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This study evaluated economic feasibility and provided rationale for the development of the Korean Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS). KOOS is supposed to be established for the preservation and management of marine environments, and for the safety of ocean activities. Economic issues associated with operational oceanographic systems are discussed. During the operational period of KOOS associated with conservative small-input scenarios, and according to the macroeconomic input-output analysis, the system was estimated to generate 8.3 times its actual proposed economic investment (about KRW 327.7 billion). Other rationales that cannot be easily quantified were also discussed.
We investigated seasonal variations of the upper ocean temperature and the mixed layer depth (MLD) in an eddy-permitting global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) to assess the OGCM performance. The OGCM is based on the GFDL MOM3 which has a horizontal resolution of 0.5 degree and 30 vertical levels. The OGCM was integrated for 68 years using a monthly-mean climatological wind stress forcing. The model sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity were restored to the Levitus climatology with a time scale of 30 days. Annual-mean model SST shows a cold bias (<?2℃) in the summer hemisphere and a warm bias (>1℃) in the winter hemisphere mainly due to the restoring boundary condition of temperature. The model MLD captures well the observed features in most areas, with a slightly deep bias. However, in the Ross Sea and Weddell Sea, the model shows significantly deeper MLD than the climatology--mainly due to weak salinity stratifications in the model. For amplitude of seasonal variation, the model SST is smaller (1~3℃) than the observation largely due to the restoring surface boundary condition, while the model MLD has larger seasonal variation (~50 m). It is suggested that for more realistic simulation of the upper ocean structure in the present eddy-permitting ocean model, more refinements in the surface boundary condition for the thermohaline forcing and parameterization for vertical mixing are required, together with the incorporation of a sea-ice model.
A 33-㎞ long sea dyke is being constructed in the Saemangeum area mid-west of Korea to reclaim a surface area of 40,100 ha which includes well-developed tidal flat and two river estuaries. The northern part of the dyke was closed on 10 June 2003, while the southern part was recently closed on 21 April 2006 by plugging two opening gaps of 2.7 ㎞ in length. In this study, firstly we review the outlines of key national projects which described marine environments in the Saemangeum area and secondly we present a summary of remarkable changes in marine environments after the closure of the northern dyke, based on marine environmental data collected during 2002-2005. Details in each discipline of the marine environments are presented both in other papers of this special volume and in a series of annual reports of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries.