적 긍정이 발견되고, 불교의 경우만가지고 보더라도 근본불교, 대승불교, 밀교, 선불교는 물론 반야ㆍ화엄ㆍ법화의 도리에 대한 통섭의 의도가 뚜렷하다. ‘불교적 독해'라는 본고의 논제는 이러한 점을 고려하여 일정한 경향성을 뜻하는 말로 쓰였다. This paper reviews the meaning of mountain of flowers and fruits as portrayed in Journey to the West, by looking at it from a Buddhist perspective. The descriptions of mountain of Flowers and fruits carry layers of analogy and symbolism that go beyond giving the space a mysterious feel. As such, this paper seeks to review the meaning of mountain of flowers and fruits by considering the overall narrative of Journey to the West. Mountain of flowers and fruits are meaningful in that it is the border that divides two worlds and is also the hometown of Monkey King . It is a place where things increase from one to two, three and infinity, but also a place where infinity is boiled down to one. Above all, the descriptions of mountains of flowers and fruits show various analogies and symbolisms used to portray the principle of the middle ground and moderation. Monkey King returns to mountains of flowers and fruits on several occasions, but among them there are two times when the return carries special meaning. The first return happens after learning magic skills from Subhuti. At this point, after his return, Monkey King commits the atrocity of going against the three principles that rule mankind, which is the Zen state and the sense of losing oneself to become one with the universe. This is understood as his obsession over ultimate specificity. The second return happens after beating to death the White Bone Demon that keeps transforming himself. Monk Xuanzang shoos Monkey King after being persuaded by Eight-Commandment Pig, and Monkey King returns to the mountain of flowers and fruits to rebuild his Self kingdom. This is a symbolism referring to the conflict between Eight-Commandment Pig who obsesses over carnal desires and Monkey King who obsesses over titles. The conflict is resolved when both sides move away from their obsessions. The Journey to the West shows simultaneous nodding to and acceptance of Confucius ideas, Buddhist concepts and Zen ideas. Even with Buddhist ideas, the various branches including Hinayana Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhism, Vajrayana, Zen Buddhism and the Prajna, Avatamsaka and Tiantai Sect are clearly incorporated together. The topic of a Buddhist reading takes this into account to refer to a certain tendency found in the literary work.
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본고는 化生寺→弘福寺→法門寺→鞏州城→河州衛→福原寺→雙叉嶺→鎭山太保劉伯欽→兩界山[五行山]에 이르는 『西遊記』 출발단계의 에피소드 배치가 유식 5위의 최초 2단계에 해당한다는 점을 고찰한 논문이다. 삼장의 중국 내 여행은 유식 수행의 資糧位, 그중에서도 十住에 해당한다. 그것은 삼장의 여행이 주로 숙박하여 묵는 일[住]로 묘사되어 있다는 점 등 몇 가지 소설적 장치의 고찰을 통해 확인된다. 삼장의 雙叉嶺에서의 체험은 유식의 자량위, 그중에서도 十行에 해당한다. 그것은 쌍차령에서 만난 진산태보가 십행의 善伏 삼매를 성취한 功德林 보살의 형상으로 해석된다는 점을 포함한 몇 가지 비유와 상징에 대한 고찰을 통해 확인된다. 삼장의 쌍차령 천도재 이야기와 兩界山 직전까지의 여정은 자량위, 그중에서도 十廻向에 해당한다. 또한 양계산과 양계산 직후의 체험은 加行位의 각 단계에 상응한다는 점을 살펴보았다. 그것은 손오공이 양계산을 뚫고 나오기 전에 삼장 일행을 동쪽으로 7∼8리 훨씬 넘게 거꾸로 돌아가도록[十廻向] 하는 점 등의 소설적 장치에 대한 고찰을 통해 확인된다. The Journey to the west(西遊記) mainly deals with the 81 trials, that the monk Xuanzang(玄奘) s travel group suffers from the traveling to India. These 81 trials symbolize the gradual steps that lead to the attainment of perfect truth, each episode having both self-completeness and contextuality. So from departure to arrival, the whole 81 trials form a large circular ring, and each episode becomes a small circular ring that fits into the big ring of the whole. It seems to be the result of accepting the two types of Chinese Zen: Zen of sudden-enlightenment & Zen of Gradual practices. In this paper, we will analyze the magic matches in the Che-Chi country(車遲國). It includes raining matche, meditation matche, clairvoyance matche, and the matche of dead and Resurrection. In the Che-Chi country the monk, the three taoists, and the king obsessed with me and mine and are losing their balance of midway(中道). Sun wu kong(孫悟空) breaks down their obsession through the series of matches. First, Sun Wu Kong save the monks by breaking the carts. and he throw out the Statue of god into the toilet In order to break down the error of the ultimate sublime dimension and existence. This is the way of emphasize relativity(對法) of Hui-Neng(惠能). In the raining matche it teaches the way of put down obsession of the self, in the meditation matche it teaches the way of stop the assimilation with a subject, in the clairvoyance matche it teaches that all things have no substance, and finally in the matche of dead and resurrection it teaches that life appears in various forms.
This thesis is reviewing novels dealing with family history in Chinese contemporary literature. The emotional response to the tension between families and society can be shown through the study. There is some kind of conflict between society and families. If one became stronger the other tends to be weaker. But there are also sore harmony between them. Through the Chinese modern history less than 100 years, There have been various types of family systems Which have emerged and co-existed simultaneously. This is the target this study is focused on The protagonist Baijiaxuan(白嘉軒) had to undergo this chaotic period. In this respect it is very meaningful to review novels like these. Baijin's 《Jia(家)》 which is reflecting the romantic atmosphere of the youth living in the 1930's. Laoshe's 《Sishitongtang(四世同堂)》 depicting the anti-imperialism in the 1940's. and the typical novel of 90's, Chenzhongshi(陳忠實)'s 《Bailuyuan(白鹿原)》 which shows the recent emotional response. This study shows that the relation between society and family is interdependent in every aspect. For example The dissolution of the family was related with the disorganization of Ire society started by the abdication of the emperor. And Harmony can be noticed in 《Sishitongtang(四世同堂)》 and 《Bailuyuan(白鹿原)》 Generally The tendency of breaking-up is emphasized in turbulent social situation and then there emerges the dream for the reunification of families.
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중국특색사회주의 종교이론은 중국식 종교이론의 결정판으로서 중국의 종교에 대한 정치적 이론과 실천의 총합이다. 그것은 현재와 미래에 있어서 중국의 종교와 문화가 어떤 모습을 지니게 될지를 가늠하는 기준이 된다. 본고는 이러한 중국적 종교이론의 형성과정과 핵심내용 및 비판적 논의에 대해 고찰하고 있다. 내용은 다음과 같다. 먼저 중국특색사회주의 종교이론의 형성에 대한 역사적 고찰을 행하였다. 다음으로 그 내용적 특징에 대한 고찰을 통해 그것이 상호 이질적인 요소들, 즉 마르크스주의 종교관과 중국종교의 현실, 종교의 원리와 중국의 역사문화적 토양, 나아가 보장과 통제, 자유와 구속이 결합하고 있음을 밝혔다. 다음으로 중국특색사회주의 종교이론에 대한 비판적 논의들을 살펴보았다. 이와 관련하여 법률적 미비성 비판, 종교법 제정의 필요성 주장, 수정본 종교사무조례 비판, 정상적 종교행위를 종교극단주의로 해석하는 정부시선의 부당성에 대한 항의, 정상적 종교활동에 대한 비법적 강제조치에 대한 비판, 종교사무국의 부처이기주의의 위험성에 대한 지적, 종교 세속화 요구의 부당성 비판, 교육현장에서 행해지는 이중삼중의 종교탄압 등에 대해 살펴보았다. The theory of religion of socialism with Chinese characteristics can be seen as the ultimate work of the Chinese-type religious theory. This theory unites the historical experience on the religion management of the country therefore is the criterion for figuring out the current and the future of the China's religion. The contemplation on this topic is as follows. Firstly, the formation of the theory of religion of socialism with Chinese characteristics has been examined in an historical perspective. This theory is in line with the political selection of the communist party for settlement of the urgent problems, by which the Chinese society is facing. In turn, the features of the contents have been contemplated. As a result, the feature has been found to be the combination of heterogenous elements. That is to say, the theory of religion of socialism with Chinese characteristics are featured with combinations of the realities of the Marxism and Chinese religions, principles of religion, historical and cultural foundations of China, assurance and control. Further, the critical discussions on the religion of socialism with Chinese characteristics have been examined. For this, the discourse on the legal incompleteness has been figured out. Then, the argument that the revised version of Regulation on Religious Affairs, which is the legislative expression of this has the unconstitutional power, has been examined. In addition, the criticisms on the conspiracy of the communist government for reinforcement of leadership as well as the department selfishness have been mentioned. Further, there are strong criticisms on the enforcement of the independence policy, which is for complete blockage of the external influences on religion. Moreover, there are criticisms on the clauses for requesting execution of the core value of the socialism. This means that religions must not be forced for secularization. Furthermore, there are many criticisms on the dual and triple restrictions on the religious activities in the field of education. The reason is that such action violates the freedom for religion a lot as well as the education act. Through this contemplation, we can figure out the fact that the Chinese political parties and the government are operating the national Church for the goal of the country, which is the rich China. That is to say, even the non-secular competence of the religion must be integrated into such national Church.
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Seoul Metro has set up a principle of liberal translation on naming its stations that it will use thematic role in naming stations in Korean to reveal the origin of the place name and is abiding by the principle. Busan Humetro also applies the same principle. In the view that it can complement the broad principle of transliteration, the thematic role can be fully considered and used in parallel as well. Especially, when thematic role is used, the place name in Chinese characters should be considered first. Furthermore, accurate understanding on the origin of the place name should be sought. However, when looking at closely, there are mistakes in many cases, such as that, the existing Chinese character place names are not considered in thematic role, or the origin of place names are misunderstood, or Chinese characters are wrongly applied. In case of transliteration, there is no independent standard on writing Chinese characters for Korean pronunciation. Therefore, a definite implementation scheme which fully reflects 「Template(英??音表)」should be sought. Particularly, It should be considered that the common noun at the rear should be thematically translated or its original pronunciation be written as is. In common nouns at the rear which reveal the natural topography, there are many cases that the common nouns at the rear have lost the topographic informativity. Therefore, it would be appropriate to do transliteration for the whole place name in case the common noun at the rear does not contain the information of the relevant region. However, looking at the actual translation examples, the place names containing the old topographical information were thematically translated uniformly, for example, 나루(ferry)→渡口, 다리(bridge)→橋, 샛강(side river)→江, 내(stream)→川, 못(pond)→池, etc. In the cases that the station name contains the needed information, for example, 성당못(Catholic church pond)→聖堂池 in Daegu Subway, the thematic role is necessary, however, it should be noted that there is a possibility of conveying unnecessary information, like, 여의나루(Yeouinaru)→汝矣渡口. In contrast to this, for the cases of public offices or institutions, it is basically necessary to transfer into corresponding offices or institutions in China. Presently, it is written literally as 시청(city hall)→市? or 구청(borough office)→??, but a way to change this to 市政府, or?政府 should be considered. It would also be proper to write 검찰청(Public Prosecutors' Office) to ?察院, rather than ?察?. In cases that the Chinese character writings are not commonly used, like 政府?舍, It would be also appropraite to try to find words which are commonly used, like 政府?公大?, rather than writing as ?舍. However, for the institutions like ???事堂, which does not exist in China, should be treated as exceptions. It would be awkward to translate it into 人民大?堂 overly. Because their roles are completely different each other. On the other hand, in case of writing an English word place name into Chinese, it is necessary to judge whether it is a common noun or a proper noun. If it is a common noun, thematic role would be appropriate, and if it is a proper noun, transliteration should be done. The most problematic cases are when Chinese characters are written together while the English word place names are not translated; Centum City and Renecite Station fall under this category. For Centum City, translated words such as 仙登城 or 仙?城, which have transliteration and thematic role together, could be suggested, and for Renecite, transliterations such as 日?西德 or 日?西特 could be suggested. In translating Chinese words, it is particularly important to have uniformity whether it is by transliteration or by thematic role. For the case of 버스터미널(bus terminal), it would be embarrasing to write diff