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        • KCI등재후보

          漢譯≪金剛經≫의 비교연구-鳩摩羅什과 玄獎의 번역을 중심으로

          姜鯨求(Kang Kyong-koo) 대한중국학회 2007 중국학 Vol.28 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        • KCI등재

          지하철 한글 역명의 중국어 표기에 대한 고찰

          강경구(Kang Kyong Koo,姜鯨求) 대한중국학회 2015 중국학 Vol.51 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          Seoul Metro has set up a principle of liberal translation on naming its stations that it will use thematic role in naming stations in Korean to reveal the origin of the place name and is abiding by the principle. Busan Humetro also applies the same principle. In the view that it can complement the broad principle of transliteration, the thematic role can be fully considered and used in parallel as well. Especially, when thematic role is used, the place name in Chinese characters should be considered first. Furthermore, accurate understanding on the origin of the place name should be sought. However, when looking at closely, there are mistakes in many cases, such as that, the existing Chinese character place names are not considered in thematic role, or the origin of place names are misunderstood, or Chinese characters are wrongly applied. In case of transliteration, there is no independent standard on writing Chinese characters for Korean pronunciation. Therefore, a definite implementation scheme which fully reflects 「Template(英??音表)」should be sought. Particularly, It should be considered that the common noun at the rear should be thematically translated or its original pronunciation be written as is. In common nouns at the rear which reveal the natural topography, there are many cases that the common nouns at the rear have lost the topographic informativity. Therefore, it would be appropriate to do transliteration for the whole place name in case the common noun at the rear does not contain the information of the relevant region. However, looking at the actual translation examples, the place names containing the old topographical information were thematically translated uniformly, for example, 나루(ferry)→渡口, 다리(bridge)→橋, 샛강(side river)→江, 내(stream)→川, 못(pond)→池, etc. In the cases that the station name contains the needed information, for example, 성당못(Catholic church pond)→聖堂池 in Daegu Subway, the thematic role is necessary, however, it should be noted that there is a possibility of conveying unnecessary information, like, 여의나루(Yeouinaru)→汝矣渡口. In contrast to this, for the cases of public offices or institutions, it is basically necessary to transfer into corresponding offices or institutions in China. Presently, it is written literally as 시청(city hall)→市? or 구청(borough office)→??, but a way to change this to 市政府, or?政府 should be considered. It would also be proper to write 검찰청(Public Prosecutors' Office) to ?察院, rather than ?察?. In cases that the Chinese character writings are not commonly used, like 政府?舍, It would be also appropraite to try to find words which are commonly used, like 政府?公大?, rather than writing as ?舍. However, for the institutions like ???事堂, which does not exist in China, should be treated as exceptions. It would be awkward to translate it into 人民大?堂 overly. Because their roles are completely different each other. On the other hand, in case of writing an English word place name into Chinese, it is necessary to judge whether it is a common noun or a proper noun. If it is a common noun, thematic role would be appropriate, and if it is a proper noun, transliteration should be done. The most problematic cases are when Chinese characters are written together while the English word place names are not translated; Centum City and Renecite Station fall under this category. For Centum City, translated words such as 仙登城 or 仙?城, which have transliteration and thematic role together, could be suggested, and for Renecite, transliterations such as 日?西德 or 日?西特 could be suggested. In translating Chinese words, it is particularly important to have uniformity whether it is by transliteration or by thematic role. For the case of 버스터미널(bus terminal), it would be embarrasing to write diff

        • KCI등재

          < 연구논문 > : 『선문정로(禪門正路)』 문장인용의 특징에 관한 고찰(3)

          강경구 ( Kyong Koo Kang ) 동아시아불교문화학회 2015 동아시아불교문화 Vol.0 No.23

          본 고찰은 『선문정로』인용문의 생략, 추가, 대체, 재구성 등과 같은문장의 조정에 발견되는 특징과 의미를 살펴보는 것을 내용으로 한다. 고찰은 「無上正覺」론을 중심으로 행해졌다. 성철스님은 인용문에 돈오선의 지향과 모순되는 구절이 나타나면 적극 개입하여 문장을 조정하였다. 지위와 점차를 인정하는 교학적 논의는 제1차적 조정의 대상이 된다. 인과적 논리전개를 특징으로 하는 구절, 부분적인 깨달음에 의미를 부여하는 구절 등에 대한 생략과 대체도 돈오선적 지향을 뚜렷하게 드러내기 위한 조정에 해당한다. 다음으로 문장을 단순화하여 설법의 취지를 부각시키고자 한 조정의 흔적이 뚜렷하다. 자세한 교학적 설명을 필요로 하는 구절, 해석상의 분기가 일어날 수 있는 구절, 이질적 문화풍토를 배경으로 하는 구절, 구체적 설명이나 형상적 비유가 나열된 구절 등에 대해 생략과 대체 등을 통해 그 조정작업이 행해졌다. 복문이나 두 문장을 단문으로 바꾼 경우,조건적 구절을 단순한 술어문으로 바꾼 경우 등도 이에 해당한다. 독자들의 수용적 측면을 고려한 조정의 흔적도 드물지 않다. 낯선 용어를 익숙한 용어로 대체한 경우, 오해할 수 있는 구절을 생략한 경우, 관용적 표현을 생략한 경우 등이 그것이다. 인용문을 다양하게 조정하면서도 한문문장의 구조적 완결성을 유지하기 위한 조치도 발견된다. 생략으로 인해 흩어진 문장을 매끄럽게 다듬기 위해 문법적 기능어를 추가한 경우, 부분만을 따서 새로운 문장을 재구성한 경우 등이 이에 속한다. 성철스님은 인용문의 조정을 통해 그것을 독립시켜 『선문정로』의 설법에 유기적으로 녹아들도록 하였다. 그래서 현대적 방식으로 인용출처를 분명히 밝히면서도 원문에 대한 궁금증을 유발하는 구절들을 대부분 생략하였던 것이다. 결국 『선문정로』의 인용문은 모두 성철스님의 발언으로 이해되어야 하며, 원문과의 대비 또한 정확성 여부가 아니라 그 수증론의 특징을 고찰하는 방식으로 진행되어야 하는 것이다. This study looking into the fact that there was sentence adjustment like abridgment, addition, substitution and reconstitution, etc. and consider about the characteristics and meaning. Consideration was done around samma sambuddha(無上正覺). Master Seongcheol adjusted a sentence which was in conflict with the aim of Sudden Enlightenment(頓悟禪) by aggressively intervening in it. Naturally, educational discussion, which acknowledges the status and class, becomes a primary object for adjustment. The abridgment and substitution of the phrases characterized by causal logic development, and the phrases, which ascribe meaning to partial enlightenment, also belong to the adjustment for clearly exposing sudden enlightenment-based aim. Next, there appear clear signs of attempting to highlight the purpose of a Buddhist sermon by simplifying a sentence. Master Seongcheol``s adjustment work was done on a phrase in need of detailed educational explanation, a phrase that could cause an interpretative divergence, a phrase with a heterogenous cultural climate in the background, and a phrase which lists concrete explanations, or figurative analogies, through abridgment and substitution. Also, the case where a compound sentence, or two sentences were changed to a simple sentence, and a conditional phrase was changed to a simple predicate sentence belong to this. The trace of adjustment in the light of readers`` acceptive aspect is also discovered quite often; for example, the case where an unfamiliar term was replaced with a familiar term; the case a phrase having room for misunderstanding was abridged, and the case where an idiomatic expression was abridged, etc. explain such a trace. In addition, found are some measures to maintain the structural completion of Chinese characters even while adjusting quotations diversely; for instance, the case where a grammatical function word is added to trim the sentences, which are scattered due to abridgment, and the case where a new sentence is reconstituted by picking out only a part belong to this. Master Seongcheol managed to get the adjusted quotations to be organically melt into the Buddhist sermon of Seonmun-jeongno by making them independent from the original. That way, Master Seongcheol abridged mostly the phrases which aroused misgivings of the original even while making clear the source of a quotation in a modern way. Eventually, the quotations of Seonmun-jeongno should be understood as Master Seongcheol``s comments, and the contrast with the original should be made in the way of considering the characteristic of its cultivation and certification other than for existence or non-existence of accuracy.

        • KCI등재

          손오공과 諸神의 전투에 대한 불교적 독해

          강경구(Kang, Kyong-Koo) 대한중국학회 2017 중국학 Vol.60 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          이 논문은 손오공과 제신들 간의 전투에 대한 불교적 독해를 주제로 한다. 서유기는 당 玄奘의 구법여행을 그 소설창작의 모티프로 삼고 있는 바, 이로 인해 전체 여정은 물론 각장의 이야기와 주제의식 또한 현장의 불교적 실천과 긴밀한 친연성을 갖고 있는 것으로 이해 된다. 또한 서유기는 다양한 불교적 사상들을 문학적 형상으로 녹여내고 통합한 현장으로 이해될 필요가 있다. 孫悟空의 형상 또한 그 탄생, 도술학습, 諸神과의 전투, 서천 여행과정에 서의 역할 등에 있어서 일관된 불교적 메시지가 발견된다. 요마에서 성인으로 승화하는 그전체적 여정은 유식의 轉識得智의 경로를 밟고 있으며, 각 장의 모험담은 空性의 깨달음이라는 주제의식의 구현을 지향하고 있다. 이러한 맥락에서 손오공의 형상과 역할을 고찰한다면 서유기에 대해 보다 풍부하면서도 일관된 이해에 도달할 수 있을 것으로 생각된다. 본고에 서는 손오공과 제신의 전투를 자아의 집착과 그 해결을 위한 노력으로 보고 그 의미를 천착 해보고자 한다. 그것은 불교에서 三法印으로 규정하는 無常ㆍ苦ㆍ無我라는 삶의 본질에 대한 부정으로 시작되어, 그 집착에 대한 관찰로 이어지며, 자아의 공성에 대한 발견으로 일단락된 다. Journey to the West is a novel that described a journey toward sublimation of mind, where distinct Buddhistic symbol and message are found. Journey to the West takes Master Monk Xuanzang’s sermon journey as the motif of the novel creation. Due to this, it is understood that the story of each chapter and subject consciousness have a close affinity with Buddhistic practice of the site. Particularly, Dharmalaksana and Prajna belong to the consistent subject consciousness that leads the whole story of Journey to the West. Besides, practices of various Chinese Buddhism are taken as the content, accordingly, Journey to the West is necessary to melt various Buddhistic ideologies in literary figure and be understood as the united site. However, due to the excellent achievement of literary embodiment, Buddhistic subject consciousness seemed to be concealed. Study on Buddhistic subject consciousness on Journey to the West proceeded considering this point is not rare in domestic and overseas, and the researcher also proceeded consideration related to this. Image of Sun Wukong also shows a consistent Buddhistic message in respect of the birth, Taoist art learning, battle with gods, and the role in journey to the West, etc. The overall journey from Demon to saints takes the route of Dharmalaksana’s Turn to wisdom, adventure story of each chapter aims for the realization of the subject consciousness of realization of Emptiness. In this context, when considering the image and role of Sun Wukong, more abundant and consistent understanding to Journey to the West can be attained. This research intended to view the battle between Sun Wukong and gods as the obsession of the self and the efforts for the settlement and investigate the significance. When surveying beforehand, battle between Sun Wukong and gods begins from the obsession of the self, reveals feebleness of the efforts to suppress and control it, then suggests the way of observation as the solution. That begins the denial of the essence of life, i.e. Impermanenceㆍpainㆍanatman, defined as Three marks of existence of Buddhism, continues to the observation of that obsession, then concludes as the discovery of siege of the self. Above all, this research begins discussion by investigating the way the denial of current state of life appears.

        • 高行健의 《八月雪》과 《六祖壇経》

          姜鯨求(Kang Kyong-Koo) 동북아시아문화학회 2005 동북아시아문화학회 국제학술대회 발표자료집 Vol.- No.-

          Gaoxingjian(高行健), winner of the Nobel Prize in 2000, has been recognized as a writer of having a rich oriental color in his works" structure and content. In particular, the factors of Zen"s thought in his works need to be emphasized. His major work, Soul Mountain(靈山), which brought the decisive opportunity of the Nobel Prize depends on the correct view of zen"s values. This tendency also remains in the dramas which he has mostly written. Researchers considering his works to contain a new genre considered to be drama. Gaoxingjian"s Snow in August(八月雪) is a work which most represents such a godlike feature. In Snow in August, he modernly explains The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch(六祖壇經) a main scripture of Chinese Zen. This study not only focus on contents and structural features of Snow in August, but also the differences between it and its original work, The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriach, especially. That is why his creative behavior is remarkable. First of all, he seems to have chosen a method that adds his shadow to each character in shaping characters. It is understood that he did not attempt to faithfully reproduce Huineng(慧能) who existed historically but himself through Huineng. On that basis, I analysed the story as follows: Firstly, the image of Gaoxingjian is overlapped with that of Huineng. For example, when Huineng refused an invitation of the king, there is a scene of Xuejian(薛簡), a messenger, when he held a daggar, Huineng pushed his neck. Between Huineng and the king there had been a friendly relationship for a long time. But Gaoxingjian, which had experienced the dictatorship power of Maozedong(毛澤東), handled the relationship between Huineng and the king as hostile. It is thought that is why Gaoxingjian wanted to describe a free human. Secondly, the experience of Gaoxingjian is reflected on the shape of Wujincang(無盡藏). Wujincang is a Buddhist nun who put only her name on the original scripture. But Gaoxingjian gave Wujincang the role of the second heroine. Wujincang created by Gaoxingjian is a person of sorrow which can be understood by other men. It was what a great person like Huineng can not resolve. It might have been a meaningless thing to get to The Other Shore in such a situation. So to speak, it was a terribly demanding thing for Wujincang to lift women" restraint before his existential determination. Gaoxingjian experienced a compulsive control by the dictatorship power. He understood women"s situation based on his experience. That is, women are always relativized by men as shunned by authority. Thirdly, the world which the writer imagined is represented through zen Masters" shapes. In Snow in August, Graxingjian enjoys the interaction among zen Masters in a place. On the other hand, the place seems to be lively, but disorderly, noisy and meaningless. He understands it is the gods" world, the society which he dreamed of. That is, he wanted to show a society which is seemingly disorderly but very lively, reflecting each voice, It is difficult to look for such a world in modern china.

        • KCI등재

          高行健 소설의 소통, 우정, 그리고 소설형식

          姜鯨求(Kang Kyong-Koo) 대한중국학회 2006 중국학 Vol.27 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        • KCI등재

          『서유기』의 에피소드 배치에 대한 불교적 독해 : 雙叉嶺과 兩界山의 에피소드를 중심으로

          강경구(Kang, Kyong-Koo)(姜鯨求) 대한중국학회 2020 중국학 Vol.73 No.-

          '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          본고는 化生寺→弘福寺→法門寺→鞏州城→河州衛→福原寺→雙叉嶺→鎭山太保劉伯欽→兩界山[五行山]에 이르는 『西遊記』 출발단계의 에피소드 배치가 유식 5위의 최초 2단계에 해당한다는 점을 고찰한 논문이다. 삼장의 중국 내 여행은 유식 수행의 資糧位, 그중에서도 十住에 해당한다. 그것은 삼장의 여행이 주로 숙박하여 묵는 일[住]로 묘사되어 있다는 점 등 몇 가지 소설적 장치의 고찰을 통해 확인된다. 삼장의 雙叉嶺에서의 체험은 유식의 자량위, 그중에서도 十行에 해당한다. 그것은 쌍차령에서 만난 진산태보가 십행의 善伏 삼매를 성취한 功德林 보살의 형상으로 해석된다는 점을 포함한 몇 가지 비유와 상징에 대한 고찰을 통해 확인된다. 삼장의 쌍차령 천도재 이야기와 兩界山 직전까지의 여정은 자량위, 그중에서도 十廻向에 해당한다. 또한 양계산과 양계산 직후의 체험은 加行位의 각 단계에 상응한다는 점을 살펴보았다. 그것은 손오공이 양계산을 뚫고 나오기 전에 삼장 일행을 동쪽으로 7∼8리 훨씬 넘게 거꾸로 돌아가도록[十廻向] 하는 점 등의 소설적 장치에 대한 고찰을 통해 확인된다. The Journey to the west(西遊記) mainly deals with the 81 trials, that the monk Xuanzang(玄奘) s travel group suffers from the traveling to India. These 81 trials symbolize the gradual steps that lead to the attainment of perfect truth, each episode having both self-completeness and contextuality. So from departure to arrival, the whole 81 trials form a large circular ring, and each episode becomes a small circular ring that fits into the big ring of the whole. It seems to be the result of accepting the two types of Chinese Zen: Zen of sudden-enlightenment & Zen of Gradual practices. In this paper, we will analyze the magic matches in the Che-Chi country(車遲國). It includes raining matche, meditation matche, clairvoyance matche, and the matche of dead and Resurrection. In the Che-Chi country the monk, the three taoists, and the king obsessed with me and mine and are losing their balance of midway(中道). Sun wu kong(孫悟空) breaks down their obsession through the series of matches. First, Sun Wu Kong save the monks by breaking the carts. and he throw out the Statue of god into the toilet In order to break down the error of the ultimate sublime dimension and existence. This is the way of emphasize relativity(對法) of Hui-Neng(惠能). In the raining matche it teaches the way of put down obsession of the self, in the meditation matche it teaches the way of stop the assimilation with a subject, in the clairvoyance matche it teaches that all things have no substance, and finally in the matche of dead and resurrection it teaches that life appears in various forms.

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          중국특색사회주의 종교이론의 고찰

          강경구(Kang Kyong Koo)(姜鯨求),김경아(Kim Kyung A)(金敬娥) 대한중국학회 2017 중국학 Vol.61 No.-

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          중국특색사회주의 종교이론은 중국식 종교이론의 결정판으로서 중국의 종교에 대한 정치적 이론과 실천의 총합이다. 그것은 현재와 미래에 있어서 중국의 종교와 문화가 어떤 모습을 지니게 될지를 가늠하는 기준이 된다. 본고는 이러한 중국적 종교이론의 형성과정과 핵심내용 및 비판적 논의에 대해 고찰하고 있다. 내용은 다음과 같다. 먼저 중국특색사회주의 종교이론의 형성에 대한 역사적 고찰을 행하였다. 다음으로 그 내용적 특징에 대한 고찰을 통해 그것이 상호 이질적인 요소들, 즉 마르크스주의 종교관과 중국종교의 현실, 종교의 원리와 중국의 역사문화적 토양, 나아가 보장과 통제, 자유와 구속이 결합하고 있음을 밝혔다. 다음으로 중국특색사회주의 종교이론에 대한 비판적 논의들을 살펴보았다. 이와 관련하여 법률적 미비성 비판, 종교법 제정의 필요성 주장, 수정본 종교사무조례 비판, 정상적 종교행위를 종교극단주의로 해석하는 정부시선의 부당성에 대한 항의, 정상적 종교활동에 대한 비법적 강제조치에 대한 비판, 종교사무국의 부처이기주의의 위험성에 대한 지적, 종교 세속화 요구의 부당성 비판, 교육현장에서 행해지는 이중삼중의 종교탄압 등에 대해 살펴보았다. The theory of religion of socialism with Chinese characteristics can be seen as the ultimate work of the Chinese-type religious theory. This theory unites the historical experience on the religion management of the country therefore is the criterion for figuring out the current and the future of the China’s religion. The contemplation on this topic is as follows. Firstly, the formation of the theory of religion of socialism with Chinese characteristics has been examined in an historical perspective. This theory is in line with the political selection of the communist party for settlement of the urgent problems, by which the Chinese society is facing. In turn, the features of the contents have been contemplated. As a result, the feature has been found to be the combination of heterogenous elements. That is to say, the theory of religion of socialism with Chinese characteristics are featured with combinations of the realities of the Marxism and Chinese religions, principles of religion, historical and cultural foundations of China, assurance and control. Further, the critical discussions on the religion of socialism with Chinese characteristics have been examined. For this, the discourse on the legal incompleteness has been figured out. Then, the argument that the revised version of Regulation on Religious Affairs, which is the legislative expression of this has the unconstitutional power, has been examined. In addition, the criticisms on the conspiracy of the communist government for reinforcement of leadership as well as the department selfishness have been mentioned. Further, there are strong criticisms on the enforcement of the independence policy, which is for complete blockage of the external influences on religion. Moreover, there are criticisms on the clauses for requesting execution of the core value of the socialism. This means that religions must not be forced for secularization. Furthermore, there are many criticisms on the dual and triple restrictions on the religious activities in the field of education. The reason is that such action violates the freedom for religion a lot as well as the education act. Through this contemplation, we can figure out the fact that the Chinese political parties and the government are operating the national Church for the goal of the country, which is the rich China. That is to say, even the non-secular competence of the religion must be integrated into such national Church.

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