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CD44v, especially splice variants containing exon v6, has been shown to be related closely to development of different tumors. High levels of CD44v6/v7 have been reported to be associated with invasiveness and metastasis of many malignancies. The objective of this study was to detect expression of CD44v6-containing variants in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and evaluate the potential of CD44v6/v7 for risk stratification. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by PCR product purification, ligation into T vectors and positive clone sequencing were used to detect CD44 v6-containing variant isoforms in 23 APL patients. Real-time quantitative PCR of the CD44v6/v7 gene was performed in patients with APL and in NB4 cells that were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or arsenic trioxide ($As_2O_3$). Sequencing results identified four isoforms (CD44v6/v7, CD44v6/v8/v10, CD44v6/v8/v9/v10, and CD44v6/v7/v8/v9/v10) in bone marrow mononuclear cells of 23 patients with APL. The level of CD44v6/v7 in high-risk cases was significantly higher than those with low-risk. Higher levels of CD44v6/v7 were found in three patients with central nervous system relapse than in other patients inthe same risk group. Furthermore, in contrast to ATRA, only $As_2O_3$ could significantly down-regulate CD44v6/v7 expression in NB4 cells. Our data suggest that CD44v6/v7 expression may be a prognostic indicator for APL.
MicroRNA-223-3p (miR-223-3p) is one of the potential microRNAs that have been shown to alleviate inflammatory responses in pre-clinical investigations and is highly encased in exosomes derived from bone mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-exosomes). MSC-exosomes are able to function as carriers to deliver microRNAs into cells. Autoimmune hepatitis is one of the challenging liver diseases with no effective treatment other than steroid hormones. Here, we examined whether MSC-exosomes can transfer miR-223-3p to treat autoimmune hepatitis in an experimental model. We found that MSC-exosomes were successfully incorporated with miR-223-3p and delivered miR-223-3p into macrophages. Moreover, there was no toxic effect of exosomes on the macrophages. Furthermore, treatments of either exosomes or exosomes with miR-223-3p successfully attenuated inflammatory responses in the liver of autoimmune hepatitis and inflammatory cytokine release in both the liver and macrophages. The mechanism may be related to the regulation of miR-223-3p level and STAT3 expression in the liver and macrophages. These results suggest that MSC-exosomes can be used to deliver miR-223-3p for the treatment of autoimmune hepatitis.
Li-Min Xin,Lin Chen,Zhen-Peng Ji,Suo-Yuan Zhang,Jun Wang,Yan-Hong Liu,Da-Fang Chen,Fu-De Yang,Gang Wang,Yi-Ru Fang,Zheng Lu,Hai-Chen Yang,Jian Hu,Zhi-Yu Chen,Yi Huang,Jing Sun,Xiao-Ping Wang,Hui-Chun 대한정신약물학회 2015 CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY AND NEUROSCIENCE Vol.13 No.3
Objective: To analyze the sociodemographic and clinical factors related to anxiety in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: This study involved a secondary analysis of data obtained from the Diagnostic Assessment Service for People with Bipolar Disorders in China (DASP), which was initiated by the Chinese Society of Psychiatry (CSP) and conducted from September 1, 2010 to February 28, 2011. Based on the presence or absence of anxiety-related characteristics, 1,178 MDD patients were classified as suffering from anxious depression (n=915) or non-anxious depression (n=263), respectively. Results: Compared with the non-anxious group, the anxious-depression group had an older age at onset (t=−4.39, p<0.001), were older (t=−4.69, p<0.001), reported more lifetime depressive episodes (z=−3.24, p=0.001), were more likely to experience seasonal depressive episodes (χ2=6.896, p=0.009) and depressive episodes following stressful life events (χ2=59.350, p <0.001), and were more likely to have a family history of psychiatric disorders (χ2=6.091, p=0.014). Their positive and total scores on the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and the 32-item Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) (p<0.05) were also lower. The logistic regression analysis indicated that age (odds ratio [OR]=1.03, p<0.001), a lower total MDQ score (OR=0.94, p=0.011), depressive episodes following stressful life events (OR=3.04, p<0.001), and seasonal depressive episodes (OR=1.75, p=0.039) were significantly associated with anxious depression. Conclusion: These findings indicate that older age, fewer subclinical bipolar features, an increased number of depressive episodes following stressful life events, and seasonal depressive episodes may be risk factors for anxiety-related characteristics in patients with MDD.
Batch fermentations of welan gum from Alcaligenes sp. CGMCC2428 at pH values of 5.5 ~ 7.0were studied. Based on the kinetic analysis, a pH control process for improving welan production was developed. By maintaining the culture pH at 7.0, the process significantly improved the maximal welan concentration and productivity to reach 25.1 ± 0.65 g/L and 0.42 ± 0.003 g/L/h, respectively,compared with those in native pH processes where pH value would decrease from 7.0 to 5.1 (18.5 ± 0.72 g/L and 0.28 ± 0.002 g/L/h). This improvement may be due to the increased metabolic flux of glucose-1-phosphate to welan induced by pH control process. Furthermore, scale-up fermentation under controlled pH was implemented using 300-L fermentor. The highest welan concentration of 27.5± 0.97 g/L was obtained. This simplified process proved effective in industry fermentation for high welan production.
The sense and antisense digoxigenin-labeled RNA probes of four genes, Cdc25A, Cdc25B, Sox2 and Mnb, were produced by using SP6 and T7 RNA polymerases, respectively, and in vitro transcription. Expression patterns of the four genes were detected by in situ hybridization in HH (Hamburger and Hamilton) stage 10 chick embryos. In general, expression patterns of the four genes were similar. mRNA of the four genes was mostly restricted to the entire CNS (central nervous system). All were confined to an identical region, neural tube, neural groove and caudal neural plate, corresponding to the notochord or spinal cord, but there was some distinction in specific region or in concentration, for example in somites. The overlap in expression at the same developmental stage in the CNS suggests that the four genes may be functional similar or related in CNS development. Expression patterns of the four genes support specific roles of these regulators in the developing CNS.
Chen, Guang-Lie,Hou, Gai-Ling,Sun, Fei,Jiang, Hong-Li,Xue, Jin-Feng,Li, Xiu-Shen,Xu, En-Hui,Gao, Wei-Shi,Cao, Jian-Ping Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.15
Background: The STK15 gene located on chromosome 20q13.2 encodes a centrosome-associated kinase critical for regulated chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Recent studies have demonstrated STK15 to be significantly associated with many tumors, with aberrant expression obseved in many human malignancies. The purpose of this study was to investigate expression of STK15 in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) in a Mongolian population. Methods: Two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region of STK15, rs2273535 (Phe31Ile) and rs1047972 (Val57Ile) were assessed in 380 ESCC patients and 380 healthy controls. We also detected STK15 mRNA expression in 39 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and corresponding adjacent tissues by real time PCR. Results: rs2273535 showed a significant association with ESCC in our Mongolian population (rs227353, P allele = 0.0447, OR (95%CI) = 1.259 (1.005~1.578)). Real time PCR analysis of ESCC tissues showed that expression of STK15 mRNA in cancer tissues was higher than in normal tissues (p = 0.013). Conclusions: Our study showed that functional SNPs in the STK15 gene are associated with ESCC in a Mongolian population and up-regulation of STK15 mRNAoccurs in ESCC tumors compared adjacent normal tissues. STK15 may thus have an important role in the prognosis of ESCC and be a potential therapeutic target.
The opportunities in which university professors collaborate with the practicing school teachers in a teacher study group are few. This study investigated how a university professor facilitated a collaborative teacher study group to enhance teachers' professional growth. Five primary school teachers and a university professor collaborated on incorporating Reader's Theatre into the design and revision of the curriculum in a teacher study group. This study not only identified the roles of the university professor but also highlighted how this outside stimulus facilitated the process of teachers' professional dialogues in this teacher study group. Five roles of the professor in the teacher study group were identified, including content expert, information provider, thought challenger, discussion facilitator, and caring listener. The discrepancies toward the roles that the professor in the teacher study group should serve between the elementary school teachers and the university professor were analyzed and reported. Implications were drawn for both classroom teachers and university professors.
Endophytic Trichoderma gamsii YIM PH30019: a promising biocontrol agent with hyperosmolar, mycoparasitism, and antagonistic activities of induced volatile organic compounds on root-rot pathogenic fungi of Panax notoginseng
Background: Biocontrol agents are regarded as promising and environmental friendly approaches as agrochemicals for phytodiseases that cause serious environmental and health problems. Trichoderma species have been widely used in suppression of soil-borne pathogens. In this study, an endophytic fungus, Trichoderma gamsii YIM PH30019, from healthy Panax notoginseng root was investigated for its biocontrol potential. Methods: In vitro detached healthy roots, and pot and field experiments were used to investigate the pathogenicity and biocontrol efficacy of T. gamsii YIM PH30019 to the host plant. The antagonistic mechanisms against test phytopathogens were analyzed using dual culture, scanning electron microscopy, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Tolerance to chemical fertilizers was also tested in a series of concentrations. Results: The results indicated that T. gamsii YIM PH30019 was nonpathogenic to the host, presented appreciable biocontrol efficacy, and could tolerate chemical fertilizer concentrations of up to 20%. T. gamsii YIM PH30019 displayed antagonistic activities against the pathogenic fungi of P. notoginseng via production of VOCs. On the basis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, VOCs were identified as dimethyl disulfide, dibenzofuran, methanethiol, ketones, etc., which are effective ingredients for antagonistic activity. T. gamsii YIM PH30019 was able to improve the seedlings' emergence and protect P. notoginseng plants from soil-borne disease in the continuous cropping field tests. Conclusion: The results suggest that the endophytic fungus T. gamsii YIM PH30019 may have a good potential as a biological control agent against notoginseng phytodiseases and can provide a clue to further illuminate the interactions between Trichoderma and phytopathogens.