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Dovitinib (TKI258) is a small molecule multi-kinase inhibi-tor currently in clinical phase I/II/III development for the treatment of various types of cancers. This drug has a safe and effective pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile. Although dovitinib can bind several kinases at nanomolar concentrations, there are no reports relating to osteoporosis or osteoblast differentiation. Herein, we investigated the effect of dovitinib on human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2-induced osteoblast differentiation in a cell culture model. Dovitinib enhanced the BMP-2-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) induction, which is a representative marker of osteoblast differentiation. Dovitinib also stimulated the translocation of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 into the nucleus and phosphorylation of mito-gen-activated protein kinases, including ERK1/2 and p38. In addition, the mRNA expression of BMP-4, BMP-7, ALP, and OCN increased with dovitinib treatment. Our results suggest that dovitinib has a potent stimulating effect on BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation and this existing drug has potential for repositioning in the treatment of bone-related disorders.
The amphetamine derivative 3, 4-methylenedioxymetham- phetamine (MDMA) has become a popular recreational drug, and has also been shown to cause serotonergic neurotoxicity. This report shows that MDMA impairs brain development in a whole mouse embryo culture. The results of quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that autophagy-related protein 5 (Atg5) expression is elevated in mouse embryo and neuroblastoma cells after MDMA treatment. This elevated Atg5 expression inter-feres with the neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells such as SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells. Thus, our results suggest that the use of MDMA during pregnancy may impair neuronal development via an induction of Atg5 expression.
Herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK) is an inflammatory disorder induced by HSV-1 infection and characterized by T cell-dependent destruction of corneal tissues. It is not known what triggers CD4+ T cell migration into the stroma of HSV-1-infected corneas. The keratocyte is a fibroblast-like cell that can function as an antigen-presenting cell in the mouse cornea by expressing MHC class II and costimulatory molecules after HSV-1 infection. We hypothesized that chemokines produced by stromal keratocytes are involved in CD4+ T cell infiltration into the cornea. We found that keratocytes produce several cytokines and chemokines, including MCP-1, RANTES, and T cell activation (TCA)-3. HSV-1 infection increased the production of MCP-1 and RANTES by keratocytes, and these acted as chemoattractants for HSV-1-primed CD4+ T cells expressing CCR2 and CCR5. Expression of MCP-1 in the corneal stroma was confirmed in vivo. Finally, when HSV-1-primed CD4+ T cells were adoptively transferred into wild type and MCP-1-deficient mice that had been sublethally irradiated to minimize chemokine production from immune cells, infiltration of CD4+ T cells was markedly reduced in the MCP-1-deficient mice, suggesting that it is the MCP-1 from HSV-1-infected keratocytes that attracts CD4+ T cells into the cornea.
Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm. Specifically, genetic deletion of the circadian nuclear receptor Rev-erbα induces mania-like behavior caused by increased midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) tone at dusk. The association between circadian rhythm and emotion-related behaviors can be applied to pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), DAergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta progressively degenerate leading to motor dysfunction. Patients with PD also exhibit non-motor symptoms, including sleep disorder and neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms that link the molecular circadian clock and brain machinery in the regulation of emotional behaviors and related midbrain DAergic neuronal circuits in healthy and pathological states. This review summarizes the current literature regarding the association between circadian rhythm and mood regulation from a chronobiological perspective, and may provide insight into therapeutic approaches to target psychiatric symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases involving circadian rhythm dysfunction.
Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) that regulates neuroendocrine functions, locomotor activity, cognition and emotion. The dopamine system has been extensively studied because dysfunction of this system is linked to various pathological conditions including Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, Tourette’s syndrome, and drug addiction. Accordingly, intense efforts to delineate the full complement of signaling pathways mediated by individual receptor subtypes have been pursued. Dopamine D1-like receptors are of particular interest because they are the most abundant dopamine receptors in CNS. Recent work suggests that dopamine signaling could be regulated via dopamine receptor interacting proteins (DRIPs). Unraveling these DRIPs involved in the dopamine system may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying CNS disorders related to dopamine system dysfunction and may help identify novel therapeutic targets Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) that regulates neuroendocrine functions, locomotor activity, cognition and emotion. The dopamine system has been extensively studied because dysfunction of this system is linked to various pathological conditions including Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, Tourette’s syndrome, and drug addiction. Accordingly, intense efforts to delineate the full complement of signaling pathways mediated by individual receptor subtypes have been pursued. Dopamine D1-like receptors are of particular interest because they are the most abundant dopamine receptors in CNS. Recent work suggests that dopamine signaling could be regulated via dopamine receptor interacting proteins (DRIPs). Unraveling these DRIPs involved in the dopamine system may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying CNS disorders related to dopamine system dysfunction and may help identify novel therapeutic targets
Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced estrogen withdrawal resulted in both bone loss and an increase in fat. We observed ele-vated osteoclast (OC) formation by bone marrow-derived macrophages treated with medium conditioned by fats from OVX mice, but not from sham-operated mice. Fats from OVX mice expressed and secreted higher levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) than those from sham-operated mice. Increased fat resulting from estrogen deficiency is thus responsible for bone loss due to enhanced OC formation, which is, at least partly, a con-sequence of elevated MCP-1 production.
Epithelial cells act as the first line of host defense against microbes by producing a range of different molecules for clearance. Chemokines facilitate the clearance of invaders through the recruitment of leukocytes. Thus, upregulation of chemokine expression represents an important innate host defense response against invading microbes such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we report that the expression of Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 (MCP1)was highly induced in response to S. pneumoniae in vitro and in vivo. Among numerous virulence factors, pneumococcal pneumolysin was found to be the major factor responsible for this induction. Furthermore, MCP1 induction was mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) whose activation was controlled by MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP1). Therefore, this study reveals novel roles of pneumolysin in mediating MKP1 expression for the regulation of MCP1 expression in human epithelial cells
The transcription factor ATAF2, one of the plant specific NAC family genes, is known as repressor of pathogenesis-related genes and responsive to the diverse defense-rela-ted hormones, pathogen infection, and wounding stress. Furthermore, it is important to consider that tryptophan-dependant IAA biosynthesis pathway can be activated by wounding and pathogen. We found that ATAF2pro::GUS reporter was induced upon indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) treat-ments. And ataf2 mutant showed reduced sensitivity to IAN whereas 35S::ATAF2 plants showed hyper-sensitivity to IAN. IAN biosynthesis required nitrilase involved in the conversion of IAN to an auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We found that the NIT2 gene was repressed in ataf2 knock-out plants. Expression of both ATAF2 and NIT2 genes was induced by IAN treatment. Transgenic plants overexpress-ing ATAF2 showed up-regulated NIT2 expression. ATAF2 activated promoter of the NIT2 gene in Arabidopsis proto-plasts. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that NIT2 promoter region from position -117 to -82 contains an ATAF2 binding site where an imperfect palindrome se-quence was critical to the protein-DNA interaction. These findings indicate that ATAF2 regulates NIT2 gene expres-sion via NIT2 promoter binding.
When cells are stimulated by growth factors, they make a critical choice in early G1 phase: proceed forward to S phase, remain in G1, or revert to G0 phase. Once the critical decision is made, cells execute a fixed program independently of extracellular signals. The specific stage at which the critical decision is made is called the restriction point or R-point. The existence of the R-point raises a major question: what is the nature of the molecular machinery that decides whether or not a cell in G1 will continue to advance through the cell cycle or exit from the cell cycle? The R-point program is perturbed in nearly all cancer cells. Therefore, exploring the nature of the R-point decision-making machinery will provide insight into how cells consult extracellular signals and intracellular status to make an appropriate R-point decision, as well into the development of cancers. Recent studies have shown that expression of a number of immediate early genes is associated with the R-point decision, and that the decision-making program constitutes an oncogene surveillance mechanism. In this review, we briefly summarize recent findings regarding the mechanisms underlying the context-dependent R-point decision.